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Brazzil -News from Brazil Archives
1994-1996
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Author: Mello, Rodney Article Title: recado Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.8; N.126 Publication Date: 06-30-96 Page: p. 5

recado.

It's not just a tall story that Brazilians are hot in bed. A new study shows that while Americans take an average of six minutes for a sex encounter, Brazilians are in no rush when it's time for pleasure, dedicating to the sexual act an average of 45 minutes. The same research also reveals that almost 17% of Cariocas (those from Rio) between the ages of 18 and 49 make sex each and every day. Pure bragging? A little maybe.

This love for sex seems to have influenced the way prostitution is seem in the country. Contrary to what most people might think, prostitution is not illegal in Brazil, not for the person prostituting herself or himself anyway. Foreigners have talked about Brazilian sex professionals being as much interested in making a buck as in giving pleasure to themselves and to the client.

We haven't avoided slippery themes in the past. Our article about torture in our latest issue provoked more than one tsk-tsk of disapproval. We have talked about child prostitution before -- there is nothing about this subject in our present cover -- and there was positive reaction including from the UN which contacted some of the organizations dealing with the problem in Brazil.

As our special February Carnaval edition, this issue deals with the light side of life. We know about the seedy, criminal aspect of sex and we will probably come back to it another day. Today we only want to offer a glossy portrait of the sex market.

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Author: Espinoza, Rodolfo Article Title: More sex, please. We are Brazilian Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.8; N.126 Publication Date: 06-30-96 Page: p. 8

More sex, please. We are Brazilian.

Everything you ever wanted to know about sex in Brazil and never was able to find at your usual sources. What Brazilians think about sex, is it true that there are many more women than men in the country, are Brazilians really the hottest sexual machine on the planet? And what about sex for sale? Is prostitution legal? Where is sex available, how much does it cost, what are the code words for men and women willing to pay to get laid?

This is not an exploitation piece on the serious and criminal problem of underage prostitution in Brazil. It's a guide and a source of statistics for those interested in knowing the adult Brazilian lover and the way he/she lives his/her sexual life.

Despite its image of a latter-day Sodom and the land of debauchery and licentiousness, the country that gave us the string bikini can be downright prudish. It's true that prime-time novelas (soap operas) use to boost up their ratings by showing unveiled genitalia and the annual street Carnaval parade bares breasts and all the rest on the Avenue, but there are no public nude beaches as in Europe and the hard-core video and CD ROM sex industry is far from flourishing as in the US. The real sexual revolution in Brazil is very recent but the natives are catching up fast.

That Brazilians and Cariocas (natives of Rio) are sensual is not just a myth. A new study from Infoglobo has shown that 17% of Cariocas between the ages of 18 and 49 have sex every day. And while the British spend an average of 3 minutes in a sexual encounter, the Italians 8, the French and Americans 6, Rio's residents have a "whooping" average of 45 minutes per sexual session. Only Africans have the same high rate in this department. The Infoglobo study, which listened to 300 men and 300 women, also revealed that 48% of Cariocas have sex from two to three times a week. The profile of the average interviewee: a married person between the ages of 30 and 39 with a monthly salary of $1,200 or less.

In an interview with Rio's daily O Globo, psychoanalyst and sexologist Sheiva Cherman complained that the study hadn't asked for the duration of the relationship among those interviewed.

-- Rio is the most sensual city in the world, she said. And there's a commitment from the population to keep this image. Libido, however, doesn't mean practice of the sexual act. The sexual practice is more frequent when the love relationship is recent.

Another revealing piece of information is that 55% of all women claimed to have attained orgasm every time they tried it, without ever having to fake it. Hard to believe? The American magazine Cosmopolitan interviewed their readers in 29 countries and concluded that lack of orgasm is a common and universal complaint. The world average for orgasmic women every time they go to bed is a mere 26.6%. Only Italians, with a climax rate of 53.2%, come close to their hot Brazilian counterparts.

As for the men, they are a proud, boastful and maybe a tad lying lot. A full 64% of Cariocas guarantee that they have never had a problem with erection during the sexual act. And the assertion was confirmed by 69% of their female partners. The secret there seems to be the fact that 78% of men and 89% of women like to share their sexual fantasies. Machismo, however, is still strong. Only 28% of the women, according to the research, have the initiative to start the love game in bed.

This openness, however, doesn't apply to the disclosure of adultery, which is still very common despite the AIDS fear. Says biologist Catherine Lowndes from the Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública (National School of Public Health) which is part of the Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, "Due to social and biological factors, women are more susceptible to venereal diseases. They ignore several facts dealing with sexuality, have little bargaining power in sexual relations and are victims of sexual violence on a large scale. Besides, there is a social acceptance of male infidelity and the habit of concealing it."

Research conducted among the patients at the Gaffr‚e Guinle Hospital in Rio showed that 70% of the heterosexual men interviewed had had more than one sexual partner the previous year, while 7.9% had participated in group sex. All of this has contributed to the increase of AIDS among women who are getting the disease from their husbands and live-in lovers.

The results from a national Datafolha research project about sexual behavior among different professional categories, however, show a much smaller rate of infidelity. The study that was ordered by the Central Geral dos Trabalhadores (CGT), a national confederation of workers, included 3,644 men and women in seven Brazilian capitals.

As expected, the research revealed that necessity also makes fidelity. Men and women more likely to stray were those with jobs that allowed an alibi for their sexual escapes. So, while 21% of metalworkers admitted to adultery this number increased to 27% among those working in construction.

The study also revealed how faithfulness is seen in different regions of the country. The national average of infidelity is 23%. Cariocas appear to be just a little over this number, with an unfaithfulness rate of 29%, the same as Gaúchos (those from Rio Grande do Sul). In São Paulo 19% of the workers acknowledge extramarital affairs and only 18% of the workers in Belo Horizonte (capital of Minas Gerais) admitted to infidelity, but the practice of sex outside the home is something common for 50% of those interviewed in Bel‚m, capital of Par , a national record in this study.

THE MALE ADVANTAGE

If the battle of the sexes is an unequal one all over the world, women in Brazil have still another handicap: their sheer numbers. Census data show, that among those Brazilians between ages 15 and 49, there are 1.8 million more women than men in the country. That means an average of 95 men for every 100 women. In urban centers like São Paulo and in the Northeast this imbalance goes up to 85 out of 100.

Some experts believe that this will contribute to 10% of Brazilian women never having a chance to marry. According to census data, in Rio de Janeiro for example, the state where this difference is more pronounced in absolute numbers, there are 315,056 more women than men.

To complicate matters, while there are 4.2 million divorced or separated women, the number of men in the same situation is only 1.9 million. This shows what everybody knows: that it is much easier for a separated man to find a new partner than for a woman. The official numbers also reveal that 80.6% of the 37,000 divorced men who decided to remarry in 1994 chose not-previously-married women. As for widows, there are 4.5 millions of them in the country compared to 870,000 widowers.

This female disadvantage is explained by the so-called "solitude pyramid" theory. Interviewed by the daily Folha de São Paulo, Elza Berqu¢, from Unicamp's (University of Campinas, São Paulo) Núcleo de Estudos Populacionais (Center for Population Studies) explained: "Women look at the top of the pyramid where the offer of partners decreases, while men look at the base which is larger. The matrimonial market always favors men."

This state of affairs has in practice encouraged the number of non-official marriages and in some cases even a kind of mild polygamy in which men have more than one partner. The rate of marriages has been decreasing. While there were 7.48 marriages for 1,000 people in 1986, these unions had fallen to 4.96 in '94. There were 763,000 weddings in 1994 compared to 1 million in '86, when the country had a smaller population.

In a 1992 study entitled "The contraction of the matrimonial market and the increase of consensual unions in Brazil" two foreign scholars, American Margaret Greene and Indian Vijayendra Rao suggested that society allowing men to have more than one partner makes it possible for women to be married at least once and helps to alleviate the problem of the deficit of available male partners.

SELLING DREAMS

Match-maker agencies have been sprouting all over Brazil. All of them, however, seem to have the same problem: more female clients than male ones. Paimi (Primeira Agência Internacional de Matrimônios e Informações - First International Agency for Matrimonies and Information), for example, has been in business for 50 years and has offices in São Paulo, Rio and New York. With 3,000 clients, the Cupid helper charges around $1,000 plus a bonus when there is a marriage. They say they have made "4,000 unions" including that of Harry Philippe Mihalescu who is the owner and son of Paimi's founder. Their telephone in São Paulo: (011) 221-9699.

Apego -- (011) 543-2659 -- another match-maker company from São Paulo has been recruiting their male clients aggressively even with ads in men's magazines. But really aggressive is Partner's owner, who is known only as Vicente and who goes personally to singles bars and night clubs to convince men to join his company. Partner -- (051) 336-8036 is an agency from Porto Alegre (Rio Grande do Sul).

Happy End -- (011) 853-7466 -- has dozens of connections in the US and Europe and more than 2,200 clients. To use the services of this company founded in 1992 clients pay around $1,000 and $1,000 more after 3 months of courtship. One of the newest kids on the block is Apego -- (011) 543-2659 -- a service created by Inge Gruber, an Austrian woman who sold her apartment and used the $80,000 she got to start the company last year. The cost here varies from $150 to $800 and the number of clients has already reached 500.

In Recife, the Brasil Exterior agency -- (081) 421-3080 -- is specialized in finding husbands in Germany for its clients. After seven years in business, the service which has a catalogue of more than 1,000 women, has contributed to close to 200 marriages. In an interview with Veja magazine last year, Lindinalva Santana Ferraz, the company's owner declared, "We don't admit sexual tourism or gold-diggers." Every time there's an "I do" Ferraz gets rewarded with $1400.

Contrary to what we may think, most of Lindinalva's clients are not poor girls looking for an easy way out of their misery. By and large they are middle-class women who have a college degree or at least have finished high-school. By the way, completed high-school is one of the requirements to make the list. Many times they are women disillusioned with Brazil and Brazilian men. Their average age is 20.

According to IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics), Brazilian women start their sexual life around 19. But this age has been lowering recently mainly in urban centers. Pregnancy among early teens has been also on the increase and this is due not only to a more benevolent view towards sex. Biological factors also play a role: every ten years menarche (the first menstrual period) occurs four months earlier. In the '90s the average age for girls to have their first menstruation is 12.

Pregnancies among girls between 13 and 15 years of age have doubled in the last decade and a half, still based on IBGE's numbers. Close to 8,000 children were born last year to mothers who were 15 or younger. In the late '70s this number was around 3,700 a year. Another 600,000 children are also born to 16 to 19 year old mothers every year. This number, although bigger, has been stable for many years. The situation is similar for poor and well-to-do teens, but for the richer girls, the use of abortion is much more prevalent.

LITTLE WHOREHOUSES ALL OVER

Another side of the situation of inequality between the sexes is the rampant increase of prostitution and related services. To hear some people, every Brazilian woman except the mother, the sister, the wife and the daughter of the person speaking, is willing to go to bed with the first stranger, for the right price.

The dozens of classified ads under headings like Acompanhantes (Escorts), Casas de Massagem (Massage Parlors), Termas (Sauna houses), all code names for prostitution, show that there are plenty of women, and men for that matter, willing to make a buck on the meat market. On a recent Sunday, daily Folha de São Paulo had 101 offers under Escorts, from Abigail ("20, top model from the '80s, brunette, long hair, hotel/motel. $200 Tel.: (011) 607-9001) to Ymaeda ("burning Japanese, your dream girl -- (011) 693-8007).

In Bras¡lia, the Capital of Brazil, there are more than 30 prostitution agencies, all installed in residential areas, which cater to the tastes of the men and also a few women in power. Visitors to the city are showered with cards and ads from night clubs like Queen's, Amore Mio, Flor Amorosa, all fronts for prostitution, as soon as they arrive at the airport. The enticement continues in hotels and places where tourists usually gather.

Prostitution is not illegal in Brazil. What is illegal is pimping. Maintaining a place for sexual encounters is also against the law. To avoid being caught

by a zealous law enforcer, many of the places present themselves as legitimate businesses charging only for beverages and other services, letting the negotiations about bedding be decided between the client and the prostitute.

Prostitutes can be found all over the country. In some towns in the interior they live together in an area generally known as zona. In Cear , the red light district is called curral (corral); in Rio Grande do Sul, viveiro (nursery or aviary); and in Minas Gerais cor‚ia (Corea). Prostitution is also common on national roads and big city streets. In Brazil, motels generally charge by the hour and are utilized more as love nests than places for a family or a business man to spend the night.

"The World Sex Guide", which is available on the Internet, has very little about prostitution in Brazil. But it presents the personal accounts of men who have been to Rio, São Paulo and Recife and who have met prostitutes.

An anonymous French guy, for example, presents himself as having "a good knowledge of brothels in Brazil, due to my frequent journeys there during the past five years". He talks mostly about Recife and divides prostitution there into three categories: garotas de programa (program girls), mulheres de bordel (brothel women), and vira bolsinhas (turn purses -- girls who ply their trade on the streets.

According to the French libertine, the garotas de programa are easy to spot in public places like restaurants and bars. "They try to make eye contact, especially if you are dressed like a gringo. How old you are doesn't mean a thing. They know exactly when to talk about money." A motel will cost from $15 to $50 according to this report.

He also describes in detail what happens when the garota and the john get to the bedroom: "The girl will take off her dress and you go together with her to the shower. She will take you to bed when you seem clean enough. She will touch you, suck you (without a condom if you don't ask to put one on), and you can fuck her as much as you like, in as many positions as you want. She will dress your buddy with a condom before fucking. Take your time, as there is no problem of time with her. She is not a "whore" and what she would like is to stay with you all night and you can come in her mouth if you want."

The French lecher cites go-go bars at Praça da Boa Viagem as good places to pick up women and the Cravo e Canela bar at Rua das Creoulas in downtown. As for brothels, he cites the Twenty Club at Rua Luiz de Farias Barbosa, 20 at Boa Viagem beach. He describes the place: "The girls are the nicest I've ever seen in Brazil. When you enter, Mama-san gives you the prices. It was $180 on May 1995. You will pay her directly when you leave, like you would in a good restaurant. For the money you can pick up any girl you want. The best is to drink something with her and when you are ready just say vamos (let's go). The sex itself takes 1 hour for $150."

For years European tour companies, mainly the German ones, have been exploring the sexual tourism in Recife (Pernambuco), Fortaleza (Cear ), Salvador (Bahia), and more recently Macei¢ (Alagoas). Since assuming the Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Tourism in January of 1995, Minister Doroth‚a Werneck has been talking directly to travel agents in Europe to convince them that Brazil has much better attractions than its women, things like beautiful places and good businesses.

SOUTHERN CALL-BELLES

Porto Alegre offers a special service by fax for those clients interested in seeing the merchandise before buying it. The D¢ris agency, whose girls seem all to have just stepped out from a photo session for a men's magazine and whose ages are between 18 and 23, has been using the photofax since last year. The service became a hit and more than 85% of the business is now done through it.

Half of the girls, however, still refuse to be photographed, worried that the picture will fall on the wrong hands like a friend or relative who doesn't know their line of work. The price: $240 for two hours of company and sex. Full service for the whole night costs $600. Zero Hora, a daily from Rio Grande do Sul cites Luciane, one of D¢ris's girls, saying, "I had a hard time reaching orgasm before. But now that I know that I am being paid I come every time."

In Rio, the Vila Mimosa, a zona in the suburbs that housed more than 1,000 prostitutes had been razed at the beginning of the year to make room for a residential complex called Cidade Nova. This didn't prevent the world's oldest profession from continuing to flourish in the so-called Cidade Maravilhosa. These were naturally poor girls.

Sex is being seen as a gold mine for many professionals who are abandoning their more conventional jobs to invest in sex-related endeavors. One of them is William Atella, who abandoned a career in an engineering firm to start anew as a modern gigolo. In 1994 Attela used $30,000 he got from his severance pay to rent and remodel a house in Jacarepagu that became a clube privˆ (another code word for whorehouse) called Paradise House.

Last year, already a rich man, he opened a second Paradise House, this time at Barra da Tijuca. In an interview with weekly magazine Isto , the engineer turned pimp, explained why AIDS doesn't scare his clients: "Here the girls are always tested for HIV."

As for the upper crust of prostitution in the city, according to a recent article from Rio's main daily O Globo, the Mafia is controlling it. Agencies such as Ipanema Models, Rita Modelos and Roberta Modelos offer services of women, sometimes models and magazine covers, who don't charge less than $500 per program and can cost as much as $5,000. The money paid is normally split half and half between the call girl and the escort agency, which is in charge of preparing books with pictures produced in studios and placing ads in major newspapers and publications for tourists. In this market, 25 is the age limit before compulsory retirement.

Call girls, for whom the standards are much laxer, advertise by the hundreds in O Globo, O Dia, and Jornal do Brasil, Rio's three largest dailies. There are also men announcing their services like Andr‚ Luis, "college degree, loving, tender, 28. Catering to demanding women and couples -- as long as the man is a voyeur. Personal care in every sense of the word. Have safe sex, use camisinha (little shirt -- condom). Visa accepted. Tel.: (021) 295-2053 -- 24 hours."

Camilla and Ronald presented themselves on a recent Sunday in Jornal do Brasil as a married couple. "He: a real sexual lion. She: a glutton and super female. Together or separate. No one will be disappointed. Check it out! (021) 255-5887."

It's symptomatic that the ubiquitous sex-phones -- as those from some weekly tabloids in the US -- appear in O Globo and Jornal do Brasil under "Termas e Servicos de Massagem", the same place where "models", "escorts", "strip dancers" and "masseuses" sell their wares. By the way, to avoid problems with the law, which is very serious about protecting the under age, these erotic talk conversations are generated outside the country. Only Rio has created a system using special cards and passwords for those willing to call them. Caribbean Islands, Hong Kong, San Marino and even the faraway ex-soviet republic Moldavia are used for the telesex services, which can charge $3 for a minute of conversation.

BARS, BOATES, BEACHES, BROTHELS

The action in Rio is also on the beaches. A famous gathering of prostitutes in the afternoon is in front of the Othon Palace Hotel at Copacabana beach and at the tables at the Meia Pataca bar. They charge from $40 to $100 for a quickie, hotel being extra. First class hotels are known to play hard and not allow the entrance of prostitutes. But others like Debret and Caprice seem to derive most of their money from these sexual trysts.

The termas present themselves as massage parlors, but are only a façade for whorehouses. Places like O Para¡so  Aqui (Paradise Is Here) -- Rua Dezenove de Fevereiro, 123, Botafogo -- offer sauna, bar, cable TV and "relax" which is a code word for sex. The prices can vary from around $30 (Ped gios) to $300 (Aeroporto).

