What other types of holidays do Cariocas celebrate besides Carnaval?
There are many more government,
religious, and popular holidays commemorated in Brazil than in the United
States. Rio's residents love parties and the opportunity to socialize. They
also still regard themselves as a Catholic country, although few people actually
practice the religion.
Perhaps Americans can
most relate to the `popular' holidays. Among them is the Brazilian equivalent
of Valentine's Day, which is called Dia dos Namorados (Day of the Lovers).
It is celebrated on June 12th instead of February 14th.
It is also interesting
to note that Brazilians recognize some of the United States' holidays such
as Halloween, which they call Dia das Bruxas (Day of the Witches), and celebrate
their own versions of them.
Other American holidays,
such as Thanksgiving (Dia de Ação de Graças), are not
observed, though Cariocas are familiar with them and have given them
names in Portuguese.
What are some of the
government holidays and how are they celebrated?
Day, September 7, is the most distinguished national holiday. It is commemorated
by a week long celebration which features parades, patriotic music, and sporting
The festivities commence
on August 31st and culminate on the actual day of the 7th.
Brazil's national anthem, "Hino Nacional Brasileiro" (Brazilian
National Hymn) is played throughout the city. The country's colors of green
and yellow are displayed from windows and street fixtures.
Other national holidays
include Discovery Day (Dia do Descobrimento) on April 22nd and
Flag Day (Dia da Bandeira) on November 19th. Though not observed
by the general public, schools and military groups put on ceremonies. Business
and government offices are closed.
Labor Day, on May 1st,
is a day to honor blue collar and union workers. It is largely ignored by
other types of employees.
Does Rio de Janeiro
have its own special holidays?
the date of de Sá's victorious attack on the French, is hallowed as
a tribute to Rio's patron saint, São Sebastião (Saint Sebastian).
Street festivals and church masses feature decorations colored the saint's
votive shade of red.
The main event is a procession
which carries the statue of São Sebastião from the church which
bears his name in Barra da Tijuca crosstown to the Metropolitan Cathedral.
There, it is blessed at a mass conducted by the city's archbishop.
Meanwhile, in the courtyards
of African Spiritual temples, drums beat in time to the chants and dances
honoring Oxossi, voodoo king of the jungle.
On March 1st,
Cariocas commemorate their city hood on the anniversary of Estácio
de Sá's arrival. The date is honored with a mass held at San Sebastian
Church in the central district. The mayor then cuts a huge birthday
cake and hands the pieces out to the guests.
Are there religious
holidays other than those honoring Rio?
Being a predominately
Catholic country, Easter continues to be the holiday of the greatest importance
and observation. Many other festivals revolve around saints of the church.
Among the most
popular are those dedicated to São João (Saint John) and several
of the other Catholic saints. These all take place in June.
This has caused the series
of celebrations to be known as the Festas Juninas (June Festivals).
They are marked by parties which take place among relatives and friends.
Other religious holidays
occur throughout the year. The church puts on a special mass for each.
Families may use the occasion for hosting a social gathering.
Is the Easter Bunny
welcome in Rio?
The Easter Bunny does
drop off his chocolate candy bunnies and eggs at the homes of Carioca children.
However, the traditional emphasis remains upon the death and resurrection
of Christ. The observance commences with Palm Sunday and continues through
Various churches host
a variety of practices. These include religious processions, hangings of effigies
of Judas on Good Friday, and meatless Saturday night dinners. Rio families
attend mass or religious services on Easter morning. They then spend the rest
of the day together.
Does Santa still come
when it's ninety degrees?
Yes, even in the scorching
heat of Rio's summer, Santa makes his appearance to bring gifts to children
who anticipate his arrival as eagerly as others anywhere else in the world.
However, the traditional emphasis is still on the birth of the Christ child
and the gathering of family. It is only in recent years that this has slowly
begun to change.
How long is the Carioca
The season begins in mid
December in anticipation of the Christ child. It continues on through January
6th, the day which marks the visit of the Magi.
How is it celebrated?
Nativity scenes (presépios)
are put up in public places and private homes. In addition to, or where nativity
scenes are absent, trees, commonly made from synthetic materials, are used
This is not looked upon
as `cheap', since the evergreens used in homes in the United States are not
naturally available to Rio's residents, nor would they survive for long in
Natal (Christmas) is a
family holiday which is celebrated both at church and within the home. On
Véspera de Natal (Christmas Eve) families attend midnight mass together.
