Brazil's federal government debt reached US$ 304.3 billion (946.7 billion
reais) in May, the equivalent of 56.8 percent of GDP. In April the ratio was
According to the head
of the Central Bank Economic Department, Altamir Lopes, a spike in the exchange
rate, which rose 6.26 percent in May, caused the size of the debt to rise
US$ 1.3 billion (4.2 billion reais) because of money-market debt indexed to
the dollar and another US $3.3 billion (10.4 billion reais) because of debt
service charges, also in dollars.
But Lopes points out that
last December the debt/GDP ratio was 58.7 percent, which shows that there
has actually been "a significant reduction of 1.93 percentage points,"
a reflection of responsible fiscal policy, he said.
Another reflection of
good government policy was the primary surplus in May, says Lopes, which was
the best ever for May at US$ 1.8 billion (5.8 billion reais). That brings
the surplus to US$ 12.3 billion (38.2 billion reais), the equivalent of 5.87
percent of GDP, for the January to May period.
Lopes also reports that
Brazil's total government debt, which includes states and municipalities,
reached US$ 409 billion (1.273 trillion reais), or 76.4 percent of GDP. In
April it was 77.4 percent of GDP.
On another front, the
IBGE's (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e EstatísticaBrazilian
Institute of Geography and Statistic) Monthly Employment Survey (PME), released
June 24, found a decrease in the real average income of Brazilian workers.
Average monthly income,
which was US$ 283.32 (878.30 reais) in May, 2003, was down to US$ 279.92 (866.10
reais) last month in the country's six largest metropolitan areas (São
Paulo, Porto Alegre, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Belo Horizonte, and Recife).
The drop represents one
of the chief indicators of the decline in the quality of employment in Brazil,
a phenomenon already observed in previous studies.
Even though the number
of jobs remains practically the same in the six metropolitan areas covered
by the survey, average income has been falling continuously, due to the type
of jobs that have been created.
Companies have been hiring
more workers informally, paying lower salaries, and omitting social benefits,
such as Social Security contributions, for example.
The average income of
employees whose working papers are not signed amounts to 63 percent of the
average income of employees hired with signed working papers.
According to data from
the IBGE's National Residential Sample Surveys (PNADs), 6.7 million jobs were
created between 1999 and 2002 at monthly salaries no higher than the minimum
wage (US$ 84.03), while 4.2 million workers who earned more than two minimum
wages lost their jobs.
The more years of schooling
a worker has, the longer it takes to find a new job. This is shown by another
of the IBGE's indicators contained in the PME.
The prospects for Brazil's
external accounts are very encouraging, in the judgment of the head of the
Economic Department of the Central Bank (BC), Altamir Lopes.
He said that the US$ 2.4
billion cumulative surplus this year between January and May in the country's
current external transactionsa category that includes receipts and expenditures
for international travel, profit remittances, exports and imports, and interest
paymentsis a sign that the economy is less vulnerable.
"Since the figures
are better than what was anticipated, Brazilian companies will not need to
obtain as much money abroad in order to close the balance of payments,"
According to Lopes, the
surplus in this year's current transactions might reach US$ 2.5 billion12
times more than the US$ 200 million forecast at the beginning of the year.
In May alone, the current
external transactions account generated a surplus of US$ 1.478 billion, the
best result since 1947.
Last week, the Brazilian
government ended what it called a "strategic" series of trips abroad
in favor of the Brazilian economy. According to President Luiz Inácio
Lula da Silva, the trips brought "extraordinary" results, especially
in the export sector.
"Exports rose significantly
in the first year of our administration. This year they are up 25 percent
over last year. And the important thing is that we are not just exporting
farm produce. We are exporting manufactured goods, such as cars, airplanes
and machinery," declared Lula during his fortnightly radio program, "Breakfast
with the President."
The trip last week to
the United States, according to Lula, gave Brazil's ties with its biggest
trade partner a dynamic boost. More trade with the US means more jobs, economic
growth and bigger incomes for Brazilians, said the President. "I came
back from the trip convinced that it was a success," said Lula.
The President went on
to say that he was determined to create "a bolder commercial, cultural
and political relationship with the US."
But Lula added that Brazil's
true intention was to strengthen trade with regional blocks in South America,
Africa, the Middle East and Europe. "World trade is a battle. Everybody
wants to sell more than they buy. That means we have to have quality at a
good price all the time. We will have to continue making these trips, consolidating
our advances, treating foreign trade with special attention," said Lula.
During his radio talk,
the President also spoke of the drop in unemployment that fell from 13.1 percent
to 12.2 percent in May. Lula said the tendency is for unemployment to drop
further, but that the government faced a very big challenge in creating jobs.
"There is still a
lot to do. When the economy improves, businesses prefer to pay overtime, rather
than hire new workers. They want to make sure the growth is sustainable. When
they see that the growth is strong, they will hire new people," said
Lula pointed out that
between January and April, 543,000 new jobs had been createdjobs in
the formal, on-the-books market. "Things are improving. But we want more,
faster. We believe that microfinancing and easier credit access are having
an effect. The Brazilian economy is on track, there will be sustainable, continuous
Lula also said he was
pleased with the tourism sector where there was a US$ 347 million surplus,
showing that more people were coming to Brazil than Brazilians going abroad.
Tourism, concluded Lula, is a job-creating sector that brings reserves to
Gustavo Bernardes works for Agência Brasil (AB), the official press
agency of the Brazilian government. Comments are welcome at email@example.com
from the Portuguese by Allen Bennett.