Some hotels act as agents for termas. They offer a discreet helping hand. The massage parlor Brasiltand from Botafogo for example, usually sends a car to pick up a client, when a hotel calls. For about $200 the tourist gets transportation, a suite and a girl.

At night, the sex scene gets even hotter in the boates (night clubs) around Rua Princesa Isabel, near Copacabana Beach. Two of the better known places are Mab's and Help, both at Avenida Atlƒntica. The boys sell themselves in places like The Ball (Praça Serzedelo Correia), Maxim's Bar or Incontros (Posto 6). The tab for drinks can go up very fast in these places while strip-tease shows and live sexual acts are presented. Close to this area some very attractive women are really men.

Talking about his experiences in Rio, a contributor to the World Sex Guide wrote: "The best place is Help Discotheque. When I first went there I thought I had died and gone to heaven. Picture a combination of a high school prom and Soul Train where all the girls are selling pussy. Usually during the season there are at least 300 of the most beautiful girls in the world there. All colors. None ugly. None older than 25. The price for a superstar is $100 for all night." And he concludes boastfully, "In Rio, pussy is available 24 hours a day and reasonably priced. I personally did 11 girls in eight days and spent less than $1,000 total in 1995. I carry a piece of paper with me at all times that says, "Brazilian Prostitute". I read it often, each time I fall in love. But remember that you will not get any free pussy in Rio. During Carnaval pussy flows like water. You must see it if you are to be considered a true sex friend."

São PAULO'S MEAT MARKET

The latest temple to hedonism, a true Xanadu of sex, is Bahamas, a club that opened its doors in São Paulo last January. The pleasure castle has Carrara

marble (the same favored by Michelangelo) on its floors, 23 suites, swimming pool and sauna, and cost $2.5 billion to be built. Paulista (from São Paulo) farmer Oscar Maroni Filho, the owner, is very happy with the investment, however.

The cash register starts ringing the moment the client enters the Bahamas door and 250 customers have been visiting the novelty every day. He pays $50 just to get in. A few hors d'oeuvres raise the bill very fast to $150. Add $300 for the girl and $40 for using the suite for one hour and it's easy to understand why Maroni Filho is asking himself why he hasn't left his 1000 plus cows before.

Men without deep pockets can choose from a myriad of other places in São Paulo. An American businessman who went there at the end of last year told The World Sex Guide about his sexual experience there around the São Paulo Hilton Hotel, where he stayed, and gave some pointers:

"From the hotel just walk left to the first street and then make another left about half a block to a street known as Bento Freitas. There, immediately go right and walk a block or two. You'll see a whole bunch of bars with sexy women willing to please you. There'll be no trouble finding them. The women are not only physically beautiful but kind and sweet, and I guarantee you'll be tickled to death."

And he continues: "Drinks are expensive, so my advice is not to stay too long. Just find the girl you like, chat for a while, negotiate a price (about $50 for full service), pay the tab and take her with you. One of the business people I went to see over there told me Brazilian sex workers are among the few in the world who actually enjoy their work. Naturally I thought he was kidding. Well, based on the beautiful girl I had that night, I can only say the man's observation is right on cue!"

Not every one would agree with the American choice, even though Bob Dylan is said to have gone to My Love (Bento Freitas, 344 - Tel: (011) 259-2072) and enjoyed it. The area chosen by the sex-seeking tourist is considered dangerous at night and the whole neighborhood seems to be going downhill. Transvestites are all over and Police are frequently called to calm down those a little too much excited. Things get a little more civilized inside the nightclubs where for around $15 anyone, including couples, can have a drink or two.

Men unaccompanied will be approached immediately upon entering. But the girls for more desperate that they are cannot leave the bar before the client pays for two more drinks. For sex the girl will charge between $30 and $60. These so-called boates are located in the Vila Buarque neighborhood and is known as Boca do Luxo (The Mouth of Luxury) even though this name was given in an earlier and more prosperous time for the whorehouse fronts.

The next step in decadence is the Boca do Lixo (Mouth of Trash) where any possible glamour has disappeared. One example of this is the Itatiaia building at Alameda Barao de Limeira, 134. The ten-floor building has close to 150 women who work every day including Saturdays and Sundays from the time the building opens at 9 am to 9:30 pm when it closes. The Itatiaia has been a temple to prostitution for 47 years. But it has seen much better times.

The crowd frequenting the building used to be mainly white collar workers. Today, however, almost everyone is a blue collar. On pay days the Itatiaia can get busy with more than 2000 men using the 19 apartments which have been

divided up in tiny wood partitions. There the customer takes an old and cranky elevator to the top floor and then starts coming down the stairway.

Women in the corridors and on the steps practically throw themselves at the men and for $15 take them to a cubicle with a single bed -- the last couple bed was disassembled two years ago -- where the sex has to be fast (in 15 minutes the times is up) to make room for another girl who has caught the next victim. The money is split with the tia (aunt), the owner of the little rundown apartments which normally sports a sofa, an old juke box and a little fridge with beer. Each tia works with 6 to ten girls who go back to their homes at the end of their work shift.

Another example of zona vertical is the Renda building at number 69 on Rua dos Andradas which is also a ten-floor edifice. As the Itatiaia, the Renda in decades past was considered one of the classiest whorehouses in town. Madams and workers on both buildings calculate that in the almost half a century of existence both whorehouses have witnessed together around 20 million sexual encounters.

LUXURY TRADE

The classier and costlier action these days has moved to more upscale areas such as Jardins and Morumbi. Many times they are a mansion among other residential mansions. This has not been without problem. Just recently the city of São Paulo was able to close down Caf‚ Photo, the most notorious of the single's bars being used as front for prostitution, which was installed in Itaim. City Hall, answering to complaints from Caf‚ Photo neighbors, invoked a zoning restriction to interdict the place.

Maybe on the same level of notoriety is the Antiqu rio, a place that dubs as an antique shop during the day metamorphosing itself into a bar at night. In both places, the girls are ostensibly presented as free lancers with no connection with the house. The bar is only used as a meeting spot and doesn't offer bed or other place for the carnal consummation. The idea is to escape the label of brothel. Maintaining a whorehouse is a crime that can carry a prison sentence of up to three years.

Recent official pressure against prostitution on the best neighborhoods seems to have only made the contemporary pimps even more brazen. Dinho Rocha, the owner of Antiqu rio, bought the name Caf‚ Photo after the joint was closed and reopened the place in Morumbi -- a neighborhood for the rich -- just to have it closed again soon after.

Rocha, normally, very secretive, exposed himself so much, that a police commissioner recognized that face from old times when he was detained for possession of cocaine and revealed the truth. He was a she. And her name is Vailde Rocha Veloso.

Unrepentant and unashamed, she declared, "I didn't lie. I am a woman. I have a vagina. And I'm in a relationship with another woman for 12 years. I've never hid my real name.".

Dinho or Vailde has created a distinctive style: to deal only by phone and with people whom he knew or who had been indicated by someone he trusted. Soon he possessed one of these precious and secret top-name lists as the ones held by some Beverly Hills madams like Heidi Fleiss. One of his clients, according to Rocha, was a Paraguayan politician for whom he had to send periodically

seven girls including one who had been in the latest cover of a man magazine.

The idea to create the Antiqu rio came to Dinho after a disastrous incursion in the legal side of business in 1992 when he lost $2 million in a furniture factory. But he still had money enough to spend $1.2 million to make the sophisticated antique shop. More than a meat market his place is an entertainment spot offering samba and belly dancers and some racier performers like the girl who circulates between the tables covered only with shaving cream.

Sometimes a company rents the place for a private party, and a common attraction on these occasions is a sushi table where the center decoration is a naked woman. Bachelor parties are also common at the Antiqu rio. And how Dinho recuperates his investment since officially he doesn't get a penny from the girls, the main attraction of the place? Selling liquor, he says. A bottle of whiskey costs $350.

Before having his place shut down, F bio Puglisi, the founder of Caf‚ Photo, used to explain why his house was so successful: "Here we don't have a girl who does programs, that girl that you call for a quickie. The women here are those who really enjoy the night."

There are at least 200 women -- all pretty, all very young, all very expensive -- who live from bar to bar, circulating among similar places like the Caracol Club (Rua Pamplona, 1115 - Tel: (011) 288-5344; La Colina Pizzeria (Rua Heitor Penteado, 474 - Tel: (011) 65-5010; III Whisky (Rua Major Diogo, 51 - Tel: (011) 604-7031 and Farwell (Rua Avanhandava, 16 - Tel: (011) 258-2674).

These girls charge from $150 to $450 for a little action and they have an average income of $6,000 a month. Some can make $20,000 or more. It doesn't happen every day but there are those who end up marrying a customer, getting an expensive jewel as gift, or being surprised even with a new car.

In a career with the shortest of life spans, these girls, who normally dream of becoming top models but give up because of the competition, end up making less ambitious plans like traveling to Europe, buying a house or opening a boutique.

FOR SWINGERS ONLY

Another option for those looking for sex in São Paulo is the saunas mistas (coed saunas) where the women are prostitutes who work for the establishment. Most of these houses are located in a strip of Rua Augusta closer to downtown, the other extremity of the street being flanked by sophisticated boutiques.

Don't look for sophistication in the saunas, however. They offer a little bar and a small room with steam where some naked women wait for the hungry wolf. To get inside these places there is a fee that is typically less than $10. Another $10 will guarantee a little cubicle with a bed. The price of sex is negotiable and is discussed directly with the girl.

They start by asking $50, but will settle for around $30 for a session that might last 45 minutes. Before and after the coitus, the customer is invited to take a shower. The use of condom is mandatory. Women are very pleasing and ready to satisfy almost any desire even those of men who would like to have sex with two girls at the same time.

The sauna places at Rua Augusta have names like Caf‚ Paris (on the 723 - Tel: (011) 259-7871 and Night House (at number 757 - Tel: (011) 258-8414). The girls here are much less sophisticated than their colleagues from the single's bars. They are women like Ana Carolina, who declared in an interview to Ele Ela magazine:

"For the most part the customers here are looking for affection and a little relaxation. All they want is to cool down. I don't see myself as a sexual object. I simply fulfill fantasies and perform dramatic roles."

For couples in search of some excitement, São Paulo offers also several swinger clubs. The Paris Texas club (Avenida Pomp‚ia, 678 - Tel: 65-6785) which is a peep show during the week has room for the Couples Meeting on Saturdays. For $40 (minimum consumption) couples are treated to a series of erotic games and plays. One of the favorite is the Magic Tent in which under total darkness a tent with a naked couple inside is brought to the room. Through special holes opened in the tent's fabric, people are encouraged to touch the naked bodies as they please. In another game, well-hung boys chase after the wives. When one of them says yes, she is taken to the dance floor where she is massaged, kissed and sucked in front of everybody.

At Club Paradise -- Rua Correa Dias, 161 - Tel: (011) 570-4457 -- couples are encouraged to be creative and to expose themselves. There are six suites where the hottest people can continue what they started in public. The meetings on Thursdays and Fridays, which cost $50, offer a climate conducive to seduction, with little light and male strippers' shows.

The encounters start always the same way: bashful people going around in bathrobes, drinking and sitting close or inside the Jacuzzi. But the participants usually warm up very fast when thighs, breasts, pubis and genitalia start to crop up.

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Author: Paoletti, Ricardo Article Title: Tough law Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.8; N.126 Publication Date: 06-30-96 Page: p. 20

Tough law.

Would a century be enough for Brazilian congressmen to conclude the debate phase on reforming the constitution and start the voting? Not really, say some analysts, just half jokingly.

Lawmakers have their hands full, in Brazil, these days. The National Congress and the Senate are set to review the country's constitution, not even seven years old and yet subject to substantial, massive technical amendments. At last count, there were close to 500 suggested changes to the "Magna Carta," as is respectably called the federal body of laws that guide Brazilian institutions.

It looks like that anything goes: on the table are suggestions ranging from an odd proposal to include freedom of sexual orientation as a fundamental goal of the Republic, to a change in the way the Republic itself is run, from today's presidentialism to a congress-centric parliamentarism -- an idea already defeated in a general plebiscite five years ago. And all that in an especially turbulent year when municipal elections are set for coming November.

When the current Constitution was approved in October of 1988, it marked the end of a twenty-year period inaugurated by the military coup of 1964, when federal law was something usually associated with the will of the sitting general-president. The collapse of the military regime, caused in large part by human rights abuses and a faltering economy, brought a cry for a complete re-write of the existing laws. So large was the list of social grievances accumulated by the elected constituintes, as were called the congressmen designated to create the new constitution, that from the outset it was clear that this set of bills would be anything but short and generic. And, once finally approved, it included a built-in provision for the complete revision that is now set to take place.

When this process will be completed is a matter open to heated debate. Political analysts calculate that, at its current pace, Congress would need not more and not less than 120 years to debate and vote all the suggested amendments. Not an acceptable prognostic by Brazilian president Fernando Henrique Cardoso's measure. He wants the constitution revision done by September, so one of his most cherished amendments, the one permitting his own re-election, could be debated before the heat of the local elections' season.

Politicians loyal to the administration, with their optimism set to the highest possible levels, calculated that they could get the job done in about six months. To help smooth the course of the debate and guarantee a comfortable majority of votes for the administration's proposals, president Cardoso decided to promote a wholesale change of ministries this past April, offering seats in the powerful secretaries of Agriculture, Industry and Commerce, and Political Issues to new allies.

But such a move still has to prove to be enough to counterweight blunders like

the one that stopped in its tracks the reform of the Social Securities program, a major set of rules up for discussion. It just so happened that the minister of the Supremo Tribunal Federal, Brazil's high court, wasn't happy with the course of the debates and decided to decree its suspension. "As a citizen, I wish that the 1988 laws could be practiced and experienced a little more", justified the minister Marco Aur‚lio de Mello. Mello's decree was finally reverted, but the delay was enough to make even administration loyalists, the ones in a hurry, admit that the bulk of the reforms wouldn't be set to vote until next year.

Such admission has raised red flags in the real world of economics and labor relations. Labor unions want social reforms quick, and business associations think that the country's new currency, the Real, widely credited with the flattening of the inflation rate from a monthly 40% to close to 0%, isn't strong enough to go undamaged through such a long period of uncertainty.

To make the congressmen feel their urgency, workers and employers are considering the unheard of idea of promoting a general work stoppage by mutual agreement. "Congress can't turn their backs on society. We don't have time to spare. If we're left with no choice, we will stop to promote advancement", says São Paulo's Industries Federation (FIESP) president, Carlos Eduardo Moreira Ferreira, a conservative businessman turned social agitator by circumstance.

He certainly has a point, since history stubbornly won't stop waiting for the new set of reformed laws. Late last April, a massacre of more than 30 rallying peasants in Central Brazil by troops from the State of Par 's Military.

Police brought to the surface the issue of land distribution in the country -- and, once again, resuscitated and offered new blood to the debate on agrarian reform, an issue more than 30 years old that the insurgent military put to rest in 64, along with the existing Constitution.

Now, the Agrarian Reform will compete for a spot in the limelight with suggestions like mandatory public service by all graduates from state universities; or the extinction of a most disrespected law, the 12% limit on annual interest rate charged for bank loans; or the creation of a special seat in the Senate for retired Presidents. Or, yet, the introduction of death penalty -- the very first of all the amendment suggestions, filed when the 1988 Constitution was only one day old.

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Author: Da Fonseca Barreto, Carlos Emmanuel Article Title: Promising land Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.8; N.126 Publication Date: 06-30-96 Page: p. 21

Promising land.

Apparently cleaned from its endemic corruption, the Brazilian northeast seems ready to take its place in a modern and developed new Brazil. An American company is building a theme park in the area with Brazilian folklore characters. And even Disney is thinking about installing there its Tropical Disneyland.

For many years, the northeast portion of Brazil has been considered, the black hole of the country. Many past governments invested millions of dollars in infrastructure projects which were never finished because some of the funds were funneled into the pockets of corrupt-politicians, or because inflation increased the final price of the projects so much that there was not enough money to finish the work.

The northeast has also been a region with innumerable political scandals. The impeached ex-President Fernando Collor de Mello comes from there. So does the so-called gang "Anoes do Orçamento" (the dwarves of the government budget) who robbed millions of dollars. More recently, the federal government had to intervene in Bahia's Banco Econ"mico which after many years of financing political campaigns had accumulated a series of bad debts.

The region is home for many political demagogues still very active on the national political arena. People like the ex-congressman, ex-governor, ex-president and presently the leader of the Senate, Jos‚ Sarney and the many times ex-governor, ex-congressman and presently Senator Ant"nio Carlos Magalhaes (ACM). Add to them Calmon de S , Econ"mico's owner, twice Minister of Commerce and Industry, former Banco do Brasil's president.

There are many signs, however, that this Brasil velho (old Brazil) is over. Many of these swindles have been disclosed and the parties involved exposed to public opinion that will judge them on the ballot. That makes for a very promising future for the northeastern Brazil, with high levels of expectation from private entrepreneurs.

Recently the region has been receiving great amounts of private investments and the state governments are doing their jobs to attract such investments to the region. Last March, a seminar promoted by the Exame magazine gathered a group of seven state governors and 500 people between entrepreneurs and politicians. The one day seminar debated over the means to eliminate the obstacles that still exist for developing the Northeast.

One of the main focus of the seminar was to explore what the region has in abundance: natural beauty. According to the World Trade Organization (WTO), in 1995, tourism generated $563 billion worldwide, and among the emerging economies, Brazil's revenue from tourism reached $2.1 billion (ranked 11).

The amount is not great given the 1995's Brazilian gross domestic product (GDP) of $680 billion. Nevertheless, the WTO registered a 5 percent increase

from 1994 revenues.

The president of TAM Airlines, Rolim Amaro, stated that "in 1994, 213 thousand tourists were brought to the northeast from other parts of Brazil." Amaro believes that after the tremendous increase in 1995, the inflow of tourists only from the rich regions of southern Brazil will reach 1 million travelers in 1996.

Furthermore, the two major Brazilian airlines, VARIG and VASP, offer several international flights connecting the northeastern capitals to Europe, the United States and Asia. And many other major world airlines like Air France, Lufthansa and Alitalia flies to the northeast as well.

A long time believer in the region's potential is the ex-formula one pilot, Nikki Lauda, who through his Lauda Air offers weekly flights from Europe to beautiful Porto Seguro (Bahia) since the late 1980s. Besides Porto Seguro, other major tourist destinations are Salvador and Itaparica (Bahia), Macei¢ (Alagoas), Recife and Olinda (Pernambuco), Joao Pessoa (Para¡ba), Natal (Rio Grande do Norte), and Fortaleza (Cear ).

