We are in the lower section (Cidade Baixa) of the city of Salvador
in Bahia. In the distance and rising above us on our right is the imposing
Elevador Lacerda (Lacerda Elevator), a 279-foot tall funicular that links
the Upper and Lower Cities, transporting some 50,000 people daily. On our
left are the blue waters of the Bay of All Saints (Baía de Todos
os Santos), glittering in the bright morning sun.
As we continue down the
street beyond the Ferry Boat Terminal we run into a beehive of activity. There,
amidst an assortment of snack bars (lanchonetes) the stalls of market
vendors stretch ahead as far as the eye can see.
The stalls closest to
us are filled with the earthy tones of handmade ceramics: a multitude of urns
basking in the light, bowls stacked precariously, and wind chimes swaying
in the breezy humidity.
In front of us flows a
river of humanity. Buyers and sellers. Porters, their shirtless male torsos
glistening underneath heavy loads borne on shoulders broad. More tonesthe
faces are a spectrum from ebony to ivory and many of the infinite points in
between. They come and go, disappearing in the throng ahead. Noisevoices
merge, reaching a crescendo, then dipping, then rising to crescendo again.
more colors, and a mixture of aromas call out to the visitor. We are at the
threshold of a universe unto itself. Smells and tastes. Colors and shapes.
Souls and stories. We are at the Saint Joachim Market (Feira de
São Joaquim). And it beckons us to enter.
According to Catholic
tradition Saint Joachim (São Joaquim) played several roles in
the life of Christ: he was the husband of Saint Anne, the father of the Virgin
Mary, and the grandfather of Jesus. The figure of Saint Joachim gained form
out of a tenuous historical origin. The Bible does not mention Joachim, and
the earliest reference to him can be traced to the so-called Infancy Gospel
of James, dated the 2nd century A.D.
In spite of his dubious
bibliography, Joachim has assumed a place in the pantheon of Catholic saints,
and in secular art he is often depicted leading the Blessed Mary as a child.
The Saint Joachim Market,
similar to its namesake, was constructed on a weak foundation. In spite of
its humble beginnings, the Saint Joachim Market has emerged as the largest
open-air marketplace in Salvador, Brazil, and one of the largest in all of
Also, just as the Catholic
Church has recognized Saint Joachim with a feast day celebrated every July
26, the Salvador's City Council is considering honoring the Saint Joachim
Market as a historical landmark due to the important role it has played, and
continues to play, in the lives of so many residents of the city.
The market has not always
been known by the name Saint Joachim. In fact, it has changed names and even
locations more than once during its history which spans the better part of
The market emerged in
the 1920s. Originally it was dubbed A Feira do Sete, or the Dock Seven
Market, because of its location next to Warehouse Seven at the docks in Salvador's
In these early years the
market was supplied in large part by saveiros, a classic form of Bahian
sailboat on the edge of extinction. These graceful vessels with their massive
single sails once proudly transported to the city market merchandise from
the fertile Recôncavo region of Bahia.
In 1958, the Dock Seven
Market overcame political resistance from the city government in Salvador
and was established as a permanent market. Later the market moved to another
area close by and acquired a new name, A Feira de Água de Meninos.
In 1964, a fire devastated
the marketplace. The city responded by relocating the market to nearby São
Joaquim, an enclave of the city that runs along the waters of All Saints
Bay. So in a fitting symbolic twist, the market rose from the ashes and was
re-born, taking the name Saint Joachim from the church that is close by. And
rise like the phoenix the Saint Joachim Market did.
The numbers speak for
themselves. Today, the Saint Joachim Market stretches over several city blocks,
with one of the blocks alone containing 22 streets. In total, the market covers
nearly 9 acres. Some 7,500 people work in the Saint Joachim Market. Many sell
their wears from one of the 3,500 vendor stands and storefronts.
Others transport goods
accounting for the 640 handcarts that circulate around the market grounds.
Perhaps most impressive is the estimated 40,000 people who visit the Saint
Joachim Market daily. The growth of the market has not occurred in isolation
from the rest of the world. Indeed, the mark of globalization is easy to see
from Chinese electronics to drums imported from Africa.
As we pass through the
threshold of stalls laden with ceramics, we find ourselves in a labyrinth
of alleys filled with stalls of varying shapes and sizes. Each of the food
stalls presents its own plentiful offering destined to be transformed into
one of a myriad of Bahian drinks or dishes.
Rolling hills of aromatic
oranges that end up as fresh-squeezed juice sold in street-side stands.
Open sacks bulging with
white manioc flower (farinha) traditionally sprinkled over rice and
Bottles of bright-orange
palm oil (dendê) used to fry the popular Bahian bean fritters
Blocks of soft white cheese
that beach vendors cut into small cubes and grill on spits.
Cases of sugarcane liquor
(cachaça) that finds its way into the lemon-flavored caipirinha
Slabs of dried cod that
end up rolled into small balls, sautéed, and eaten with a spray of
Tabletops of fish and
shrimp to fill moquecas and ensopados, savory Bahian stews.
Bags brimming with spicy
ground red pepper that provide the zest to so many Bahian dishes.
Pink sunsets of large
mangos to complement pineapple, melon, and papaya in succulent fruit salads.
Jars of sparkling amber-colored
molasses (rapadura) for candied sweets like the pé de moleque
Together the rainbow of
colors and the complex array of aromas can overwhelm the visitor, not unlike
the barrage of saints and other symbols in a Catholic Cathedral can perplex
Even after this sensual
barrage it is difficult to overlook the drums and interesting figurines that
occupy other vendor stalls. These are just some of the wares of Candomblé
and Umbanda, the two major religions of African origin in Brazil. In addition
to supplying ingredients that end up in the plates and cups of many in the
city of Salvador, the Saint Joachim Market also is an important outlet for
the wide range of items used in religious celebration.
Tomé de Sousa arrived
in Bahia in 1549 to solidify a colonial foothold in the Americas for the Portuguese
crown. This helped unleash a chain of events that gave birth to the rich culture
that took shape around All Saints Bay. The Saint Joachim Market is a rich
microcosm of that culture.
Guido Groeschel first visited Brazil in 1990 and has lived in Bahia for
two years. José Martins is a native of Brazil and longtime resident
of Salvador. Together they lead guided tours of Bahia with Brazil Belezawww.brazilbeleza.coman
owner-operated tour company specializing in intimate guided tours for discerning
travelers who want more out of a trip to Brazil. You can reach Guido and
José at firstname.lastname@example.org
Groeschel and Jose Martins 2004