A leak from a Cabinet
meeting on Wednesday, January 21, set the tone. President Lula was reported
to "have had it with academics". The next day, he fired his Education
Minister, Cristovam Buarque, and unfurled his long-declared Cabinet shuffle.
Then Lula was on his way to India, pursuing his goal of reinforcing the block
of developing nations that so effectively put a halt to US and European ambitions
at the WTO Cancun summit.
A star on the international
stage, the President has left the people at home perplexed.
While Brazil's image of
leadership abroad keeps growing, what is leftin both senses of the termof
the initial PT in government is now widely in doubt. The year has been a splendid
one for the President as far as readjusting the country's finances and reputation
with international investors. But at home, despite its President's continued
charismatic appeal, Brazil can hardly be said to be a better place than it
was two years ago.
Unemployment levels in
the greater São Paulo region have pierced the historical record of
20 percent. But that figure is calculated upon the roughly 40 percent of the
work force considered to be part of the "formal" economy. The streets
of downtown Rio de Janeiro, for example, are clogged with street vendors,
typical `employees' of the informal or parallel economy. They sell anything
from CDs to pens, but the origin of their products is quite unknown. As is
the share that goes to corruption.
Meanwhile, in the upper
spheres, Lula's cabinet has been ditched of four of the Party's long-time
militants. The congressional alliance formed by the PT with the PMDB (Partido
do Movimento Democrático BrasileiroParty of the Brazilian Democratic
Movement) after winning the presidential elections is now set for pay back.
Two ministerial positions have been awarded to the PMDB. While the chairmanship
of Brazil's huge State-owned power company, Eletrobrás, is also
rumored to heading into allied hands.
The PMDB is a center coalition
with various leanings. One of Brazil's oldest parties, it has been mired in
corruption scandals and allegations. What it is not is a party that has been
akin to the egalitarian, social justice and trade-union based ideas behind
Lula's rise to power. Throughout 2003, the President defended the need to
address the sorry state of the country's economy. From steaming as the ninth
largest GDP only four years ago, Brazil now bows with fragility as the 13th.
The government has posted
surpluses on several economic indicators. The fiscal budget surplus for 2003in
accordance with IMF dictateshas reached its target of 4.25 percent of
GDP, rising even higher than it was forced to under the previous government.
Although the country signed a deal with the IMF to bolster its federal reserves,
it still had to disburse a whopping $30 billion for debt servicing. This represents
9.49 percent of GDP, or roughly 40 percent of the 2003 federal budget.
This debt management has
garnered the government with vast respectability on the international financial
stage. In addition, Lula's team has used precious funds acquired from the
country's record trade surplus to further fill its reserves. International
investment banks have torn Brazil's rating down from the pre-election hysteria
and stamp it with top marksfor a casino capital market, that is. The
international climate has also provided the government with a rational argument
about why society's needs cannot be addressed immediately.
So, the government's financial
team has been reeling. And last week, Lula took his team to Geneva to enlist
the world's industrial giants to open shop in Brazil.
But the domestic economy
is stagnant. Lula has vaunted the successful creation of one million jobs
in 2003. In the same stroke, he conveniently failed to mention the loss of
500,000 jobs over the same period. The first year of government was filled
with long term promises. Now these have shifted to the short term; though
the only difference in their loftiness is their intensity. What Brazilians
are now being promised with is a 3 percent growth projectionhardly the
numbers first projected by its economic advisors in the lead-up to the election.
It is true that the inflation
rate, which had been headed into double-digit figures, has now been tamed.
However, the trade-off has been a stiff prime interest rate that was set at
23.5 percent after Lula's investiture, and slowly eased down to 16.5 percent
since thenbut no lower than during the previous government's eight years
José Dirceu, Lula's
Chief of Staff, who holds every bit the role of a prime minister, was caught
by television cameras speaking to a closed session meeting of PT rank and
file last year. With such interest rates, he avowed, the country could hardly
be expected to grow. And yet, the rates remain beyond the access of mere mortals.
During the ill-fated Fernando
Collor de Mello government in 1990, Lula created a shadow cabinet. Among the
PT militants then active, none have survived the shuffle. Rising in protest
against the compromises struck by Lula with the PMDB in order to get his social
security reform passed, four long-standing PT members ended up being expelled
from the party last Decemberdespite international calls for moderation.
Lula's henchman at Social
Security, Ricardo Berzoini, has been moved to labor, the purpose has not yet
been elucidated. After forging compromises on the pension reform, and insulting
the nation's elderly by forcing them to register in overcrowded and understaffed
downtown centers to prove they were real persons and/or still alive, Berzoini
is set to move on toward dealing with mounting trade union anger.
What can be concluded
after a year in government? As opposed to 1990, the Cabinet is but a shadow
of the PT.
Meanwhile, Lula's economic
alliances abroad spread. His accomplishments in this area, and his deep commitment
to keeping Brazil free from an asymmetrical inclusion into the Free Trade
Agreements of the Americas, have been widely successful. It has been harder,
though, to tame domestic capitalists, and the elite who continue to thrive
from the country's state-granted privileges. Indeed, Lula has just added to
it by creating some 4000 new public servant positions after slashing benefits
for the mid- to low income range functionaries.
With such internal stagnancy,
his flagship program, Hunger Zero, is now looking every bit the case of hand-outs
that government critics from the right claimed it was.
But with the backtracking
on pension reform, lackluster job creation, and, most dramatically, the utter
lack of funds destined to education and health, the PT's success in Brasilia
looks like a case of politics over substance. With every frustrated criticism
addressed toward the party's "left-wing", we move closer and closer
to Blair and Jospinism. Or, in other words, a moment when disappointment begins
sliding into deception.
Tarso Genro, the new education
minister, former mayor of Porto Alegre, and father of expelled member Luciana,
has argued eloquently for restraint and patience. Brash economic maneuvers
taken too soon could send the country spiraling internationally (faced with
creditors and speculators) and internally (faced with Brazil's own intransigent
elite). Yet if the Cabinet is trying to smooth talk its way through reforms,
only to have to back track later and compromise on all articles, what is it
worth to keep massive reforms on the burner and keep playing the nice guy?
Genro's position at education
is perhaps the most important in a long-term perspective. In short, if the
country is "backward", it's simply due to a vastly under-funded
education system. France, where education is among the best in the world,
is currently at pains in its long term GDP forecast due to the fact that its
universities are not innovative enough. Innovation comes in clever spurts
in Brazil, but small ones they remain. In the meantime, not only do Brazil's
best students flock to foreign universities: many of them marry and remain
Job creation is made possible
by minds who strive for innovation. It is boosted by an education in the humanities
on the nature of contemporary society and citizenship. Sadly, this nation
instead dips its mind into multiple religions. And its President, instead
of educating the public on material innovation and creation, merely reinforces
these spiritualist leanings by appealing to God or by confessing his deep
Too much talk, indeed,
too much idealism is locking the President into spiritual utopianism. The
entire population, however, awaits his government's leadership as a constitutive
power. No wonder the President's fed up with academics and intellectuals.
Madarasz, philosopher and journalist, teaches and lives in
Rio de Janeiro. He welcomes comments at firstname.lastname@example.org