Yet, it is off the coast of Bahia and Pernambuco, Abrolhos and Fernando de Noronha respectively, that paradise rests. The two archipelagos are filled with submarine caves, 1500s wrecked caravels, colorful reefs, and a diversified marine life. It is a diver's dream.

The area needs infra-structure however. The Banco do Nordeste do Brasil (BNB), to boost investments from local entrepreneurs, raised the credit lines available from $900 million in 1994 to $2.9 billion in 1995. Furthermore, the Cardoso government has promised an increase of resources to the local economy through the BNDES (National Bank for State Development).

Meanwhile some businessmen are jumping at the opportunity to catch the wave of increasing profits in the region. Suarez, a contractor company from Bahia for example, has two ongoing projects for new resort hotels with 340 apartments on the capital Salvador and on the Itaparica Island, right off the coast. Furthermore, the Keynoox Company from Miami is building a theme park after Brazilian folklore figures in Fortaleza, and another American, Wet'n Wild, is constructing an aquatic park in Salvador.

The region's vast virgin coastal beaches of white sand and blue water, and the all-year sunny weather creates the perfect environment for the new world's playground. Besides, the charming and pleasant people of the region makes the place a welcome tourist attraction. The Disney Company has been researching the Brazil's northeast for its new Tropical Disneyland Park, a sure success.

The president of Abril Group and editor of magazines Veja and Exame, Roberto Civita, stated during the seminar that "we are going to show the world that the Northeast is not only potential, but a reality." Tourism could become the Northeast's new economic cycle.

In 1995, the region's GDP of $99 billion grew 9.8 percent while the country grew by 5.4 percent. In the past few years, 1,017 new industries set up production plants in the area generating 300 thousand new jobs, and another 100 thousand will surge in the wake of 250 ongoing industrial projects in the region.

The Northeast already hosts some of Brazil's biggest multinationals, like

Aracruz Cellulose and the Odebrech Group. Odebrech is a construction giant present in every continent, and with projects in 21 countries, including the United States (builder of California's north-south aqueduct). Furthermore, some of Brazil's most profitable plants are located in the Northeast (i.e., the Vicunha Group and Grendene Shoes).

However, the scant population is another one of the problems in the region. The per capita income of $2,500 is half of the country's $5,000, illiteracy rate reaches 37 percent while 18 percent in the rest of Brazil, and life expectancy is 64 in the Northeast and 67 overall.

The governor of Cear , Tasso Jereissati, advocated during the seminar that the northeast does not need government subsidies. "The success of the region depends much more on the Real Plan (Brazil's economic stabilization program that cut inflation to 20 percent per year) than on subsidies from the central power," he stated.

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Author: Colombo, Paola Article Title: Fleeing for life Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.8; N.126 Publication Date: 06-30-96 Page: p. 22

Fleeing for life.

Three weeks after having received an award from President Fernando Henrique Cardoso for his work with favelados (shanty town dwellers), Caio Ferraz, a sociologist and favelado himself, asked for exile in the US. He couldn't take the death threats of police anymore when they started following his wife and one and a half-year-old daughter. "I wasn't born to be a dead hero," he said.

In Boston, Caio Ferraz, 27, a prominent Brazilian sociologist, now in exile in the US since the beginning of the year, explains his situation as "very strange, very different from 100% of the Brazilians who come over here." Ferraz openly denounced police corruption in the state of Rio de Janeiro after the massacre of 21 people in the favela (shanty town) of Vig rio Geral in 1994. The carnage happened two houses far from his own. Victims were innocent people killed by the military police in revenge for the homicide of four policemen.

"It wasn't time to sit down and ponder about death and injustice," Ferraz said. He decided to create a group within the community to analyze what had happened. "Astonishing as it sounds, there was a positive side to the massacre," he noted. "Vig rio Geral got on the map. That made it easier for us to be heard."

Out of the weekly meetings Ferraz organized the Community Movement of Vig rio Geral (Mocovige). According to the sociologist, the basic idea was to discuss what could be done to the community. "We could have either waited for justice or tried to achieve justice with our own work," he told News from Brazil recently. "We had to show society that the people who live in shanty towns are honest; we exist, we can also be intellectual, we can also produce culture."

The group had the idea of buying the house where the family was killed to make it into the headquarters for Mocovige. "We wanted to transform the house of death into the house of life. A house of war into a house of peace," Ferraz said.

The House of Peace was inaugurated on June 4, 1995 even though initially there was no financial support. With the help of the federal bank of Brazil (Caixa Econ"mica Federal), the group got the money for the house. Support followed as local entities and artists started to donate from construction material to sculptures and pictures that could be auctioned for money.

The project was recognized by the Interamerican Bank of Development that promised to invest $123,000 over a period of two years. Reaching the international community, the House of Peace also got support from the Netherlands that donated eight computers. The European Community developed a health project together with the group Doctors Without Borders that assists 600 people monthly; the mayor of Geneva, Switzerland, donated the funds for a nursery that takes care of over 80 kids, and the clothing chain C&A donated silk-screen equipment that has allowed 120 teenagers to get a job.

The House of Peace also has a project for handicapped people. "We couldn't forget that there are a lot of people mutilated by the violence around that area," commented the activist.

With the community involvement on the project, Ferraz and the members of Mocovige started to teach people about their rights and duties as citizens. The idea was to teach people how to react when the police acted illegally. They were taught to file complaints, to make a basic account of what was going on so that the case could be presented to Rio's security authorities.

Every time the police would get into Vig rio Geral, the group was on the lookout. Soon, the police started to threaten them back. "I was threatened directly, but they couldn't stop my work unless they'd kill me," Ferraz added. He is positive that the threats came from the police. "I am sure about that because I saw who they were; they threatened me personally. I know that criminals don't threaten, criminals kill."

During the same time that Ferraz was suffering these death threats, he received several awards for his work at Vig rio Geral, including one given him by President Fernando Henrique Cardoso, the National Human Rights Award on December 1995. The problem is that, according to Ferraz, the federal government gave the award but not the security needed so that he could stay in Brazil.

At the end of December '95 Ferraz's wife and baby daughter were followed by police cars. "I knew that now was the time to leave," he said. Six years ago his brother was killed by Police after they mistook him for a cocaine trafficker. Ferraz contacted Amnesty International, which had started a campaign in favor of his work and for which he has worked as a volunteer for over three years now. Elizabeth Leedes, a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, reached the Amnesty International and offered Ferraz a position as visiting scholar at the Center for International studies of the university.

Although Ferraz is far from Brazil, he said he will not allow the distance to interrupt his work. "I am only physically distant," he comments. He is often in contact with the House of Peace through faxes and phone calls. "I am happy to know that things are going really well there."

The House of Peace is now building a three-story building on the site of the bar that was exploded on the day of the massacre. "Now that we have full recognition and acceptance from the society, we have to keep that project working," Ferraz said, promising he won't give up his idea of spreading the project to other shanty towns of the country. "Citizenship is only made available through people who are educated, who have access to the machinery of culture -- through people who can make their own culture important for future generations," he concluded.

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Author: Nelson, William Javier Article Title: The racial cul-de-sac Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.8; N.126 Publication Date: 06-30-96 Page: p. 24

The racial cul-de-sac.

Brazilians should be teaching the world and the US in particular the way to an integrated ethnically mixed society. Unfortunately, however, they seem to be adhering to the manicheistic way North Americans see the world: black and white.

Years ago, Brazil was a society which celebrated the mixtures of colors which contributed to its mestiçagem. Hundreds of ways in which Indians, Africans and Portuguese blended together contributed to a myriad of color terms. Brazilians seemed to have been proud of being mixed and proud of being Brazilians first and color second. Nowadays, Brazilian cultural prerogatives appear to dictate a fitting of all of these colors into "black" and "white" and the stage seems to be set for a great "black"-"white" war such as has been engaged in by the North Americans for many years.

North Americans have made a science of distilling multiple physical types into the bi-polar conflict groups, "black" and "white". Perhaps Brazilian present mania for dividing itself into "black" and "white" is part of the imitative process whereby some cultures copy everything North American. A word of warning, though; the North Americans perhaps are moving in another direction: Brazilians might be imitating the wrong trend.

"Race" in the US

"Race" has always been a common topic of discussion for North Americans. Common as it is, most North Americans have never questioned the definitional system which makes possible the discussion in the first place. The "black" and "white" North American conflict groups are so defined based on the "hypodescent" rule (a term invented by two US anthropologists, Marvin Harris and Conrad Phillip Kottak, who made extensive cross cultural studies using Brazil as one of the points of reference).

Quite simply, hypodescent states that, in the case of a sexual union between parents of different "races", the offspring automatically takes on the status of the lower caste parent.

Therefore a sexual union between a "black" and "white" invariably produces a "black" (even though this "black" is now a mulatto). Moreover, if this mulatto also has sexual relations with a person of the "white" group, his offspring will also be labeled as "black". The hypodescent rule does several things: first, it eliminates African ancestry from the "white" population. Second, it establishes two very rigidly defined social groups. Third, it discourages intermarriage. Fourth, it encourages a mind set in which one thinks of immutable "races" in which people are placed for life.

This system has been in effect for many years in the United States. Ironically, both the "black" and "white" groups support the rule. The "blacks" support it because it increases the numbers of persons labeled as "black". The

"whites" embrace it because there are enough "whites" in the US so that partial "whites" are not needed for numerical and cultural dominance.

However, some rumblings have been occurring in the US. Adherence to the hypodescent rule has been facing challenges from new quarters.

The Multiracial Movement

The multiracial movement has grown in the US in recent years. This is partly due to an increase in marriages in the US that have been classed as "interracial":

- Thirteen percent of all African-American men in the Western part of the United States are married to women classed as "white".

- From 1970 to 1991, the number of "mixed-race" married couples increased from 310,000 to 994,000.

- For "black" and "white" parents, births increased from 8,700 in 1968 to 45,000 in 1989.

- Seventy-one percent of teens say that they would go out with someone of a different "race".

- In 1990, there were nearly 2,000,000 children under 18 whom the census classified as "of a different race than one or both of their parents".

Many of the children of "interracial" unions no longer adhere to the "hypodescent" rule. One of the leaders of the multiracial movement, Charles Michael Byrd (editor of Interracial Voice), is of partial African ancestry, but is not willing to ignore the other part of his heritage.

The same thing goes for Ramona Douglass, president of the Association of MultiEthnic Americans. In the past, "racially mixed" persons rebelling against the hypodescent rule have encountered opposition from both "blacks" and "whites".

"Whites", in the past, had reacted to mixed persons with blanket rejection. "Blacks" have heaped scorn on mixed persons by alleging that they have been "deserters" to the "black cause". Years ago, such social mechanisms were effective. Now, however, as the country becomes more diverse with immigrants from Latin American and Asia, and with the "white" population becoming less of a dominant percentage of the population, "racially" mixed persons have found social space to exist in the United States.

Their questioning of the "racial" status quo has, in Byrd's words, "blown the lid off most people's perceptions of race."

Whither Latinos?

Ironically, Brazilians and other Latinos in the United States could have been useful to the success of the multiracial movement (at least in the short term). Most Brazilians are aware that the hypodescent rule is ridiculous. Most are aware that even Brazilians identified as "white" can have African ancestry.

Most are far more flexible in their "racial" consciousness than even the most

liberal North American. However, Brazilians and other Latinos are also practical. [As I am from the Dominican Republic, I can speak from experience]. Latinos are aware that the "whites" control most cultural, economic, educational and political institutions in the United States. They generally alter their "racial" perceptions to fit in with the dominant society.

Straight hair and olive skin allow Latinos to call themselves "white" or at least "not-black" so as to fit in with what's in vogue. They are slow to use their insights to help bridge any gaps between "blacks" and "whites". Nor do they go out of their way to admit to African ancestry, since that, to a North American, constitutes being 100% "black" (regardless of physical appearance). Lastly, they are hesitant to use their "racial" sophistication to introduce to the North American new ways of looking at "race". Rather, they are quick to use his rigid categories to their advantage. I have seen many mulatto Dominicans (who have fooled the North Americans into thinking that their dark skin color is due to "Indian" ancestry) patronize North American "blacks" as though they themselves do not have the dreaded African ancestry.

What makes this so preposterous is that the native "Indians" (Tainos) on the island of Hispaniola (home of the Dominican Republic) were largely eliminated within the first century of the Discovery. Dominicans are African and Spanish (with some Taino). Since we are mixed, we are all. And none of these. Brazilians can say the same thing, except that "Portuguese" can be substituted for "Spanish" and the "Indian" contingent is larger.

What is in the Offing?

In spite of any intransigence by Brazilians or other Latinos, "racial" lines in the United States will become less rigid and more flexible (like the Brazil of old). The reasons for this are all demographic:

1) There has been a vast increase in immigration of "non-white" peoples from Latin America and Asia.

2) "Interracial" marriages will continue to increase as will their rate of increase.

3) Birth rates for persons classed as "black" and "Hispanic" are outstripping the "white" birth rate, further eroding the numerical percentage of persons classed as "white".

4) More and more children of "interracial" unions are using more varied and self-identifying terms when describing themselves.

Such demographics point to a United States which is far more varied than can be contained by the two "racial" combat groups of "black" and "white". Time magazine did a story on this phenomenon in the fall of 1993. A young woman was featured on the cover.

What made this woman so unusual was that she was a computer-generated composite of eight or ten "racial" and ethnic groups. A year or so later, Newsweek ran a cover story outlining the tremendous physical variation of persons labeled as "black" in the United States. In this story, the hypodescent rule was clearly a focus. These cover stories merely reflect the changing demographics of the United States. "White" backlash interests, ranging from "conservative" magazines to anti-immigration initiatives to "white" males joining paramilitary organizations in the countryside, also

reflect this reality (in the form of fear of the coming demographic changes).

Because of an apparent increase in the cultural imperative stressing the desirability of "whiteness" (as opposed to being mixed), Brazil has an excellent chance of squandering its heritage of "mestiçagem" and "racial" mixing and evolving, instead, into a society dichotomized into "white" and "black".

As anybody can guess, stressing "whiteness" leads to exclusion of those not fortunate enough to possess the "racial" requirements.

Stressing nationality over color while at the same time emphasizing that being mixed is not a bad thing could have led us in another, saner direction. Ironically, our imitative focus (the United States) could be moving in that saner direction.

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Author: Welles, Violet Article Title: Inspiring Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.8; N.126 Publication Date: 06-30-96 Page: p. 26

Inspiring.

At 16, when disease forced her to go to the city, rubber-tapper Marina Silva was still illiterate. Twenty two years later, now a senator in the Brazilian congress, she comes to the US to receive a prize for her work in preserving the environment.

The press release for the Goldman Environment Prize describes the 1996 winners as "heroes of the earth." The press release does not exaggerate.

This year the six people awarded the top environmental prize on the planet include a young Mexican who refused to stop his "grass roots" activities in the forests of Chihuahua despite three attempts on his life by drug lords and logging companies. Also included among the winners is an Ugandan journalist who used the front pages of his paper to expose dangerous illegal mining and wildlife smuggling rings.

And very, very high among the "heroes of the earth" is Marina Silva. At 38, Silva is the first seringueira ever elected to the Brazilian Federal Senate. In Bras¡lia, and throughout the rest of the country, she is known as a dedicated fighter for the Amazonian rain forest and its traditional people.

In San Francisco recently to collect her share of the Goldman Prize which include a $75,000 check, the dark-eyed, fragile-looking Silva spoke, eloquently about the misconceptions that still persist about her home territory.

"Amaz"nia is not an empty space that needs to be occupied. It has been occupied by traditional people, doing different activities, for thousands of years."

Silva's large, impoverished family which lived in Rio Branco, Acre, were among these people. By 11 she was hunting, fishing and rubber tapping. Unschooled and illiterate, she had formal knowledge in only one area -- she knew just enough arithmetic to keep rubber buyers from cheating her family.

At 16, the still illiterate girl caught hepatitis and went to the city, alone, for treatment. Working as a maid by day, she attended classes by night. In three years she had raced through elementary school, junior high school and high school in record time.

At 20, with a bachelor's degree in history she was deeply involved in the student movement fighting the military dictatorship.

But true commitment came in the early 1980's when she returned to Acre and began working with rubber-tapper leader, Chico Mendes.

Today, there is an almost mythic ring to the struggle of the seringueiros against the cattle ranchers who were destroying the forest, and destabilizing

their communities. In those days it was more immediate, more dangerous.

With everything on their side, including government subsidies, the powerful ranchers demanded more and more pasture land, using any means of persuasion they could. Rural violence escalated. The local economy plunged. Clearly, something had to do to turn the situation around.

The "something" were the empates, huge but peaceful demonstrations by seringueiros which literally stopped ranch hands in their tracks and convinced them to end their destruction of the forest. Even today, the empates are considered a prime example of grass roots' resistance to environmental assault.

But not everyone was persuaded by Mendes' peaceful beliefs. In 1988 he was murdered by rancher Darcy Alves. "When they killed Chico, they thought they would kill the movement," said Silva, who had a price on her head during much of this period. "But the movement is now bigger and stronger than ever."

Proof. One of Mendes' dreams was to create sustainable extractive reserves in the rain forest where useful products such as rubber and nuts could be removed without destroying the forest. Largely through Silva's continuing activities, Acre today has extractive reserves covering two million hectares of forest, managed by the traditional communities that inhabit them.

Another proof of progress. In 1994, Silva -- impoverished rubber tapper, illiterate teen-ager, worker-activist, traditional outsider -- became an insider, the first seringueira ever elected to the Brazilian Federal Senate, a person in a powerful position to represent the rain forest and the rights of the people who live there.

Just as, earlier, the sweep of cattle-owners into the Amazon was an obvious invasion of the territory, more recently a more subtle invasion has also been going on. It is one in which researchers and laboratories take the genetic resources of a region for their own profit no matter what the cost to the community or, for that matter, to the country as a whole.

One of Silva's main pieces of legislation has been a law to limit access to genetic resources and give traditional people a voice in their control. But even with improvements, Silva has mixed feelings about the progress being made towards improving life in Amaz"nia.

"Yes, the Cardoso government has many good people in it, with good experience, concerned about social and agrarian reforms. But mostly the government is concerned about economic stabilization, fighting inflation. Until the government is willing to invest in education, job programs, health care and agrarian reform, until the government is willing to commit real resources, unrest will continue, people will go on dying, like the 20 killed recently in demonstrations in Par ."

But Silva still hopes to see a better world, one in which we will finally learn "not to sacrifice the treasure of millennia for the profits of a decade." Says she, "St. Thomas said to see is to believe. I think we must invert that. To see, first we must believe!"

