São Paulo or Sampa,
as the locals call it, is celebrating, January 25, the 450th anniversary
of its founding and the city is making a big fuss. Politicians are trying
to get into the act, none more than mayor Marta Suplicy, ahead of the October
elections. Shows and parties are being held, buildings and statues are being
cleaned up, documentaries are being shown on television, countless books are
being published and publicized and old buffers are being asked to recall the
good old days when it was safe to walk around the center without being harassed
by beggars or attacked by thieves and murderers.
The various ethnic groups
are pointing to the contribution their people made to building
up the city. The Portuguese are recalling the early days when
a couple of Jesuit priests founded the settlement near today's
Praça da Sé. It was built on a hill for defensive
reasons to keep the Indians away. Nowadays the only Indians
to be seen nearby are a young woman and two children sitting
in the Largo de São Francisco square selling trinkets
who once outnumbered the local Brazilians and gave São
Paulo people their accent, are at the heart of the celebrations.
The other big communitiesSpaniards, Germans, Japanese,
Arabs, Armenians, Jews, Russians, Ukrainians, Chinese and Koreansare
also joining in. The Scots and the English whose contribution,
apart from the railway stations dotted around the city, included
a sport called football (soccer to US readers) will be having
a wee dram of whisky or a cup of tea respectively.
The Americans will be
hoping they do not have to wait too long at the airport to have their photographs
and fingerprints taken. As his personal contribution to the festivities your
correspondent will be taking part in a 10-kilometer race and promises not
to complain about the city or its inhabitants for 24 hours.
São Paulo contains
everything that is bad about Brazil, particularly the enormous
social division between the rich and poor, but it also contains
a lot that is good and admirable. The fact that the city has
developed in such a way is a tribute to the work of the millions
of immigrants from other countries and migrants from other parts
of Brazil. The population has soared from almost a quarter of
a million in 1900 to over 10 million in 2000. In 1872 it only
had about 30,000 inhabitants.
who poured in developed the city and state and turned it into
Brazil's industrial heartland. These immigrants were resourceful
and ambitious. If the people in other parts of Brazil had been
imbued with the same spirit of enterprise the country would
be very different today. This has not been the case and it looks
as though São Paulo will stay well ahead of other regions.
The Outsiders' Contribution
Foreigners are still present
but not in the same scale as they used to be. For example, in the last years
of the 19th century there were more foreigners (mainly Italians)
than Brazilians. The incomers these days are Brazilian migrants with the largest
groups coming from the states of Bahia, Minas Gerais and Pernambuco.
Many Paulistanos, particularly
older people, blame these migrants for the deterioration in many parts of
the city. These people claim that the migrantsalways referred to as
Nordestinosare lazy, dirty, stupid, criminally inclined and are
only interested in exploiting the city, which the hard-working natives created.
While some migrants do fit into these categories so do many native-born Paulistanos.
most migrants have shown enterprise and courage by traveling
long distances to get here in order to make better lives for
themselves and their families. Many have no luck and return
to their poverty-stricken home areas. Others make a living.
Few become rich. The most successful example of a Nordestino
migrant is, of course, President Luiz Inácio Lula da
Silva and Brazilians should be proud that a man from such a
humble background is today their leader.
São Paulo businesses and the Paulistano middle
class do very well out of the Nordestinos who are an
endless supply of cheap labor. It is unusual to find a middle
class family without a daily maid. Sometimes there will also
be a girl called a babá who looks after the children
and stays with the family. Few middle class families in Europe
or the United States could afford such a luxury, but here a
maid is regarded as almost essential.
do not earn much money, but at least they are earning something
and, if they have a good relationship with the family, will
stay for decades. These maids are often a more steady source
of income for the family than the husband who may lose his job
or be one of the long-term unemployed. This domestic industry
has also been an escape valve and reduced the social tensions
which might have erupted otherwise.
people closer as individuals this symbiotic relationship has
given Brazilians a greater sense of personal proximity than
in more developed countries. The rich and poor and the black
and white know each other in a way which might strike some as
outdated and paternalistic.
since we do not live in a perfect world, a practical kind of
harmony has evolved. The middle class Paulistano is still too
selfish and insecure to be a model citizen but he adapts as
best as he can to get by in this gigantic, sprawling, scary
Let me finish by sending
best wishes to all expatriate Paulistanos and Paulistas who
no doubt will be morrendo de saudades on this special birthday.
is a Scottish journalist who first visited Brazil in 1987 and has lived
in São Paulo since 1995. He writes on politics and finance and runs
his own company, Celtic Comunicações - www.celt.com.br,
which specializes in editorial and translation services for Brazilian and
foreign clients. You can reach him at firstname.lastname@example.org
© John Fitzpatrick