Traditionally, they then return home, eat a poultry dinner, and follow up
by opening gifts. Christmas Day is usually spent with the family. Friends
are welcome to drop by.
Why do some Rio residents
consider New Year's Eve a religious holiday?
When the Portuguese captured
and imported African people to be used as slaves, many of their religious
beliefs and rituals found their way into the Brazilian secular culture.
One of these ceremonies
is the festival of Iemanjá, goddess of the sea, which is held on New
Year's Eve (Révéillon). Millions of people from all religions
dress in white and gather on Rio's beaches holding boats made from paper containing
Around 10pm, they begin
to decorate. Candles, flowers and lace tablecloths covered with offerings
of necklaces, hair accessories, and make-up are spread on the sand.
At midnight, the boats
are launched, with the candle lit, in hope that the tiny ships will make their
way across the waves to Iemanjá. People believe that when a boat reaches
her, she will grant the wish represented by the candle.
Besides the ceremony dedicated
to the African goddess, people play samba and dance in the streets. Fireworks
and sirens go off at midnight as the paper boats are being launched from the
shore. Bells ring and drums bang announcing their dispatch.
Some people jump over
seven waves, or stuff three pomegranate seeds in their pockets, in order to
bring good luck. The party continues both on the beach, and in the streets,
until the celebrants welcome the rising of the sun. Its growing light sends
them slipping away to sleep.
Is there a special
holiday for children as well as those for their parents?
Brazilians also grace
mothers and fathers with a special day in their honor. But, unlike the United
States, there is also a holiday set aside for children. Its original name
was Cosme e Damião, but it is now more commonly called Dia das Crianças
(Children's Day) and occurs during September or October.
Parents and relatives
give gifts and candy to children within their own families and to those of
friends and acquaintances. Charitable organizations distribute treats
to the children whose families do not have enough money for their own.
have birthday parties?
Cariocas are just
as big on celebrating birthdays as Americans are. Children's birthdays feature
a cake with candles, soft drinks, toys, party-blowers, and paper decorations
which match the chosen theme of the party.
One room is set up for
the party. A theme tablecloth covers the one table. Other theme decorations
are placed on top of the table and hung on the walls. The room looks like
one has stepped into a fantasy world.
Finger snack type foods
and sweets are set out on the table so that the company can help themselves.
If the family is wealthy, the maid may also circulate about the room with
the food on a tray.
The focus of the child's
party is on the guests and the cake rather than entertainment or activity.
Family members, neighbors, and friends from the child's school are all invited.
They socialize and enjoy each other's company by dancing, singing, and playing
When the cake is brought
out, a special Portuguese verse is sung to the same tune as the American `Happy
Birthday' while everyone claps their hands. Next, candles are blown out, and
the cake is cut.
Afterwards, everyone hugs
the birthday child and crowds around to watch him or her open their gifts.
Then the family puts the presents together in one location, usually the child's
room, where the guests will go to view them again prior to leaving.
On her fifteenth birthday,
a girl celebrates her `coming of age'. This is also the occasion when an upper
or middle class girl makes her debut in society. A large celebration is held
at a club, yard, or in another large space appropriate for holding social
Around or about midnight,
the birthday girl dances with her father and is then turned over to her date.
While dancing together, they are accompanied by fifteen other couples comprised
of friends or relatives. If they are following the old tradition, the girls
dress in white and hold candles.
There are also parties
on adults' birthdays. Gifts are given and opened. Everyone helps themselves
to large servings of home-cooked food. The cake may be decorated without the
candles. Cutting the cake is the climax of the party. It may then be eaten
or shared with family and friends later.
above was excerpted from Rio de Janeiro: The City, the
Life, and the Kids, a work aimed at grades 5 through high
school level. The author, Jennifer Grant, is currently seeking
a publisher for this book. Comments and contacts in English
and Portuguese are welcome at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Please reference the book title or Brazzil in subject
Grant wishes to
thank Jazon da Silva Santos for his comments and editing work
on some of the chapters contained in the book. She has authored
previous articles in Brazzil magazine, as well as an
article on the children in the favelas for Faces
Magazine, which is used in United States schools.
Her interests include
promoting awareness of the needs of the favelados and the organizations
and individuals which are willing to help them through both the written
word and by making presentations at churches and schools.