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Author: Gilman, Bruce Article Title: Viva Carmen! Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.8; N.126 Publication Date: 06-30-96 Page: p. 39

Viva Carmen!.

Carmen Miranda not only translated the black samba for a white audience, originated the Brazilian way of singing, and instigated the new standard for Brazilian popular music; she defined the Carioca woman. The rest of the world rediscovered her genius for close to a decade now. Finally Brazil is doing the same, with a vengeance.

In 1948, renowned composer Ary Barroso (he wrote Brazil included in Disney's Saludos Amigos) wanted to make Carmen Miranda a citizen of Rio, but the city council turned down the request saying that she would denigrate the image of the country. Nonetheless, in celebrations of Carmen forty-one years after her death, there has been a jubilant campaign to reissue her recordings and provide the public with documentaries and books that attempt to tell her story with the perspective of forty-one years hindsight. (Helena Solberg's documentary "Carmen Miranda: Bananas Is My Business" is one of the best.)

Finally the platform shoes have taken their revenge. Last February when Carmen would have been 87 years old she was paid homage when the city of Rio posthumously presented her with the lofty Pedro Ernesto decoration and reverently celebrated her with a memorial performance on the beach. In addition, "those in the know" are making the latest fashion statements by wearing this seasons designer clothing, inspired by and reminiscent of Carmen's attire.

With ten years of delay in relation to record companies in other parts of the world (including the former Czech Republic), Brazilian record companies finally discovered that they have been sitting on top of a very rich collection of popular music, are starting to release it in luxurious box sets, and are not complaining about the investment. Artists that seemed to have nothing more to offer have become good slices of profit.

This is true not only for the companies but for collectors and those who simply want more information about an artist who may have died or whose works were previously unavailable or marred by the poor recording quality of another era's technology. Thus, Carmen Miranda's permanent restoration will not depend on the multitude who for decades have imitated her. Carmen's voice has mandated an indisputable space for her immortality.

Carmen's most successful and energetic recordings were made between 1935 and 1940, and it is exactly these recordings that EMI-Odeon Brazil has compiled and reissued in a luxurious 5 CD box set that contains an informative 72 page booklet with vast photographic material in both color and black and white, all the lyrics, informative historical details from the research of Abel Cardoso Junior, some very savory stories, and a biographic summary of the star. There are six hours of music, and every minute of this marathon entertains and instructs with classic Carmen Miranda.

This set of sambas and marchas was recorded in chronological order and

includes among others: "A Preta do Acaraj‚" (Acaraj‚'s Black Woman), "Adeus Batucada" (Farewell, Percussion), "Balancˆ" (Swing), "Cachorro" (Dog), "Camisa Listrada", (Striped Shirt), "Cantoras do R dio" (Radio Singers), "Disseram que Voltei Americanizada" (They Said That I Came Back Americanized), "...E o Mundo Nao Se Acabou" (...And the World Hasn't Ended), Eu Dei (I Gave), Fon-Fon (Beep Beep), Ary Barroso's "Na Baixa do Sapateiro" (On the Shoemaker's Blues), "No Tabuleiro da Baiana" (On the Baiana's Tray), Dorival Caymmi's "O que  que a Baiana Tem?" (What Does the Bahiana Have?), "Tic-Tac do Meu Coraçao" (My Heart's Tic-Tac), "Vira-Lata" (Mongrel), and "Recenseamento" (Census). All these tunes have passed time's acid test and numerous recordings by accomplished artists like Gal Costa, Chico Buarque, and Ney Matogrosso; though, none outshines the original's ‚lan.

EMI-Odeon Brazil, was helped by three collectors who loaned and shipped portions of their 78 rpm record collections to London in special wooden boxes. At the Abbey Road Studios, where the Beatles recorded their best albums, these sixty year old recordings were treated with an electronic bath and went through the re-mastering process in three stages conducted by a sophisticated computer program called Cedar. Surface noises, some distortion, and those scratchy sounds one is accustomed to hearing on older recordings were removed.

Fans who have the disposition to delve into Carmen's career and music at a visceral level are going to adore this project. The set has come to Brazilian stores with a price tag of $110. A similar release in the United States or Europe would cost approximately $80. Although the figure might be a sacrifice for the audiophile, it is worthwhile. The results are impeccable, and the work of the crew that conceived the project should be praised. It is impossible to ignore the good humor conveyed by the singer in each song. Listening to these discs one easily understands the reverence to the myth surrounding Carmen Miranda, how she blew American minds, and why Carmen Miranda was truly The Brazilian Bombshell.

The Pequena Not vel (Notable Little One) was born Maria do Carmo Miranda da Cunha in 1909 in Porto, Portugal. According to the legend, she earned the nickname Carmen in salute to the heroine of Bizet's opera. When she was eight months old her family moved to Brazil where her father opened a barber shop. The family was middle class, and Carmen attended religious schools. Nonetheless, they lived in Lapa, downtown Rio's poorer district. It was here that Carmen became fascinated by the music of neighborhood sambistas whose enthusiastic style she absorbed.

Childhood pictures of Carmen in the book Carmen Miranda by C ssio Emmanuel Barsante, released last year, show that Carmen always had something special, something which could not be defined, a reckless abandon, a mischievous way of enjoying life, an exuberance. The photos also show that before her debut as a singer, Carmen took an obvious pleasure in being photographed making comical poses.

The first indication that Carmen Miranda would become the Brazilian Bombshell of the 1940s and 1950s was formed amidst the four walls of a hat shop where she worked as an adolescent. When Carmen punched her time card at the Femme Chic at 141 Ouvidor Street in Rio, the sharp little noise echoed in Beverly Hills. It was a moment when history changed. A hat, a turban, and hair ribbons became for Carmen Miranda what paint was for Picasso, what a ball is for Pel‚.

Carmen started recording in 1929 for Brunswick and appeared on stage for the first time in 1930 at Praça Tiradentes in Rio (a second-rate area of clubs and

theaters). Her role was that of a foul-mouthed prostitute who wore garish clothing. The second act was once interrupted by a revolver shot to the ceiling from an indignant family man.

Carmen came after the great lyric sopranos of the nineteenth century. There are no recordings by any singer before Carmen that deliver as much humor and temerity. And when we talk about recordings before Carmen, we are talking about those before February 1930, when she exploded with the marcha "Ta¡ -- Eu Fiz Tudo Pra Vocˆ Gostar de Mim" (It is Here - I Did Everything For You To Love Me). With this, her third recording for RCA Victor, the twenty-one year old Miranda was not only a singer and master of vocal antics, she was already a brilliant artist. Selling 36,000 copies of "Ta¡," Carmen beat Brazil's national sales record. By the time she left for New York in 1939, she had already recorded 300 songs. Up until Elis Regina's recording of "Arrastao" (Dragging the Fish Net) in 1965, no female vocalist had sold as much as Carmen Miranda.

Carmen's gestures, facial expressions, outfits, and the way she never remained in the same spot created an extravaganza on stage. Moreover, her unique repertoire was blessed by the incredible musical harvest of the 1930s, a golden decade of Brazilian music which gave birth to the best of Ary Barroso as well as the orchestra of Pixinguinha. She had great stage presence. Winking and raising her eyebrows at male patrons, as well as her conviction to engage the entire audience, established Carmen as the unequivocal originator of the "Brazilian Way" of singing and as the instigator of the new standard of performance practice for Brazilian popular music.

Before 1938, when Carmen entered the stage wearing tons of costume jewelry, platform shoes, a Baiana's lace skirt, and a crazy turban on her head, no singer had dared to appear in such radically extravagant attire. Generations of Brazilian performers followed her lead. Years later we hear Carmen Miranda's sense of humor reverberating of in the recordings of many Brazilian singers: Elis Regina, Gal Costa, Rita Lee, Elba Ramalho, Joao Gilberto, Caetano Veloso, and Ney Matogrosso among many others. Peeled to the core, you discover deep within these artists, that familiar special something that was Carmen Miranda.

There has for a long time been an assumption, albeit a misconception, that Brazilian Popular Music was the product of the Estado Novo of Getúlio Vargas and that this program was disseminated by Carmen Miranda. This is simply not true. The Estado Novo attempted to deploy an appreciation for Brazil and things Brazilian. Carmen had been extolling the wonders of everything Brazilian well before the 1937 dictatorship of Getúlio Vargas and his Estado Novo in songs like "Cor de Guin‚" (Color of Guinea) from 1935, "Terra Morena" (Brown Land) and Minha Terra Tem Palmeiras (My Land Has Palm Trees) both from 1936, the latter title comes from the 19th century poem by Gonçalves Dias.

This exaltation of one's country was not a strictly Brazilian sin. All the popular music of that period, including American and French, praised national glories. People enjoyed these sorts of tunes. If the Brazilian's boasting seemed to be more pronounced, it was possibly because Ary Barroso's "Aquarela do Brasil" is a much better tune than Irving Berlin's "God Bless America." A great part of Carmen's praising referred to Bahia. In the same vein, Ary Barroso, who was from Minas Gerais, composed more about Bahia both for Carmen and in his film soundtracks for Walt Disney Studios than he did about any other area of Brazil. Although she was born in Portugal, no other singer was more Baiana than Carmen.

The Baiana phase of Carmen Miranda did not start with her recording O que  que a Baiana Tem? composed by Dorival Caymmi in 1939. Actually this was the seventh song of this genre that she recorded. Prior to that she had recorded "No Tabuleiro da Baiana" (Ary Barroso, 1936), "Baiana do Tabuleiro" (Andr‚ Filho, 1937), "Quando Eu Penso na Bahia" (When I Think About Bahia) -- Ary e Luiz Peixoto --, 1937), "Nas Cadeiras da Baiana" (On a Baiana's Hips) -- Portelo Juno and L‚o Cardoso, 1938, -- and Na Bahia (In Bahia) -- Herivelto Martins and Humberto Porto, 1938. Almost all the lyrics describe the movement of the Baiana's hips and describe the cuisine on her tray. The novelty of "O que  que a Baiana Tem?" was not solely in the lyrics, which were similar to many of the others, but in the rhythm that only Dorival Caymmi could create. Caymmi's other contribution was teaching Carmen the way to move her arms and hands in accompaniment to the music -- a way of moving that would ultimately enchant the Americans and bring her to Hollywood. Unfortunately these movements became Carmen's caricatured trademark and often all that Americans in the 1940s associated her with.

Carmen was a natural humorist and could make a joke out of anything. She was a funny, not a romantic singer. Only a small fraction of her songs can be thought of as romantic. Although she was a specialist in giving a double meaning to the most innocent words, the listener cannot discern sensuality in her voice. The lyrics do not overtly convey anything hedonistic. Listeners in 1937 would have to have been sexual deviants to be offended by the simple lyrics she sang. The tune by Ary Barroso Eu Dei (I Gave) -- performed often by Gal Costa and Caetano Veloso, both wearing knowing smiles -- reveals at its conclusion that what she gave was a kiss and not her body. In "Fon-Fon" the exquisite samba duet with S¡lvio Caldas written by Joao de Barro and Alberto Ribeiro, Carmen pretends to resist a young man's caress. The lyrics are clearly not offensive, just frivolous.

Carmen Miranda not only translated the black samba for a white audience, originated the Brazilian way of singing, and instigated the new standard of performance practice for Brazilian popular music; she defined the Carioca woman. The Brazilian women who opened the twentieth century were delicate, susceptible, squeamish, always well dressed, and always fleeing from men. Carmen created the seductive image of the Brazilian woman who meet men joyously, legs and cleavage showing. Needless to say she would never have been invited to the feminist congress in China.

At the end of the 1930s the American entrepreneur Lee Shubert watched Carmen perform in Rio's famous night club Cassino da Urca. Shubert was fascinated by her performance and resolved to bring Carmen to New York. His enthusiasm was checked by only two doubts: first, whether a North American audience would appreciate so much passion coming from a brown-skinned, Latina singer; second, whether he should concede to Carmen's demand to bring along her own back-up band, the legendary Bando da Lua (Band of the Moon). At that time there were truly no musicians in the United States capable of rhythmically supporting or harmonizing Brazilian music with any stylistic integrity. Bando da Lua was the bedrock of her performances in the United States.

Carmen arrived in New York in 1939 able to speak a half dozen English words and moved to a stage on Broadhurst and Broadway where she received sixth billing on a poster for the production The Streets of Paris. On stage she wore platform shoes and the craziest hats in history (Napoleon had nothing on Carmen Miranda). She was doing the same act she had done at the Cassino da Urca. At only 5'2" she was gigantic and attractive. Always wishing to be first

among the first, she lacked any sense of female inferiority. Her confident disposition enabled her to chance an international career, despite the obvious risks, and was an early demonstration of her brilliance. The following week her name was moved to the top of the bill. Leading the show biz world by its nose, Carmen modified its visual attitudes. At the end of the year Saks released a line of jewelry inspired by Carmen.

After a year in the United States, Carmen returned to Rio but was punished for her success. Her first performance at the Cassino da Urca initially received the silent treatment and then boss. Brazilians were saying that she had become Americanized, that she was acting like a vain American, that she didn't care any longer about samba or the people from the favelas (shanty towns), and that her imitations made a mockery of her people. Many felt that Carmen created no more than the image of Brazilians as a scatterbrained people.

Her success in the United States, according to Tom Jobim, was a personal offense to the Brazilian people. Despite winning popular acclaim in the United States, her movements and outfits became stereotyped lampoons of the Brazilian people as well as Latin Americans in general and ridiculed their cultures. Vicente Paiva and Luiz Peixoto seized the opportunity and composed "Disseram que Voltei Americanizada (They Said That I Came Back Americanized), a dazzling chorinho which Carmen sang at her second performance at the Cassino da Urca.

Upset with her reception she returned to the United States and put Hollywood on its feet. From this juncture a new Carmen Miranda was concocted, much more celebrated, but fundamentally inferior to the real Carmen Miranda that was abandoned. Fox and the other studios invested solely in her comic talents and in turbans of bananas rather than her vocal and dramatic potential. She stopped recording in Portuguese. The world won a comedian, but Brazil lost her singer. And the tide was not to turn. In 1941 Mickey Rooney lampooned her attire, her arm movements, and her hand gestures in the film Babes on Broadway.

Under the supervision of an American director and placed opposite the blond Alice Faye, who was always very cool-headed and demure, Carmen's outrageous clothes and the way she moved and made her eyes turn sent the message that Brazilians are light-headed people. What country would like to be recognized as the one where people carry bananas in turbans on their heads? Many Americans still don't think of literature, natural resources, or architecture when trying to imagine what Brazil is like. Their image is the sound of "chic-a chic-a boom," inflamed hips, and the crazy hats Carmen introduced. As proof that this inferiority complex has remained intact, author Otto Lara Resende has referred to Brazilian inventor Santos Dumont, the man who flew around the Eiffel Tower in Paris well before the Wright brothers got off the ground, as the exclusive inventor of airplane disasters.

Carmen made fourteen films in the United States. And contrary to popular belief she was not helped by the politics of Franklin D. Roosevelt's Good Neighbor Policy. Carmen had been working in the United States for months before the United States entered the Second World War. After their entry, yes. She participated in some productions to exalt the American war effort and help the allies. Her characters were named Dorita, Chiquita, Rosita, Carmelita and other diminutives. These roles were unpleasant not only for Argentina in Down Argentine Way (prohibited in Buenos Aires because it did not represent the customs of the people), and to Brazilians in That Night in Rio (when she sang for the first time in English). Her role in South American Way, which presented South American women as ignorant and always ready for sex, was a

slap in the face to all of Latin America. We can only wonder what Cubans thought when she made Weekend in Havana. Nonetheless, she taped her exotic and happy image in the gallery of famous faces and is remembered with appreciation in the film This is Hollywood.

In one respect Brazilians had been correct, she was richer. By 1946 she was earning $210,000 a year and had become the artist who paid the most income tax to the federal government. But her whole family had moved to Los Angeles and was living with her. Her house in Beverly Hills became the embassy for Brazilian musicians visiting the United States, and Carmen was known as the Ambassador of Brazilian music. The title was warranted. Her presence and scintillating presentations did more for Brazilian music than did the actual ambassadors at the time who never promoted Brazil's music. If one day somebody makes the film This is Brazil, Carmen Miranda will have to be recognized for bringing marchas and sambas to the United States while the music of Glen Miller and Benny Goodman was invading the beaches of Brazil.

Those who knew Carmen celebrated her for the manner in which she rebuffed the half-naked Darryll Zanuck, cinema tycoon and womanizer, (something seldom achieved by other women contracted to his studio) who pursued her around the sofas and tables in his office demanding her "tropical delicacies." But not all of her battles concluded in victory. Carmen suffered after her marriage to American studio assistant David Sebastian who put her to work without rest. A little bag of medications accompanied her comings and goings and was an obvious symptom of her relationship problems. Half of the medications were stimulants in order to sustain the heavy work load. The others were sedatives to help her sleep when she had the time. Some intellectuals believe that Carmen inadvertently modeled for women the idea that there was strength in appearing and performing buoyantly even after being beaten by an abusive husband.

One can talk about the fairness of fate or wonder how history would have treated the woman whose name was synonymous with her country's music and dance had she married well. She had had a seven year romance with an oarsman from the Flamengo athletic club, and she always regretted not marrying Aloysio de Oliveira, music director of Bando da Lua. We also know that in despair over Carmen, composer Assis Valente, one of the most popular songwriters of the 1930s and 1940s, committed suicide by drinking Guaran soft drink and insecticide. A singer who worked with her at the Copacabana Palace related that Carmen cried all the time. In her last days she was receiving electrical shocks to treat her depression.

The voice of Carmen Miranda carried with it a vivaciousness, that by irony and contradiction to destiny, imprisoned her in successive bouts of depression until on the evening of August 5, 1995 while holding a mirror and putting on her make-up in her Hollywood mansion she suffered a terrible fall. She was found dead the next morning by the maid, stricken by an acute heart attack. She died the same night that five years later would bring down Marilyn Monroe, another symbol of the glamorous, exploited, and ultimately betrayed woman. It was clear that the Hollywood machinery had killed once more. Carmen's body was embalmed and taken back to Brazil where a priest refused to entrust Carmen's spirit to God because of her facial make-up.

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Sheer wonder

Gilberto Gil, the most Baiano of Baianos singer and composer, has again become all the rage these days. He has just joined the WEB revolution, parking its very tasteful homepage at http://www.gilbertogil.com.br and is starting a new tour of the world. People in the US have reason for complaining, however. He is limiting appearances here to San Francisco and Los Angeles. Among his latest projects there is also a book coming out very soon.

