Tourists heading for the 2004 Rio Carnaval are to be greeted by more than
fast-footed samba dancers and caipirinhas. This year the city's governors
have a new message for holidaymakers: 'Sleep with minors and you will go to
The warning is part of
a new campaign, launched by Rio's Civil Police, aiming to crack down on the
sexual exploitation of minors. Tourists arriving at the city's bus-stations
and airports will be given leaflets outlining its sex lawspointing out,
for example, that having sex with under-14s could put you in a Brazilian jail
for 10 years.
The leaflets will be distributed
across the city by campaigners wearing T-shirts explaining: "Sexual exploitation
is a crime."
Child prostitution is
a massive problem in Brazil, particularly in its impoverished North and Northeast.
According to a recent report compiled for the US Congress: "Brazil has
one of the worst child prostitution problems in the world."
"A growing number
of sex tourists are going to Latin America, partly as a result of restrictions
placed on sex tourism in Thailand, Sri Lanka and other Asian countries,"
explains the document 'Trafficking in Women and Children: the US and International
Prostitution is legal
in Brazil at eighteen. Yet such is the demand for prostitutes that many minors
are drawn into the industry. In 1994, one non-governmental organization (NGO)
estimated that 500,000 children were involved in Brazil's sex industry. Ten
years on some sources put the figure at four times that.
Authorities now hope to
show that the UN's special rapporteur on child prostitution, Juan Miguel Petit,
was wrong when he said in November there was a "sense of resignation"
towards the issue in Brazil.
Attempting to shake off
Rio's reputation as a paradise for sex tourists, police have vowed to crack
down on the industry duringand afterCarnaval. Last Tuesday seven
minors, amongst them three transvestites, were taken into custody having been
found being prostituted on Copacabana's Avenida Atlântica. Yet it remains
a common sight to see fresh-faced girls on the streets of Copacabana, Barra
da Tijuca, Lapa and São Cristóvão.
A new study claims that
85 per cent of Rio's sex tourists are Germans and Italians. The majority are
between 40 and 50 years old and travel alone, according to the Riotur/UniverCidade
Aware that at least some
of these are involved in underage prostitution, foreign governments are also
taking moves to clamp down on child sex-tourists. Last year, the British government
introduced a new sex offences bill, giving it the power to ban convicted paedophiles
from travelling abroad, if they are thought to be looking for child prostitutes.
According to the National
Criminal Intelligence Service (NCIS), British child sex offenders travel to
Eastern Europe, South East Asia (particularly Thailand, Cambodia, the Philippines,
and Vietnam), India, Spain, Greece, Cubaand Brazil.
"The attraction of
particular countries relates to a number of factors, including a low age of
consent or tolerance of sex with children, inadequate legislation or poorly
resourced law enforcement and an established sex industry," explains
In Brazil the latter two
are particularly relevant. The UN's special representative was highly critical
of the authorities' lackadaisical approach to the problem during his visit
at the end of last year.
"There is a sense
of resignation, as if these children and adolescents are genetically predisposed
or condemned by fate to be sexually exploited. There needs to be a bigger
effort to realize that these young people can have another, better life,"
Equally, it's no secret
that Rio is home to a vast, well-established sex industry. A host of websites
exist, promoting the city as 'the place to be' in terms of 'young', 'eager'
prostitutes. Amongst them one declares its focus as: "adult travel
young women, freelance hookers, prostitutes, escorts, located in pick up joints/meeting
places [including] coffee shops, restaurants, disco's [sic], bars, public
and nightclubs, go-go dance bars, sex massage parlours, whorehouses/brothels
and other places where Ladies of the Night frequent."
End Child Prostitution,
Child Pornography and Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes (ECPAT),
is one organization fighting the exploitation of children in Brazil. The group
defines child sex tourism as "the commercial sexual exploitation of children
by persons who travel from their own country to another usually less developed
country to engage in sexual acts with children."
"Tourism is not the
cause of child sexual exploitation," it points out. "However, exploiters
make use of the facilities offered by the tourism industry (hotels, bars,
nightclubs etc.). In turn, the tourism industry may help to create a demand
by promoting a location's exotic image.
Rio de Janeiro's exotic
image hardly needs any promoting. Thousands of overseas visitors are now in
'the marvellous city', ahead of Carnaval, which starts this week. Inevitably
some are more interested in Brazil's crianças (children) than
its actual Carnaval.
The annual drive against
child sex tourism is also taking place in the cities of Salvador and Recife.
In the Bahian capital 120,000 similarly themed leaflets have been distributed,
translated into three languages. Even the newspapers carry a strongly worded
warning alongside their 'professional services' classified adverts: "To
prostitute or sexually exploit a child or teenager is a crime, carrying a
prison term of between 4 and 10 years."
Tom Phillips is a British journalist living in Rio de Janeiro. He writes
for a variety of publications on politics and current affairs, as well as
various aspects of the cultura brasileira. Tom can be reached on
his articles can also be found at www.leedsstudent.org.uk