Thais Blissen

Gil continues to fascinate all of us, always the cosmic musician from Bahia, the magical pied piper of several generations, the student, the teacher, the provacateur, the gentle ambassador of the music goddess, with the power to incite dance in all who hear his sweetly delivered message and are forever mesmerized by it. The great Brazilian author Jorge Amado calls him the voice of Bahia, his music "feeding the dreams and hopes of the people".

Gilberto Gil's career actually began in business management in São Paulo, after graduating from the University of Bahia's School of Business Administration. In his twenty's however, having spent most of his years to learning and composing music, he decided to make it a way of life -- very fortunate for all of us!

Gil's fascination with Joao Gilberto's bossa nova style convinced him to learn to play guitar. Other musical influences were Dorival Caymmi "his Guru", and later the Beatles, Rolling Stones, Bob Dylan, Jimmy Hendrix, and others of the 60's. His music went through a transformation and emerged as part of the Tropicalismo Movement. This in turn played a large cultural role in Brazilian film, theatre and television programs of the time. Beyond musical and aesthetic innovations, this movement assimilated important social issues, having a decisive influence on lifestyles of Brazilian youth, and reflecting the boldness and ideas of its creators like Gil, Caetano Veloso, Gal Costa and Maria Bethania.

During the military regime that ruled Brazil for two decades, Gil's opposition resulted in his exile to London in 1969. His song "Aquele Abraço", recorded before leaving, soared to the top of the charts and remains one of the most successful hits of the music industry. While in England, he also made some recordings and performed in Europe and New York.

Returning to Brazil in 1972, he brought a bag full of recording and new songs. By 1979, he had a list of 10 LP's, and added another 9 during the 80's. He also participated in the production of Doces Barbaros (Sweet Barbarians) which reunited the giants of the Tropicalismo Movement, yielding a live album and film in 1976. His foreign recordings include Gilberto Gil in London (1971), Nightingale (USA -- 1977) and Alive (Tokyo -- 1987). He continues to tour internationally throughout Europe, the U.S., Africa and Japan. Gil and Caetano Veloso resurrected the magic of their early years together in the 1994 international tour of "Tropicalia II".

Since 1987, Gil has also included political and ecological engagements in his schedule. He is a multi-faceted person, with interests in many areas of socio-political issues. In 1990 he was decorated Knight of Arts & Letters by France's Minister of Culture, and the same year in Brazil he was awarded the Shell prize for overall career excellence. Adding to his list of commitments, he is also city councilor of Bahia's capital, Salvador. Gil's concerns regarding Brazil are well-known: he has become a spokesman for many social issues regarding Brazil's emergence from third-world status into a position of credible player among the world's nations.

Born in Salvador, in the state of Bahia in 1942, Gilberto Gil spent his childhood in the countryside, listening to a wide scope of musical genres from Bach and Beethoven to Bob Nelson, and was very influenced by Luiz Gonzaga, "the King" of northeast Baiao rhythym music. When he was 9 years old he asked his mother for an accordion, as he was also a great fan of Sivuca, and still talks of some day going back to his accordion.

Always the student, Gil has recently become fascinated by the computer, and with the help of his wife Flora, even has a Web page. His latest project is a book to be published in August of this year, Gilberto Gil -- All the Words, an anthology of his 32 years in the music profession, along with his own commentary. Most recently Gil appeared on May cover of Vogue Brasil, along with a 30-page article and great photos.

As part of Gil's world tour this summer, he will be appearing at the Maritime Hall in San Francisco on June 22 and at the House of Blues in Los Angeles on June 23.

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Author: Adams, Scott Article Title: Brazilian Notas Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.8; N.126 Publication Date: 06-30-96 Page: p. 45

Brazilian Notas.

Brazilian charm with an American style. That's the goal of many musicians, although few are able to create that fluid balance. Welcome to Minas, a Philadelphia based group which has dedicated itself to translating all the grace and beauty of Brazil for US audiences for years. Their new CD Blue Azul is available by mail order and delivers an impressive collection of original vocal and instrumental songs, with some of the highest quality production we've seen. With Blue Azul, the husband and wife team of Orlando Haddad and Patricia King have succeeded where many before them have not: they've combined the roots of Haddad's Brazilian ancestry with the unique impressions of Brazil as seen through King's American eyes to create an album that is right on the target, translating the music of Brazil for American ears.

All of this began quite naturally, in a Brazilian sort of way. Both Haddad and King were busy with their lives as students at North Carolina School of the Arts, going in opposite directions. He with rock music and she with musical comedy and drama. Then they met, and everything turned upside down. "One day I saw Orlando with a guitar on the beach and asked him to play something Brazilian." Orlando picks up the story. "What really hit me hard was that I was so much into American music that I hardly knew any Brazilian tunes. And what is most ironic is that I had to leave Brazil and meet Patricia to discover the beauty of my own native music."

Each of Blue Azul's 13 tracks are clear winners, and you're sure to find your own favorites. There's the opening track "YB More." Its Zen-like lyrics and Brazilian cadence are the perfect setting for Haddad and King's duet vocals. "Strong Black Coffee" is a concert favorite that takes the concept of Brazilian rap and turns it into poetic treasure. The song carries that familiar "I just have to laugh" charm that's so much a part of the Brazilian mystique. Or the beautiful Bossa ballad "Only the Moon and the Stars" which finds King's softly sweet voice recalling memories of Lani Hall's years with S‚rgio Mendes and Brazil 66. Simply magical.

Blue Azul' combines songs in both English and Portuguese and that's a big part of its success. Take the clever "Homenagem ... Mineira," a lively, horn-driven afox‚ rhythm that somehow includes more that 70 cities of the Brazilian state Minas Gerais in it's tribute to the women who live there. Or "They Had to Wait," which, in recognition of the times, might well be retailed "The Abstinence Samba." You just have to smile. Blue Azul's instrumental tracks are just as satisfying. "Caravan Groove" is a samba/reggae tune in four parts, specifically written to carry you away on a seven-minute journey, and "Choro Siciliano," with special guest, harmonica player Hendrick Meurkens, is jazzy and uplifting.

With two previous albums to their credit and literally hundreds of concert appearances throughout the eastern seaboard, Minas is poised for great success, all built around the genuine Brazilian warmth of their musical personalities. Highly recommended, Blue Azul is available only through mail

order by calling toll free 1-888 TO MINAS (866-4627).

When trumpeter Terence Blanchard recently caught the ear of Time magazine, critics wrote: "Few can match his precision and flair in evoking emotion." But even Time's observation could not have predicted the success these elements would achieve when Blanchard invited Brazilian singer/composer Ivan Lins into the studio for his new Columbia jazz release The Heart Speaks.

Blanchard's musical career began as a prodigy of Art Blakey's group the Jazz Messengers, which helped him to formulate his personable style. His effusive phrasing and tonal warmth match brilliantly with Ivan's vocal strengths, making The Heart Speaks the musical surprise of the year. Surprise number 1: The Heart Speaks is an Ivan Lins songbook collection. Each song was carefully selected, and then translated into a masterful framework that brings both the trumpet player and the singer to uncharted musical territory. Surprise number 2: How did a straight ahead jazz trumpet player from New Orleans hook up with a Brazilian pop star half a world away? Terence, who admires innovative talent, supplies the answer:

"Before recording, Ivan and I got a chance to know each other. We talked about our reasons for playing music and our plans for the future, leaving me with the impression that he has an undying love for music" said Blanchard. "I didn't want to make The Heart Speaks a `strictly Brazilian' album. I wanted to take the aspects of Brazilian music that I love and personalize it." Blanchard invited special guests Oscar Castro-Neves and Paulinho da Costa to join his regular band.

The Heart Speaks opens with Blanchard's softly muted solo on "Aparecida," which sets the tone for the remaining 12 tracks. His eloquent introduction creates the perfect setting for Lins' reflective vocals. Other favorites such as "Antes Que Seja Tarde" (Before It's Too Late), "Meu Pa¡s" (My Country) and "Congada Blues" serve to illustrate the range and depth of this creative duo. The latter was actually written by Lins for Miles Davis just before his death, and Blanchard takes the opportunity to honor the trumpet master by including it on the album.

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Author: Mello, Rodney Article Title: recado Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.8; N.125 Publication Date: 05-31-96 Page: p. 5

recado.

It's more than a little ironical that files just gleaned from São Paulo's Department for Political and Social Order (DOPS) reveal as agitators president Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Minister of Planning Jose Serra and Minister of Communications Sergio Motta. The documents belong to another era, it seems.

The two decades of the military dictatorship only ended 11 years ago. Disappearances, sudden arrests, terrorism from the left and the right, fear of even possessing a book that might be considered subversive, newspapers carrying recipes or epic poems in place of censored articles, all of these facts are still very fresh memories for many who lived through the lead years of the '60s and '70s.

If political persecution and the torture that was an integral part of its had become the subject of history books, the violence used in police quarters is more alive than ever in Brazil.

Rio's Police chief Helio Luz in a recent interview of weekly news-magazine Veja presented a grim picture of the situation: "Since the time of slavery, Brazilian elites sanctioned such methods in a way that our police was never prepared to do investigative work: they always use the brute force shortcut."

We are dedicating roughly 1/3 of our editorial pages to the subject torture and the military dictatorship in hopes of maintaining alive the debate from those who still didn't get a satisfactory answer for their suffering, those who have no voice to protest, and those who believe human rights are for all and not a prerogative of a privileged caste.

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Author: Gallant, Katheryn Article Title: NEVERMORE? Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.8; N.125 Publication Date: 05-31-96 Page: p. 8

NEVERMORE?.

Naysaindy de Araujo Barrett does not exist. Her striking name - which means "clear light" in the Guarani Indian language - cannot be found in any Brazilian government archive. She is a ghost-citizen, without an identity, forbidden to legally work or study in Brazil. Why? Her parents were guerrillas who were killed by the military regime that ruled Brazil from 1964 to 1985.

Araujo Barrett's father, Jose Maria Ferreira de Araujo, came from the Northeastern state of Paraiba. Being in the Navy didn't stop him from joining the Popular Revolutionary Vanguard (VPR), a guerrilla group led by ex-Army Captain Carlos Lamarca. There Ferriera de Araujo met another young militant, a Paraguayan woman named Soledad Barrett Viedma. The couple fled to Cuba in 1966, after the Navy expelled Ferreira de Araujo for his "subversive" connections.

In 1970, a year after the birth of Naysaindy, Ferreira de Araujo secretly returned to Brazil to help continue the armed struggle against the dictatorship. However, he was arrested later that year and died under torture in the São Paulo headquarters of the Information Operations Department - Center for Internal Defense Operations (DOI-CODI). In 1995, a government report would reveal that FErreira de Araujo had been buried under a false name.

Barrett Viedma decided to leave Cuba in 1973 to rejoin the VPR. Knowing that her daughter's future might in in danger if the Brazilian government knew the identity of Naysaindy's parents, Barrett Viedma had a false birth certificate made that identified the child as Naysaindy Sosa del Sol.

The fate of Barrett Viedma paralleled that of her late husband. When she returned to Brazil, Barrett Viedma had an affair with a commander of the VPR, Cabo Anselmo. In 1964, Anselmo had led a sailors' revolt that helped frighten the higher military into deposing the constitutional government. Nevertheless, by the early '70s, Anselmo was secretly collaborating with Brazil's military regime. Anselmo's reports about VPR activities helped the government to imprison and kill five VPR militants in 1973. Among them was Soledad Barrett Viedma.

In 1980, Naysaindy went to live in São Paulo with her Brazilian foster mother, Damaris Oliveira Lucena. The year before, the Brazilian government had given an amnesty to everyone who had been imprisoned or exiled for political offenses. Before going into exile in Cuba and befriending Barrett Viedma, Lucena had been tortured in Brazil. Lucena's husband had been executed.

Adjusting to life in Brazil was hard on Naysaindy. "I was completely lost," she told Brazilian weekly newsmagazine IstoE in 1995. "Brazil seemed so scary..." Her foster mother was also fearful. "Mother [i.e., Lucena] avoided all contact with the police and that's why my situation wasn't legalized,"

Araujo Barrett said years later. To keep away authorities who might wonder why Naysaindy had a different last name than the woman whom she called mother, Lucena gave her surname to the girl.

After Naysaindy came to Brazil, her father's brother, Paulo Araujo, a biology professor at the University of Campaigns in São Paulo state, became aware that he had an orphaned niece. He tried to help the girl. However, their approach was "slow and careful," as Paulo Araujo would tell IstoE.

When Naysaindy went to school, she was afraid that she would be expelled because she was not using her real name and had no document in her mind, Naysaindy found it hard to concentrate on her studies. Naysaindy dropped out of school in the eighth grade. She was 14 years old.

It was difficult for Araujo Barrett to find jobs where her employers would not demand that she reveal her identity. Her friends, knowing her problem, helped her find various temporary positions. She worked in an umbrella factory and in a candy store, and acted in minor roles in plays. Her delicate features, shapely figure and long brunette hair even got her a job as a fashion model. Araujo Barrett, however, found it impossible to continue modeling without telling who she really was.

Things seemed to take a turn for the better when Araujo Barrett received her real birth certificate from an aunt. Unfortunately, it was a false hope. Not only had the document been registered with the Swiss Embassy in Havana (in 1969, when Naysaindy was born, Brazil had no diplomatic relations with Cuba), but Lucena had not filed with any government authorities when she and her foster daughter came to Brazil. Therefore, Araujo Barrett, although a Brazilian citizen through her father, was an illegal alien in her own country.

Araujo Barrett now lives with her boyfriend and two daughters in Florianapolis, capital of the southern state of Santa Catarina. There she ekes out a living by selling handmade souvenirs to tourists. Her uncle, Paulo Araujo, has petitioned Justice Minister Nelson Jobim that Naysaindy be officially recognized as the daughter of Jose Maria Ferreira de Araujo and Soledad Barrett Viedma. "That would put an end to many years of lies," Naysaindy says.

How could the story of Naysaindy de Araujo Barrett have been allowed to occur as it did? For an answer to that question, it is essential to tell a bit about Brazil's history during the 1960s and '70s. Janio Quadros, an independent-minded former governor of São Paulo state, was elected by a landslide to the Brazilian presidency in 1960. Nobody expected that he would resign after just seven months in office - perhaps least of all his vice-president, Joao Goulart. When Quadros resigned in August 1961, Goulart was on his way home from a state visit to China. Much of Brazil's military and civilian establishment viewed Goulart as a leftist demagogue, and tried to insure that Goulart would not return for his inauguration. For two weeks, Brazil was on the edge of civil war, but Goulart came home and took office. The Goulart years

However, Brazilian society polarized during the next two and a half years. "Peasant Leagues" in Northeastern Brazil demanded that tenant farmers be given the land they worked on. These leagues were anathema to many large landowners, who believed that well-behaved, apolitical peasants were being incited by outsiders with Marxist tendencies. By 1964, a total of 2,181 leagues had been formed in 20 of Brazil's states.

In the cities, unionized workers were also no longer as docile as they had been. Strike became more prevalent, which displeased business executives and shareholders. Prices went up. Inflation, which had been 6% a year in the late '40s and 30% in 1960, rose to 74% in 1963 and 91% in 1964. Nevertheless, workers usually received salary adjustments that kept pace with the rising cost of living.

All of this might have been tolerated by the upper middle class, military officers and the US government if Brazil's executive brand had been both more efficient and more willing to accept the status quo. However, Goulart began to demand for "basic reforms" such as agrarian reform, rewriting the labor codes, granting the vote to illiterates and controlling the expropriation of profits made by foreign companies in Brazil. Many people, both Brazilians and foreigners, feared that these proposals were the prelude to a leftwing dictatorship which would be friendly with the Soviet Union, if not Communist itself.

Enlisted men and noncommissioned officers in Brazil's armed forces began to revolt against their superior officers. In September 1963, six hundred enlisted soldiers rebelled in Brasilia. The President refused to condemn them. In March 1964, 2000 sailors made a mutiny. Goulart granted them an amnesty and accused their superior officers of lack of discipline.

Many high-ranking officers, who had their patience worn thin by what they saw as Goulart's maladroit rabble-rousing, thought that was the last straw. On March 31, 1964, army troops marched from Minas Gerais toward Rio de Janeiro. The forces that were supposed to stop them joined them instead. Almost no one resisted against the revolt, and very little blood was shed. Democracy would not return to Brazil for another 21 years.

The role of the United States government in the events of March 1964 is controversial and still disputed by historians. It has been asserted that Vernon Walters, military attache to the US embassy in Brazil (who would become the US ambassador to the United Nations under the administration of Ronald Reagan) offered arms to generals who were contemplating a coup d'etat. Walters himself denies this.

Certainly, the US government felt relief at the premature transfer of power in Brazil. President Lyndon B. Johnson sent a telegram congratulating the new government even before Goulart went into exile. (Goulart would never return to Brazil alive: he died in Argentina in 1976, at the age of 58.) US Ambassador Lincoln Gordon stated that the "Brazilian Revolution" was "one of the major turning points in history, in the middle of the twentieth century." Brazilians who distrusted North American influence in their nation's affairs joked: "No more middlemen! Lincoln Gordon for President!"

Of course, Lincoln Gordon did not become president of Brazil. He did not even have much clout with the man who actually became President in April 1964, Marshal Humberto Castello Branco. According to an article that Gordon wrote for São Paulo newspaper O Estado de São Paulo in 1994, the ambassador protested to Castello Branco about how politicians were being stripped of their mandates and civil rights "without trials and without proofs." Gordon was so horrified that he seriously thought of resigning. "I only desisted after making an internal assessment in which I decided that it would be better for US-Brazilian relations that I stay," he declared. A cardinal's involvement.

Gordon's successor as ambassador, Charles Burke Elbrick, would be kidnapped by guerrillas from the October 8 Revolutionary Movement (MR-8) in September 1969. After the military government agreed to release 15 political prisoners and fly them to sanctuary in Mexico, the kidnappers released Elbrick physically unharmed (although emotionally scarred by his ordeal).

Torture has a long history in Brazil. During the colonial period, representatives of the Portuguese government tortured pro-independence leaders. After Brazil gained independence in 1822, rebels against the empire that had been established were also subjected to torture. And of course, until the abolition of slavery in 1888, millions of slaves lived constantly under the threat of severe punishment - and even death - if they attempted to revolt against their owners.

After the coup of 1964, however, government representatives used torture more systematically on members of the political opposition. Various groups emerged to combat the regime, but seldom became strong enough - or united enough - to be effective. Nevertheless, their relatively mild terrorism was enough to scare the military hardliners into proclaiming the fifth of a series of Institutional Acts. AI-5, as it was called, gave the President dictatorial powers to defend "the necessary interests of the nation." The decree shut down Congress and the state legislatures, suspended the Constitution, abolished habeas corpus, authorized censorship of the Brazilian media (including non-Brazilian journalists working in Brazil for foreign newspapers, magazines and television networks), and allowed the President to take away the civil rights of anyone with only the vaguest pretexts.

On the morning of January 20, 1971, Rubens Beirodt Paiva was preparing to go to the beach with his family. Just before the Paivas were ready to leave their home in the Rio de Janeiro neighborhood of Leblon, six armed men in civilian clothes invaded and searched the house. They refused to identify themselves. They forced Paiva, accompanied by two of the men, to drive his own car to DOI-CODI headquarters in Rio de Janeiro. Neither Paiva's wife Eunice nor their five teenage children ever saw Paiva again.

Paiva, a congressman who had been stripped of his office after the coup of 1964, had been accused of sending letters to Brazilians in Chile.

In the early '60s, Paulo Stuart Wright, a founder of the progressive student group AP (Popular Action), was a state legislator in Santa Catarina. Soon after the coup, Wright, the Brazilian-born son of Presbyterian missionaries from Arkansas, was stripped of his political office. He began to work in the underground resistance, organizing peasant cooperatives and rural networks.

In September 1973, Wright was abducted and taken to the DOI-CODI headquarters in São Paulo. He was never seen again. His older brother Jaime, a Presbyterian minister who had also chosen to make his life in Brazil, tried to discover what happened to Paulo. Jaime searched for Paulo in military prisons and went to anybody who might have some information about Paulo's whereabouts. Jaime was shocked that other Protestant clergy were not willing to help. On the other hand, Jaime Wright could count on the support of the Catholic Archbishop of São Paulo, Cardinal Paulo Evaristo Arns, who took an interest in human-rights issues. In the following years, the two clerics' friendship led to a close working relationship. "As far as I know," Jaime Wright would tell Lawrence Weschler of the New Yorker in 1986, "I am the only Protestant minister who works inside the Catholic Church at the invitation of a

cardinal."

The collaboration between the pastor and the cardinal deepened in 1980. In that year, a secret grant from the World Council of Churches allowed them to set up a project in which lawyers would check out files from the archives of the military justice system. There were more than 700 records of trials of political prisoners during the military regime - one million pages in all. It took three years to have the files photocopies, and another two years for journalists working in their spare time to summarize the files' contents. Since there was still a chance that the government would delay the transition to civilian rule, the 30-person team worked in the strictest secrecy.

The result of these labors, Brazil: Nunca Mais (Brazil: Never Again) suddenly appeared in Brazilian bookstores in July 1985, four months after General Joao Baptista Figueiredo stepped down from the presidency. With a preface by Cardinal Arns, the book quickly sold over 200,000 copies and is still in print. (The average press run for a nonfiction book in Brazil is between three to five thousand copies.) An English translation, Torture in Brazil, was published in 1986. Jaime Wright, who had served as research coordinator for the journalists who wrote the book, translated it as well.

Jaime discovered proof of his brother's death among the files, although no information about the whereabouts of Paulo Wright's body could be found. Not every member of the Wright family was convinced. Refusing to accept her uncle's disappearance, Paulo's niece Delora Wright wrote a book about him. At the end, she wrote: "I'd like to leave a post office box number for you to give some news about you. You know, we haven't calmed down, although we've tried." Deadly mistake

It was the evening of January 17, 1976 in Vila Guarani, a neighborhood in the city of São Paulo. A thin man got out of a Dodge Dart and knocked at the door of Teresa Fiel. When she answered, the man gave her a trash bag full of men's clothing and a warning: "I'm from the Hospital das Clinicas. I've come to tell you that your husband killed himself. Here are his clothes. I think it's a good idea that nobody go to the coroner's office. If somebody has to go, it should only be male relatives. No woman should go to the coroner's office - not even the widow. Otherwise, the body goes straight to the cemetery."

The husband's name was Manuel Fiel Filho, a 49-year-old metalworker. He had a wife, two daughters and a small two-story house. He was a suspected of belonging to the Communist Party and was tortured to death in the São Paulo headquarters of DOI-Codi. The official story was that Fiel Filho had hanged himself with his own socks. His imprisonment and death were the result of mistaken identity. DOI-Codi authorities had confused him with a Communist Party militant named Fiore who had once worked at the same factory as Fiel Filho.

"I didn't know that there was torture in Brazil," Teresa Fiel told Brasilia newspaper Correio Braziliense in 1995. "I knew that it was dangerous to say bad things about the government and that the Communists were dangerous people."

The day after Fiel Filho's death, President Ernesto Geisel fired the commander of the Second Army, whose headquarters also housed the São Paulo headquarters of DOI-CODI. It was the beginning of the end for DOI-CODI.

In 1980, Teresa Fiel won a lawsuit against the Brazilian government for its role in her husband's death. For 15 years, the government filed appeals to overturn this decision, but lost in June 1995. It must now pay Teresa Fiel $600 a month and a penalty of $265,000.

Despite the money that it has taken Fiel Filho's widow so long to get, no amount of cash can compensate for his death. Even now, Teresa Fiel has recurring dreams in which she hears the last thing her husband told her before he was taken away by DOI-CODI agents: "Don't cry, darling. I'll be back soon." The new victims

Eleven years after the end of military rule, illegal imprisonment, torture and disappearances continue to take place in Brazil. Most of today's victims are low-income blacks who live in favelas (shantytowns).

In October 1995, Federal Police officers in the Northeastern state of Ceara arrested Jose Ivanildo Sampaio Souza, a 33-year-old candy maker and known gang member. Not only was he armed, but he also was carrying 70 grams of marijuana and hashish, as well as two papelotes of cocaine. The officers took Sampaio Souza to police headquarters in Fortaleza, the state capital. The next day, he was dead.

His autopsy stated that Sampaio Souza had eight broken ribs and a broken sternum. "Death occurred by means of bruising instrument," the report continued, "that caused acute abdominal hemorrhaging with traumatic lesions in the left kidney and liver."

The police tortured Sampaio Souza to death because he refused to tell then the names of other gang members. "We'll go to the bottom of this and punish the culprits," Federal Police Chief Vicente Chelloti told Brazilian weekly newsmagazine Veja about the Sampaio Souza case. That may be an uphill battle.

In police stations throughout Brazil, torture is the method of first choice to clarify crimes. Instead of the time-consuming and expensive path of investigations and proofs, police officers opt for the quick and easy way out. Some politicians say that torture is justifiable since criminals do not have human rights. If cops go too far while interrogating a suspect, that's one less thug to deal with.

If the suspect does not die, police officers can get away with torture. There are three main reasons for this. First, Brazil's overburdened magistrates barely have time to judge homicides, much less arrange time to verify police abuses. For example, the Secretariat of Public Security in the state of Pernambuco made 400 inquiries in 1995 to investigate injuries made by police officers. Of these, one-fifth of the cases went to disciplinary hearings, and only 20 police officers were dismissed from their jobs. This 5% punishment rate means that Brazilian cops accused of torture have 19 chances out of 20 to get off scot-free.

Another factor for the apartment dominance of torture today is because the police torture more criminals than innocent people. And, among criminals, torture victims usually are petty thieves, not drug traffickers. Major players in the illegal narcotics trade could murder cops who would dare to torture another trafficker. The poorer the suspect, the easier it is to abuse him or her.

If a police officer is convicted of torturing a suspect under custody, the

maximum sentence is one year in jail. That is the same penalty given to people who get into barroom brawls. The punishment increases to five years only if the torture causes permanent injury to the victim or induces miscarriage in a pregnant woman. Psychological damage is not even considered as a factor. The Cardoso administration has attempted to make torture a felony punishable with prison terms of eight to 20 years. However, the proposal has been indefinitely shelved.

Finally, torture continues to be prevalent in Brazil because many Brazilians turn a blind eye to it. As Veja expressed it in a 1995 article about torture in democratic Brazil, "torture exists in police stations because society wants it that way."

According to the Defense Council for Human Rights (CDDPH), a division of Brazil's Justice Ministry, there have been over 200 disappearances since Brazil returned to democracy in 1985 - more than the 152 reported disappearances throughout the military regime. The largest number of disappearances has occurred in the state of Rio de Janeiro. When Rio de Janeiro newspaper O Dia made a survey of police archives in 1995, it discovered that 162 people had disappeared under conditions which suggested the involvement of the police.

Lacking police interest in the disappearances, relatives and friends of the disappeared, as well as lawyers and human-rights advocates, have investigated the cases on their own. They often receive death threats. Sometimes those threats come true.

In July 1990, 11 teenagers - eight boys and three girls - from the Rio de Janeiro favela of Acari went to spend a weekend on a farm in Bage, on the periphery of the Rio metropolitan area. The young people never returned. Their mothers got together to discover the circumstances of the disappearances and found evidence that the young people had been kidnapped and murdered by the police.

Inspired by the example of the "Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo" - Argentine women whose children had disappeared between 1976 and 1983, when a military regime ruled that country - the mothers of the disappeared of Acari began to march around the downtown Rio neighborhood of Cinelandia every Monday afternoon. In their hands, they held photos of their children. The women became known as the Maes de Acari (Mothers of Acari).

Although the mothers gained national attention, their attempts to speak with police and government officials were in vain. "Didn't your son have enemies in drug trafficking?" a police officer asked one of the mothers.

In March 1994, two of the mothers were invited to speak in France and Switzerland. When she invited them to lunch, French First Lady Danielle Mitterand was so shocked at what the mothers had to say about how Brazilian police officers could get away with murder that she donated $15,000 for the publication of a book about the mothers' efforts to find the truth. That book, Maes de Acari - uma historia de luta contra a impunidade (Mothers of Acari - A Story of Struggle Against Impunity) by journalist Carlos Nobre, was published in 1994, with a preface by Danielle Mitterand.

Before this success, the mothers had met with another tragedy. In 1993, one of the mothers, Edmeia da Silva Euzebio, was murdered in front of a prison.

A similar case, not connected to the disappearances of the Acari teenagers, happened in October 1995. While investigating the disappearance of a friend, Adilson Cobra Secco, in the Rio favela of Parada de Lucas, Regina Celia Vieira also vanished under suspicious circumstances.

Cases like these are responsible for an average of 140 letters a day sent to Brazilian authorities by people living abroad. All of them ask the government to clarify why the disappearances occurred and to bring those responsible to justice.

In Brasilia, Humberto Spinola, coordinator of the CDDPH, has proclaimed that it is "the government's determination to put an end to this situation." However, neither he nor any other government officials have concrete proposals to deal with the current wave of disappearances.

Lawyer Cristina Leonardo, of the Brazilian Center of the Defense of Children's and Adolescent's Rights, says that the fact that police officers are not arrested and punished for the crimes they are accused of proves that the poor are not given the rights that Brazil's constitution guarantees them.

"How many of these cases of police violence were punished?" she asked São Paulo newspaper Folha de São Paulo in 1995. "None."

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Author: Velloso, Wilson Article Title: The emperor's black bag Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.8; N.125 Publication Date: 05-31-96 Page: p. 18

The emperor's black bag.

In a sudden surge of Victorian prudery, the Camara dos Deputados - the Brazilian House of Representatives - came down hard, hot, and hurt on a presidential spokesman for using language "unfit a gentleman and a minister."

It seems that Communications Minister Sergio ("Serjao") Motta joined his countrymen in the enjoyment of a new found democratic freedom: the freedom of being emphatic although mildly vulgar and gross in public. Not that he coined any nasty term. What he uttered was actually an inelegant but perfectly acceptable expression. The august Congressmen's sense of outrage was greeted with cynical laughter by many for its blatant hypocrisy, linguistic and/or sociological musings by the major media, and by audible yawns of "So, what else is new?" by the general public.

The alleged Motta atrocity was referring to President Fernando Henrique Cardoso's quality of being a real mensch - a tough, hard as nails, 100 per cent reliable man of his words - when he said that "o Presidente tem o saco preto" (the President has a black bag). Translated into English of course this does not make much sense, except as an allusion to collecting unlawful bribes or contributions. But that is not the case at all. Motta used the colloquialism to explain why the President had acted against a man allegedly involved in the dealings surrounding a large bank's failure, even if the chum was his own son-in-law.

The reason for the hue and cry was instead the fact that the "bag" in issue is merely a Brazilian familiar way to say scrotum, the skin pouch containing and protecting the testicles. At this point, a sociologist would introduce learned commentary on the apparent concern Brazilians of all classes and colors have had with saco since about the turn of the century. But as my sociology degree is somewhat musty, I shall not attempt to explain the why and wherefores of such a fixation. However, I have some linguistic savvy, with emphasis on the etymology of colloquialisms and dare to spend my two bits on the case.

These are the facts: * All Brazilian boys have been born with purple, almost black, scrota since Brazil was found by the Portuguese almost 500 years ago, in 1500: that is, at least, what some newsmen explain after interviewing scores of ob-gyn doctors and midwives. They add that the dark coloration often changes to pink a few days after birth. and even many who later turn up gays are born with "black bags." * Therefore, mentioning sacos in conversation has been done for generations by male and female citizens. With very little scandal, if any. If the term may be used at home, in front of the whole family, why should there be such a flap when uttered in Congress? Do the illustrious deputados imply that they are placed above the populace, etiquettewise? * Another fact is that Brazilians have an idee fixe with both the front and rear ends of human beings. It is well-known that a well-turned up female bunda (buttocks) is deemed to be "a thing of beauty and of joy forever," much better than any Grecian urn of Keats. As a matter of

fact, a disreputable wag once suggested that the blue globe of the Brazilian flag, which passes for an astronomical map of the Rio sky of the day when the Republic was proclaimed, should be replaced by a lady's butt, chosen in a nationwide beauty contest. It must be said inter alia that bunda is an African word also used in the Caribbean creole. In Portugal, the vernacular and common term is cu just as it is in French. Ironically, this monosyllable is considered too coarse for proper language in Brazil... * Reporters with leanings to political history say that the Congressional blow-up ("hot air bags in arms because of commonplace bags") was merely a psychological throwback as it painfully brought to mind the impeached President Collor, who grossly boasted of the purple color of his private parts. Let Collor and his things rest in Miami, where the ex-Prez spends his days pumping iron, jogging, sailing and, like any overthrown Latin American pol, missing his helicopter and his escort of siren screaming, lights blazing motorcycles. * The rainbow syndrome apart, the male "saco" is by no means the only case of colloquialism. From the Oyapock in the North to the Chui in the South, in the Federative Republic of Brazil that took over from the United States of Brazil, everybody talks about encher to saco and puxar saco. The first, which translates as "bag filling," means to dish out harassment, being a pain in the neck, a bore. The second, "bag pulling," means pandering, brown nosing, to flatter for profit, etc. * Even circumspect high-born ladies of "good families" calmly say nao me encha o saco (don't fill my bag), meaning don't bother me, don't waste my time, don't be a pain. Estar de saco cheio (to have a full bag) means I am fe up, tired of your insinuations, your insistence, etc. Therefore, a person who doesn't heed the entreaties is a bag filler, an enchedor de saco. * Puxa saco, however, is something else again. It should not be included in the same league because it refers to a different saco, the collection bag in a church, researchers of the folklore affirm. Apparently, it comes from the ancient practice of having favorite altar boys take the collection, a plum assignment because the lads could always pick loose change for a flic or candy. The parish priest, being knowledgeable in the ways of the human race, looked the other way, dismissing it as a very venial sin. A mere pecadillo. As the boys vied with each other to be chosen to "pull the collection bag," they plied the padre with adulation, in the hope of being his puxa saco for the day. * A mineiro friend of mine, now living in Virginia, tells met that in Carangola, a city in his native Minas Gerais State in Brazil, there is a curious synonym for "puxa saco" - cheiraco. It brings to mind our Americanism "brown nose" which, according to the Random House dictionary, means "to curry favor, to behave obsequiously." Now you know.

Colloquialisms pop up just like that in most languages. Some enter the lexicon and become legit. Others hang on for a while then fade out. Others never make the grade. Often the changed meanings follow the folk mores, sociologists tell us. But the phenomenon can be reversed, with mores coming after the new use for a term is introduced. A Roman politician running for office would dress in white. Since candidus is the Latin word for "white," the man would become a candidatus (dressed in white). Present day candidates don't bother much with the color they dress in. They use the media to do the job for them.

In the fifties, French movie actress Brigitte Bardot starred in a film called "And God Created Woman." In it, la Bardot said merde at least once: the puritanical English subtitle translated it as "damn," which was OK for the times. It had the desired effect. Now they would use "shit" without batting an eyelash.

For propriety sake, quite a few expletives or blasphemous term used to be

replaced by code words. When the English and the Australians say bloody, they are not referring to the juice of life, but blaspheming, because it means "by our Lady." A similar trick is Americans saying "Golly" instead of "god," "fudge" and "frig" instead of the F-word, which has come out of the closet and gains in popularity all the time. Remember when typists would exclaim "sugar!" when they made a mistake? Brazilians use a similar ruse when they tell somebody vai te fotografar (go get your photograph taken) for the F-word. Or call a guy filho da mae (a mother's son), which of course is a redundancy. Its meaning is approximately that of "son of gun."

In real life, Brazilians morph so many innocent words into cusswords that the late controversial writer Carlos Lacerda used to comment that "Brazil is the only country in the world where even mae (mother) is an obscene word." If you doubt it, dare to shout e a tua mae! (it's your mother) when somebody insults you. Shout it and take cover. A more cautious person would be content with intoning e a tua (it's yours) without specifying what it means. Just like in the U.S. comics a guy asks another "have you lost it?"

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Author: Da Fonseca Barreto, Carlos Emmanuel Article Title: Smaller expectations Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.8; N.125 Publication Date: 05-31-96 Page: p. 20

Smaller expectations.

AT & T recently announced the laying off of 40,000 employees in a reorganization plan to decrease costs. The process of globalization that the world is experiencing has pushed companies to trim their work force to become more competitive. Nowadays, this reduction in employment has been associated with countries embracing free market policies and unemployment haunts every economy on the face of the earth, in both developed and developing countries. According to Henry Farber, an economist at Princeton University, employment stability fell from 10% to 20% for workers between the ages of 45 and 54.

Job insecurity is not just for factory floor workers anymore. Executives and all kinds of white collar workers are having to deal with the problem. The vulnerability of these high level workers has echoed to the government machine, and pressured politicians to look at the laws governing business and adjust to the new economic environment in their countries. But how much can an association between globalization and international competition, and low employment be held in balance?

The great majority of economists believe that free market policies shift the labor force from one sector to another and that high levels of unemployment reflect the government's inability to deal with economic changes. Argentina, starting in 1991, opened its economy to the world and last year reached a record unemployment rate of 14%. In 1995, 400 thousand Brazilians lost their jobs, the largest number in five years. However, statistical figures showed that during the same period, the average income rose 20.3%, which means that job loss doesn't mean unemployment but a lack of formal contracts.

Brazil, with similar policies of economic openness as those adopted by Argentina, has not suffered from profound structural unemployment. The cause of this low unemployment rate is the informal economy which generates millions more jobs than the formal sector. A recent study by IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geographic Statistics) has shown that 55% of the Brazilian work force does not have contracts. How can firms support a business laws that do not reach half of the country's work force?

In January, an accord achieved between the Metalworkers Union and eight groups of industries in the FIESP (São Paulo State Industrial Federation) marked the turning point in the dominance of the Brazilian market. The accord promulgates a balance between payroll deductions and workers rights: temporary contracts with lower social assessments. For example, a firm would hire 85 new employees under the new contract while through legal means they could only afford 74 employees. Under current law, the difference in 11 employees' salaries would be consumed in social contribution.

President Fernando Henrique Cardoso says that the accord was very positive because the idea came from workers. Nevertheless, the agreement ended up being suspended due to legislative constraints and because of claims that it would favor firms that withhold taxes. According to Congressman Roberto

Campos, the laws should adapt to the economy and not the other way around.

Brazil has one of the highest costs of production in the world which is constantly emphasized by the expression "Custo Brasil" (Brazil's Cost). Furthermore, the social responsibility burden represents the highest cost to this Custo Brasil and it creates impediments to economic development. To create more jobs, companies need greater amounts of capital to invest in new plants.

The open door policy may cause high levels of unemployment and in order to fight that corollary, the country must adopt strong political commitments to create new jobs. These commitments are incentives to sectors which absorb a greater contingent of the working force (i.e., construction and tourism) and a reform to the labor legislature.

In construction, high interest rates impede financing of residential units because the Real stabilization plan requires high interest rates to control consumer spending. Further, the public deficit undermines new infrastructure projects because to balance the budget the government must privatize state-owned enterprises and cut government spending. Therefore, the creation of new jobs through incentives for construction seems difficult to achieve. Along those lines, incentives for tourism depends on a very important factor: fighting crime. Brazil is one of the few countries in the world that has been losing international tourists due to mounting crime rates.

Labor Minister Paulo Paiva has committed his term in office to the creation of a new law that institutes temporary working contracts. The project being drafted is intended to combat the informal sector as well as unemployment. Mr. Paiva promises that companies will spend less on social assessments including dismissal charges. The temporary contract will allow for periods of up to two years and it will be available to 20% of the firms's total employees. Furthermore, no employee may work more than 120 extra hours per year.

The accidental insurance, the educational salary, and the contributions to SENAC (National Service for Commercial Apprenticeship), SENAI (National Service for Industrial Apprenticeship), and SEBRAE (Brazilian Service to Medium and Small Enterprises) will have a 10% deduction. The FGTS (Guaranteed Retirement Fund for Time of Service) falls from the present 8% to a 2% level. Moreover, in lay-offs, the employer will not have to give severance pay nor pay the usual 40% penalty to the FGTS.

The project is unprecedented in Brazilian history, especially in that it has been consented to by firms and unions. Congressional approval is required to institute the new legislation and lobbies have been pressuring politicians to pass the amendment which is scheduled to go into the plenary assembly in the coming months.

The long-needed labor reform will boost investments from firms that have not pursued it due to the constraint of the present social contributions. This in turn should lead to increasing job offers and a decline in the unemployment rate. It might prove that the so-called liberal economists are after all correct when they say that free market policies require government adjustments to the new economic environment.

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Author: Morton, Iara Article Title: No Way! Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.8; N.125 Publication Date: 05-31-96 Page: p. 22

No way!.

It is hard to believe that a namely "international correspondent" based in Los Angeles would be able to come up with such a misinformed piece of non-sense. To begin with, the same ethnocentrism (the belief that ones culture is the ideal, and is superior to others) that the author condemns Americans of, clearly permeates her writings about Brazil and its culture.

One aspect that has long amazed me is the way Brazilians who live in the United States feel bashed by not being recognized and celebrated as they think they should be. Brazilians have this misconception that our cities, celebrities, as well as particularities of our culture should be known by all Americans. And the question is... Why?

One should keep in mind that the knowledge and appreciation for soccer, lambada, Carnaval, along with other details about Brazilian culture are by no means necessary nor sufficient to judge an American's general knowledge or cultural level. We must remember that the Americans mainly Anglo Saxon and Puritan origins tend to polarize with our predominantly Portuguese and African heritage.

Besides, I wonder how many Brazilians know where Madras, Bangalore, Hyderabad or even chihuahua and Torreon are located? These are cities of countries that have a similar socioeconomic profile to Brazil, rather than being 10 times poorer, which equals the comparison of Brazil with the United States in terms of GNP per capita. Moreover, take 5 minutes and think about what you know of the Bosnia situation or think of three new countries which emerged out of the Russian Federation.

I am sure many Brazilians do not know much at all about these and other recent events simply because these issues do not directly affect their lives. In contrast, the United States directly affects the lives of people all over the world through its scientific discoveries, film and music industry, tourism, financial aid, political and military power, and especially with its open boarders to immigrants.

Now, think about the contributions of Brazil to the world, and especially to the United States. Of course we can enumerate some, but certainly not enough to justify the attention and prestige. We claim to deserve. In fact, the only two main issues of importance that I would think an American should know about are the rain forest, and perhaps our huge economic debt to their banks.

In regards to recognizing our celebrities, how many Brazilians know the names of the quarterback for the Dallas Cowboys, or the pitcher for the New York Yankees? I expect no Brazilians to know their names nor details of these games since football and baseball are not popular nor played in Brazil. In like manner, it makes sense to expect countries which contain and enjoy professional soccer leagues to know of Pele and Romario's exceptional talents.

Still, I can concede why Brazilians would want the world to know about our soccer stars, or even labor leader and presidential candidate Luis Inacio Lula da Silva who, despite his limited education, has gained enormous popularity through his strong will, radical ideas, and vision to better the plight of the average Brazilian.

In contrast, knowing the works of Xuxa and the interviewer Burna Lombardi can only depreciate our image even more. While in the United States many Hollywood actors and directors graduate from Ivy League schools such as Yale, Princeton, and others, our representative Bruna who often interviews several of these major cerlebrities simply epitomizes "the pretty face without a brain", which is the secret that explains the success of many women in Brazil, including Xuxa.

On sex, the statement that she also calls absurd that "in Brazil... everybody has sex whenever they feel like it without fear of Aids" just shows how little she knows about Brazilian sexual behavior. Presently, the city of Recife is one of the most popular prostitution capitals of the world, and Aids victims have been increasing in alarming numbers among the youth of some cities in the south of Brazil.

In addition, Brazil is close to being the leader in violation and abuse of children's rights. When the author makes these comments "In Brazil it's legal to kill little children"... "they kill little children on the streets just because they beg" absurdities, I wonder if she has been following the news about Brazil during these last nine years that she has been living in the United States.

Need I remind my compatriots of the hideous massacres and death-squads that roam the streets and favelas of the big cities annihilating the little ones? To call these actions "legal" may be incorrect, but to admit that they are tolerated and still encouraged is a matter of fact.

As far as racism is concerned, I do see segregation and racial conflicts in the United States. At the same time, I also see many African Americans, Asians, Hispanics and Middle Easterners as prominent Doctors, Lawyers, University Professors, TV reporters, Politicians, Scientists and the like. To narrow the issue to only blacks, one must remember that they comprise only 13% of the population of the United States, and are relatively well-represented in the professional and political arenas especially when compared to their Brazilian counter-parts.

Brazilian blacks and mulattos comprise over 50% of the population and yet, I still find it hard to think of one black person who is not a musician, actor, or soccer star who has achieved a position of status in Brazil. To say that we have found solutions for our problems is ignorance in its most pristine form. The reality is that the mingling most non-black Brazilians have with blacks is when they pay them the miserable wages for work that is slightly better than slave labor.

My view is that Brazilians who live in the United States ought to be more realistic, give up the competitive attitude, and work out the inferiority complex. So many Brazilians feel ashamed when we open our gigantic can of worms. Those who feel so denigrated by our dilemmas should come to realize that it is by hiding our weaknesses that we will never encounter solutions to bring about urgent changes in our beloved country.

By creating a fantasy world where they keep considering the millions of shanty town dwellers, abandoned children, and homeless as aliens, Brazilians take a defensive posture or author books in the style of "America de A a Z", just to make a few people feel good. It is time that some of us face our self-esteem deficiencies and be real. To paint America as a futile land and perpetuate the myth that Americans are a bunch of idiots is by far more ignorant than to recognize what Brazil really is and what we must do to change it.

Instead of attempting to expose the ills of America, one could concentrate on writing valuable insights to help heal the ills of Brazil. In fact, I do know many Americans who know Brazil quite well and often travel in groups, not of tourism and not the hot spots, but rather to the depressed areas of the big cities or to remote places of the country volunteering their time and efforts to help alleviate some of the pain of the people.

The Americans who do know about the Brazilian scenario do not sugarcoat reality as Brazilians often do, but rather, react with sympathy or avoidance. After all, what the author cites as another absurd comment "it's very, very dangerous to go there", is horrificly true. Rio and São Paulo are documented today as having some of the highest crime ratios per capita in the world.

No doubt Bahiana's writings reflect simply the environment she has been living in as well as her own personal experiences. More precisely, her writing simply express the frustrations of a Brazilian who feels out of place, belittled, without an identity, who ends up perpetuating the hasty generalization that all Americans are stupid, tacky, and arrogant. To call that an account of American culture is utterly preposterous.

It must be pointed out that had the author socialized with Americans of post graduate and Ph.D. levels, commonplace especially in California, her A to Z would have contained very different definitions. Besides, some absurdities said by the white trash of America or the ordinary American certainly does not top the absence of any knowledge of the povao of Brazil who, sadly, comprise around 80% of the population, one fourth of which are illiterate. Some Brazilians are proud and love to boast about themselves failing to realize that the 5% of Brazilians who are highly educated and well off are by no means a representative sample of the population of Brazil.

The reality is that Brazilians have much to learn from America and Americans, and perhaps through this learning process we can come to achieve the recognition and appreciation we long for. Before the author publishes "America de A a Z" part 2, let's hope that Ana Maria Bahiana does a more extensive and reliable job of research rather than focus on triviality and nonsense.

As far as myself, it may seem to some that I am spellbound by the American dream and naive to the problems that exist here. On the contrary, my academic endeavors, constant traveling worldwide, and critical sense, simply forces me to confront the truth even when it requires exposing the ills of the land I love the most... my own country Brazil.

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Author: Ravelo, Carlos Article Title: Gold Fever Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.8; N.125 Publication Date: 05-31-96 Page: p. 24

Gold fever.

Every day, hundreds of men - and some women - cover the dusty pot-holed streets of this little god-forsaken town some 400 miles south of Belem do Para. Self proclaimed would-be garimpeiros like 49 year old Jose Roberto Parello, who has a Law degree, have come to Serra Pelada to seek riches from the soil, just like thousands had come one decade before for the same reason.

"I have gold in my blood," says Parello. "I need it to survive." No wonder. Expert sources have predicted that just some 1,200 feet beneath the surface lies the second largest gold vein in the world, calculated at about 150 tons. This is more than triple the amount that had been excavated years before at the same site, some 40 tons or so.

The new gold rush has been triggered by a recent announcement by Companhia Vale do Rio Doce - a Rio based enterprise - that a "super-vein" had been discovered some 650 feet below the surface of the older Serra Pelada mine. What followed next was pandemonium and a virtual stampede.

The now impoverished town of Serra Pelada had seen this type of invasion before: in the 80's, an army of over 80,000 people took over 120 foot hill and replaced it with a 300 foot deep hole.

But that is only part of the story. Most of the hundreds of garimpeiros that have arrived so far are free-lancers, fortune seekers out on their own. Most believe that they have a right to stake their claims "a la 1849" California gold rush. They're wrong: Vale de Rio Doce's financial muscle is. And confrontation is already abounds. Just recently over 500 aspiring garimpeiro blocked Serra Pelada's dusty main road for over 24 hours, demanding that the company be kept out; military police officers were called in to quell the outbreak, and a "resistance movement" was immediately formed.

Although probing equipment has been placed, it will be the Brazilian courts which will have the final say in the matter, particularly on whether or not Rio Doce - a state-run enterprise - should be privatized.

Last February, Roberto Carosi, the legal representative for the Sindicato dos Garimpeiros (Mining Prospector's Union) and who himself had previously worked for the Rio Doce consortium, filled court documents challenging Rio Doce's claim to the prospecting enterprise. According to Carosi, these rights had been granted in 1988, under article 174 of the Constitution, to a group called Mista de Garimpeiros de Serra Pelada.

On the other hand, the Coordinating Superintendent for Vale do Rio Doce, Joao Lima Teixeira states that the legal title belongs to the firm: "It was granted by the Ministry of Mines and Energy in 1974," he says. The town is within the municipality of Curionopolis, the name having derived from a congressman named Sebastiao Rodrigues de Moura nicknamed "major Curio" and who governed the region with an iron hand. This latest episode brings the town of Serra Pelada

full circle from where it was just 10 years ago, when the exploitation of the gold mine peaked.

Meanwhile, the legal hassles continue. A judge within the local jurisdiction sided with the Rio Doce consortium, and the Attorney for the garimpeiros has appealed to the Appeals Court in Belem, advancing that it would go to the Supreme Court if need be. In fact, Rio Doce has chosen to take the back door as well, by purchasing all the surrounding land near the mine site - some 7,000 hectares - and closing the access,

"They are trying to kill us by asphyxiation," says Fernando Marcolino, president of the Sindicato dos Garimpeiros. The land purchase was carried out by Companhia de Promocao Agricola, which, according to Marcolino is nothing more than a front company controlled by Rio Doce.

The men who live and have passed through Serra Pelada are rough and tough; but does that make the women any more fragile? Women like Maria dos Santos and Ana Maria de Souza Castro are as tough as any man. Having migrated to Serra Pelada from Piaui during the heyday of the 80's in a truck, she found out that women were forbidden in the camp, and a although her husband had been working in the mines, the Brazilian military had kept a tight lid on access to the site, purportedly for security reasons. She was only able to stay three days then.

Says Ana Marian, "When I was able to get off the truck, I looked around for my husband and could not identify him from amongst all those men covered in mud." It was only in 1985 that Ana was able to move into town. "Entry of the women was permitted, but not for cachaca (sugar came liquor)," she adds.

Part of the opening was due to the steps taken by a woman named Jacinta, who worked clandestinely as a garimpeira. Wanting to "get legal" she approached the military authorities wishing to register. Upon being told that "as a woman" she couldn't, she requested to see the precise orders to that effect. No one had any idea where they were, or even if they truly existed. After that, it was a flood of females.

Even then, women were never annoyed by anyone. "The unwritten law was that everyone there - even women were just like any other guy until second notice", adds Ana Maria.

In spite of all the wealth that ran through the hands of thousands of mine workers and the government, the 40 tons of gold extracted from Serra Pelada did not leave any permanent local wealth. The huge hole, the equivalent size of two Maracana Stadiums (a soccer stadium in Rio with room for 200,000 people) put together, is now a small lagoon. No improvement to the infrastructure was ever carried out either. The town lacks water and light, and most homes are made of simple wood frames.

Serra Pelada, in spite of its brief fame, remains an example of a more primitive Brazil. "No one should try to stampede back over here," says Marcolino. "We lack the infrastructure to receive so many people. But garimpeiros from all over the country continue to arrive.

Says Luis Gonzaga, ex-garimpeiro who now owns a local hotel; "People will kill or die for that gold." Gonzaga is also under fear. Having arrived in 1984 and later remaining there, he lodged most of the government technicians assigned to the site. The garimpeiros have harassed him since.

But common sense is not very common here. Cases like that of Jose Marino dos Santos, who arrived dirt-poor and left a millionaire, have prompted many to have delusions of attaining unfounded wealth. Jose, also known as Indio, was able to exploit almost a ton of gold. He eventually lost it all in a maddening rampage of spending, having on one occasion rented a Boeing jet, just to visit a girlfriend in Rio.

There is another Serra Pelada too. Those are the locals who have more faith in God than in the mines. And that's the reason why the local Assembly of God and the Catholic Church are always full.

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Author: Gilman, Bruce Article Title: Country gold Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.8; N.125 Publication Date: 05-31-96 Page: p. 39

Country gold.

People interested in knowing which Brazilian composers receive the greatest royalties for their compositions customarily refer to Roberto Carlos, Tom (Antonio Carlos) Jobim, and Caetano Veloso as the "Tres Grandes" - Three Great Ones. At the Escritorio Central de Arrecadacao de Direitors (ECAD), the entity in charge of distributing payment to artists, these composer/musicians continually rotate the number one position, but they never move out of the top ten. Their compositions are the ones most often heard on Brazilian radio and TV, in bars, and in the live performances of myriad artists. Six years ago, a fourth name was added: Zeze Di Camargo.

Mirosmar Jose de Camargo is a young man from Goias. Brazilians who know Zeze Di Camargo know him from his work as a singer in the duo Zeze Di Camargo & Leandro and Leonardo, his friends since childhood, or that his name is the fourth great of ECAD. Moreover, who would guess that he surpasses his rivals Roberto, Jobim, and Caetano every time he releases a new disc?

This happened in 1993 with the third release by Zeze Di Camargo & Luciano. At that time the composer jumped from ECAD's sixth to the first position due to the success of the tune "Saudade Bandida" (Desperate Longing). Reaching the first position on ECAD's list once or twice in an artist's life is quite an accomplishment. However, even transitory artists like lambada star Beto Barbosa have been in first place a fair number of times. Remaining among the top ten for several years is arduous. For that, it is necessary to have scores of hits at numerous times performed by various artists.

The success of Zeze Di Camargo is impressive in view of its rapidity. Zeze is the youngest of ECAD's Great Ones but gained success quickly for two reasons. First, he started at a time when there was an enormous interest in sertaneja (country music), supplying music for successful singers like Leandro & Leonardo; and next, he invested in pagode, a type of samba made popular in Rio's Zona Norte. Zeze's pagode music has been recorded by Raca Negra, one of the top group of the genre.

Zeze has dividends coming from more than 130 compositions recorded not only by the duo with brother Luciano, but also from a slew of other artists. Among the hits written by Zeze and recorded by other sertaneeja duos are "Foge de Mim" (Escape From Me) by Chitaozinho & Xororo and "Gostoso Sentimento" (Good Feelings) by Leandro & Leonardo. Last year alone he profited over $350,000 net in royalties according to the calculations of Manoel Pinto, general director of Peermusic, the firm that collects the royalties for Zeze.

To achieve his extensive repertoire of both romantic and sentimental songs, Zeze has adopted an intimate ritual. He composes only during the early hours of morning, sitting always at the center of his spacious living room in his spacious living room in his secluded São Paulo condominium, accompanied by his tape recorder, a six-string guitar, and a note pad. His source of inspiration continues to be man's illusion of love, its unfolding treachery, frustration,

and madness. Zeze knows that the public will listen to words they can relate to, and he makes music for people to enjoy.

In addition to Zeze's income as a composer, his sertanejo duo with brother Luciano, Zeze Di Camargo & Luciano, sells more than one million copies every time they release a disc. According to Luiz Andre Calainho, director of marketing for Sony Music, the duo's label, the first four albums sold 5.2 million copies. The recent disc containing the hit "Pao de Mel" sold 1.2 million copies in one month. But the enormous sum of money accumulated by the duo is only partially explained by the astronomical quantity of recordings they sell. They reform almost two hundred shows a year.

In fact, the strongest source of the duo's income is not the collection of royalties from Zeze's compositions, not the sales from recordings (The duo's agreement with Sony gives them 12% of the retail price for each unit sold), but from their performances all over the country. They receive close to $40,000 per show (about $33,000 net). After 150 shows the brothers earn approximately $5 million.

At recent shows in Bauru (São Paulo) and Muriae (Minas Gerais), Zeze & Luciano performed outdoors in a rain that failed to deter an unbelievable crowd. In São Paulo 25,000 people attended, in Minas more than 10,000. All of their performances are attended by battalions of hysterical female fans; everyone sings, raises their arms, screams desperately for one wave or a look from one of the brothers. In little more than a one hour show, female fans have thrown wrist watches, stuffed animals, panties - among other alluring articles, photos, and letters that run the gamut from the naive to the erotic on stage.

One card written by a beautiful girl and left with the receptionist at their hotel in Bauru read, "Luciano, I want your wild love. I am sure that only you can give me pleasure." They receive many such letters; however, both brothers are happily married. And although they are very cordial with the fans, they do not become involved with them. Luciano, in fact, has been married only a short time, and contrary to his brother, is adverse to the social obligations of recording stars. He goes to few parties and is content living in Mooca, a neighborhood of São Paulo, with his Wife Mariana (sister of Leandro & Leonardo).

At a festa junina in the city of Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Zeze & Luciano were scheduled to perform in a soccer field. Rain had converted the field into a muddy bog. Not only did the sky conspire against the sertanejo duo, but there was only one electrical generator available. The generator was unable to power and sustain the 160 thousand watt stage lighting, the spot lights, and the sound system that was brought by the band. At best it was able to provide only very dim lighting. Despite the problems, minutes after midnight the two stepped their show, and were drowned in an applause uncommon for people drenched by the rain. Transforming a situation that in the hands of lesser artists would have been a tragedy, the duo sang their hits for two hours and were applauded unsparingly.

Episodes like Diamantina bring to mind the frustration and disappointment that rocker Rita Lee caused her fans when she refused to perform during a big storm last year and also reveal the duo's determination to follow through - unequivocally - with their objective of becoming the best. With almost 200 performances anticipated this year and 15,000 miles traveled a month, the brothers are committed to promoting their latest self-titled disc which arrived in the stores with pre-sales of one million copies, Roberto Augusto,

president of Sony, the duo's recording company said, "We have bet that Zeze's power to create success will break Xuxa's 3.2 million mark."

Zeze has been very excited about the sold-out shows and actually prefers live shows to being confined in the studio. Plus the brothers realize that continuing in this manner allows them to compete in the market place side by side with the two best selling sertaneja groups - Chitao-zinho & Xororo and Leandro & Leonardo.

The trajectory for Zeze Di Camargo & Luciano was launched five years ago when they came to the fore performing a type of sertaneja "upgraded" by keyboards and technology, very different from the music of Tonico & Tonico or Pena Branca & Xavantinho (see News From Brazil - December '95). Zeze realized that the "upgrade" was going to be a target for criticism, but is cognizant that he is in reality performing MPB (Brazilian Popular Music).

The objective of abandoning a style saturated with characteristics typical of sertaneja and adopting more of a pop-romantic style was to reach a younger and more urban audience. They wanted those who listen to Skank (the reggae band from Minas Gerais) to also be listening to Zeze Di Camargo & Luciano. In the battle to conquer and hold new audiences the brothers concur that they have to maintain their disciplined and sacrificing routine, one that is only surpassed by Elba Ramalho and her always sold out agenda of shows.

Behind the scenes of their perpetual tours are more than 30 people: eight band members, three back-up vocalists, a conductor, the technical crew, a secretary, an agent, the contractor, and a security staff. For tours within 500 miles, the troupe travels in a Marcopolo Geracao 5 bus complete with sleeping facilities. The bus is the most comfortable in the country and they type coveted by stars like Xuxa, and Chitaozinho & Xororo among others. In 1995 the band bus traveled a distance equal to driving four and a half times around the world. For greater distances, travel is by commercial plane.

With all their money, the two don't have an easy life. The road has taken its toll. Besides the obligatory tight pants country performers are expected to wear, their extremely Spartan agenda has cost Zeze an inflamed vocal chord. And stress from being on the road constantly affects his ability to reach the higher notes. The uninterrupted schedule causes Luciano to gain weight and suffer from insomnia.

The sacrifices, however, are not only theirs. People who are directly associated with the shows have said that they find it hard to appreciate the bosses singing when they hear the same songs night after night. Their security guards amuse themselves by trading the duo's tapes for tapes of rock and soul musicians. Zeze and Luciano are reluctant to admit it, but even they have found it challenging to continue rehearsing and performing the same repertoire enthusiastically.

On the road, Zeze watches the news compulsively and reads more than one newspaper and magazine on a plane. He continually comments on the economy, on politics, and on social problems and cannot imagine himself singing heart throbbing country music ten years form now. His political and societal concerns are intensifying, and Zeze has started bringing these concerns into his lyrics. Zeze regards this almost as a duty, a debt to Brazil. Misery and poverty, for example, are the themes of "Bandido com Razao" (Justified Bandit), a dramatic moment in their shows when images of abandoned children and children sniffing glue in the streets of São Paulo are shown on a big

screen. Any time Zeze sees a child in the streets, he gives them whatever money he has in his pockets.

One of Zeze's last political missions was performing at election rallies for the governor of Minas Gerais, 36 presentations in two months side by side with the candidate Eduardo Azeredo. Zeze Di Camargo & Luciano were also used as a weapon by the ex-mayor of Belo Horizonte in an effort to become well known in the interior. The candidate started with a 36% point disadvantage in the surveys but finished the race by winning with more than a 10% advantage. The overturn was attributed in great part in the shows performed at the political rallies by the duo.

Zeze & Luciano attracted almost 70 thousand people to the event. Helio Costa, the Candidate who felt the election slipping away from him, reacted by hiring both Chitaozinho & Xororo and Leandro and Leonardo. The election turned out to be more of a victory for country singers in tight pants than for the politicians. What politicians want from the two is easy to understand; nevertheless, Zeze is happy that he is in a position to aid only the politicians that he supports.

When Zeze is able to relax, he travels to his huge ranch, E o Amor, in the Aruana region of Goias where he raises cattle and thoroughbred horses. The ranch was named after the tune "E o Amor" (It's Love) that propelled their first album and which is still the composition written by Zeze that is most often recorded by other artists including Ray Conniff and the Mexican group La Mafia. It is at E o Amor that Zeze jet skis on the artificial lake he had constructed and playes soccer in the well-equipped mini-soccer stadium named Franciscao after Zeze's father who hates the sport.

Without the responsibilities of a poet, Luciano dedicates his leisure time to activities less introspective or philanthropic. He collects and races remote control cars and drives his own recklessly, creating a constant source of dispute between the brothers. He has always been a rebel. At 23 years old, ten years younger than his brother, Luciano lives in the shadow of Zeze. When Luciano joined Zeze. When Luciano joined Zeze in 1991, he became one of the rare Brazillian artists who surpassed the one million mark for sales with his first recording. Consequently, he has lived a very easy life since the end of his adolescence, but realizes that Zeze had to struggle for over twenty years and has opened the doors for him.

Juggling writing, touring, and recording has made Zeze Di Camargo the newest millionaire in Brazilian music. His residuals after deductions and only as a composer exceed $250,000 annually according to Peermusic of Brazil's Manoel Pinto. That figure corresponds to approximately 1% of all money that is collected for music royalties in Brazil. ECAD does not supply the royalty figures that it collects, but admits that Roberto Carlos, Zeze Di Camargo, and Tom Jobim are more or less on the same level with Caetano Veloso a little lower on the list.

Jobim once stated that he wasn't sure whether or not he was receiving $250,000 a year in residuals. He thought that some composers could be earning that much, but that if they were Chico Buarque and Caetano Veloso would not have to continue performing live shows. Apparently, the composer from the backlands of Goias does not share this opinion.

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Author: Gilman, Bruce Article Title: Gauging the hits Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.8; N.125 Publication Date: 05-31-96 Page: p. 42

Gauging the hits.

The system used by ECAD to calculate and confirm what music is played in Brazil is called "public diffusion." It attempts to gauge not only what is listened to on the radio and TV, but also in bars, small clubs, hotels, night clubs, and restaurants. In order to make these tabulations there are several offices with autonomous agents spread throughout Brazil's capitals. The agents spread throughout Brazil's capitals. The agents get a commission for the information they collect. According to the ECAD office in Rio de Janeiro, there are more than 1100 agents working for the system of royalties between the northermost and southernmost points of Brazil. This is not a lot of agents when you consider the number of establishments that have to be checked.

In São Paulo alone, there are 45 top-of-the-line bars and restaurants that are known for presenting live music. The numbers collected by ECAD must be absurdly below the reality. To account for establishments that provide ambient background music for people who are waiting or sitting in a bar would be impossible. Thus, the information that "La Barca" was played 159 times a month cannot be taken as a rigid verification, not even as a close approximation. The figure shows only what ECAD agents accounted for.

ECAD's service could be improved a lot, and musicians do complain periodically about their residuals. However, it is an illusion to imagine that one day it will be possible to document all music being played everywhere in Brazil at all times. A feat like that would necessitate an ECAD representative being permanently on duty from Sunday to Sunday in every bar and club in the country. Nevertheless, the service that ECAD provides is crucial data for the musicians who depend on these services to earn their money.

One play on FM radio pays the composer about 15 cents. For TV there is no fixed price for music, but there are direct agreements between the broadcasting stations and ECAD. Globo, which has a near monopoly of audience, and SBT, the TV station owned by Silvio Santos, are together paying $550,000 monthly to ECAD. With records and CDs and criteria varies. A singer may receive 5% to 15% over the album price. The composer has the right to 8.4% over the album price divided by the other composers who contributed compositions to the recording. To earn more, a majority of composers have preferred to sing their own compositions; Jobim was a case in point. For night clubs, the price paid to ECAD varies according to how many people attend the particular club on a nightly basis. Large clubs pay large sums; a small bar many times is not even called upon to enter their share.

Even though there are so few ECAD agents, wherever they go they inevitably hear the music of Roberto Carlos, Jobim, Caetano Veloso, or Zeze Di Camargo being played. In December 1992, for instance, it was discovered that the music played live most often in bars and restaurants was "La Barca", a classic bolero that came back to the charts with 159 plays a month due to the recording made by Mexican artist Luis Miguel. Next came "Coracao Esta em Pedaxos" (Heart in Pieces) by Zeze Di Camargo. The eighth through tenth

positions were taken by scientist-sambista Paulo Vanzolini's "Ronda", "As Rosas Nao Falam" (Roses Don't Talk) by the great Cartola, and Jobim's "Garota de Ipanema" (The Girl from Ipanema) all standards of Brazilian popular music.

Tom Jobim started his career in the 1950s and still maintains a posthumous position in the race because of his monumental production of great music which includes songs that will never be replaced in any musician's repertoire. It is primarily from this accomplishment that Jobim extracted the largest portion of his royalties.

Roberto Carlos, called the king by his fan, started his career at the beginning of the 1960s. He releases a record every year and always sells over one million copies. His songs are played on the radio more frequently than any other Brazilian artist. Besides, other singers have the habit of recording his hits (see News from Brazil cover story on January '96).

Caetano got started at the end of 1960s. Besides composing his own music, Caetano is the artist whose name stands out most in the discography of singers like Maria Bethania and Gal Costa. The Baiano singer-composer may not be able to beat Jobim or Roberto, but his name occupies a considerable space on the list of composers whose songs are played most often on both the radio and in night clubs. "Sampa" (affectionate name for São Paulo), for example, continues to be an absolute hit in the bars of São Paulo.

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Author: Wyszpolski, Bondo Article Title: The dumbing down of Paulo Coelho Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.8; N.125 Publication Date: 05-31-96 Page: p. 44

The dumbing down of Paulo Coelho.

With his earlier books, The Alchemist and The Pilgrimage (formerly Diary of a Magus), Brazilian Paulo Coelho has perhaps become the best known author of his country - which in purely literary terms is unfortunate when one considers such writers as Osman Lins, Moacyr Scliar, Rubem Fonseca, and Jorge Amado. .TX.-Unlike his compatriots, Coelho's fiction straddles those somewhat dubious categories of self-help, new age, and pop psychology. But while the earlier books were successful, or at least satisfactory, The Valkyries lacks the fabulist magic and storytelling charisma of The Alchemist, and by its simplicity even makes us feel that we're being talked down to.

We begin in Rio de Janeiro, where Coelho lives when he isn't globe-trotting to promote his many best-selling novels. In this one, farmed as an autobiographical quest, Coelho is instructed by his Master to find and speak with his guardian angel. In the next breath Paulo and his wife Christina are scurrying around the Mojave Desert.

Husband and wife bounce ideas off of one another, and this is an area where the book carries some substance. Chris, too, needs to broaden her horizons, so if there's subtext here, it's focused on her balancing both her spiritual needs and growth and also the difficult-to-foresee peregrinations of her spouse. When they begin to bicker we're not too surprised, and the confessional tone of The Valkyries earns the author some credit for his frankness. It might have been a more interesting picture if Christina had secretly taken notes and written her own version of their forty days in the desert.

Forty days in the desert? The other side of the coin is that The Valkyries seems too contrived, too derivative. From Borrego Springs to Indio we meet some unusual minor characters (Gene arrives in the nick of time as Paulo and Chris, who've shed their clothes in the hot desert sun, are succumbing to sunstroke and dehydration), but of course the eight Valkyries of the title are the most prominent. Led by the red-haired Valhalla, these leather-clad young women cruise around the desert on motorcycles spewing forth a kind of spiritual talk that no one understands. For Paulo, Valhalla is something of a soulmate, and she helps him dredge up an incident from his past so he can break his `pact with defeat.'

Why should people seek out their personal angels? "Because only the angels know the best path," Paulo tells Chris. "It does no good to seek advice about it from others."

Nothing wrong in that, perhaps, but ultimately the message is too simplistic and the picture too rosy: "The world was in the hands of those who had the courage to dream - and to realize their dreams" is tolerable; what isn't is that `The day will come when the problem of hunger can be solved through the miracle of the multiplication of bread." Ugh, yeah. Paulo, read Hans Magnus Enzensberger's Civil Wars: From L.A. to Bosnia.

One admires Paulo Coelho's wrestling with doubt and wrestling with faith, but The Valkyries is simply treading stale water.

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Author: Adams, Scott Article Title: Brazilian Notas Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.8; N.125 Publication Date: 05-31-96 Page: p. 45

Brazilian Notas.

It's small world, no doubt about it. Our "reach out and touch someone" technology has even reduced cultural distances to almost meaningless terms. Especially in music, where styles and forms borrow from one another until the very differences that originally defined them become nearly transparent.

If you've been caught up in the lure of Brazilian music, you're sure to appreciate the new four CD set from Blue Jackel Entertainment, entitled Brasil: A Century of Song. This captivating collecting takes us back to Brazil's musical roots to answer the question: Where did all of this great music come from anyway?

Brasil: A Century of Song isn't an anthology, but each of the four CDs targets a different era and style of Brazilian music. For instance, in 1939, while Glenn Miller was recording "In the Mood," the legendary Brazilian band leader and composer Ary Barroso was similarly redefining the sound of his country's pop music. His "Deixa Esta Mulher Sofrer" (Let This Woman Suffer) from that year is included on the Folk & Traditional CD.

It's a tap on the shoulder to remind us of our cultural differences and how the next few decades would pull our cultures closer together. It's like looking at photos of your wife or husband as an infant: where we were then and where we are now. Brasil: A Century of Song helps us to understand this contrast better.

1939 was also the year that Carmen Miranda was appointed as Brazil's official Cultural Ambassador for the New York World's Fair. Take a quick read through the lyrics of her "Ela Diz que Tem" (She Says She Has It) and you'll begin to appreciate the romantic, exotic appeal of Brazilian music that continues through today: I have the dark skin, the body, a profile inside which is the heart of Brazil...I have in my body the scent of the samba...I am Brazilian.

Many of the 65 tracks included in this box set have never before been released outside of Brazil, and several tracks are debuted here, according to producer Jack O'Neil. "In choosing the music, we listened to thousands of compositions. Some very well-known songs were passed over in favor of tunes we felt where more musically significant, giving a broader outlook on a particular artist."

While the roots of American pop can be traced back though rock and roll to R & B, for Brazil, it's a straight line to samba, and Brasil: A Century of Song excels in making this point. The box set's second volume, Carnaval, celebrates this special world. In virtually every aspect of Brazilian song, some element of samba is present. Its resourceful marriage of African rhythms and European instrumentation has resulted in an extremely adaptive form and this CD represents a superbly balanced collection.

In 1958, Elvis Presley's "Jailhouse Rock" caused both teenagers and critics to

go wild. Down in Brazil, a new song form called Bossa Nova had created the same scenario by finding its voice with an unassuming young singer named Joao Gilberto.

With Brasil: A Century of Song's third volume, the Bossa Nova Era, we're introduced to the moment of Bossa's birth with Gilberto's studio version of "A Felicidade" from the movie Black Orpheus. There are some real gems here: Sylvia Telles with a resurrected version of Antonio Carlos Jobim's "Dindi," Quartero em Cy's "Pedro Pedreiro" and Chico Buarque's memorable "Ela Desatinou." Bossa Nova's current state is portrayed by Leny Andrade, Toninho Horta and Leila Pinheiro.

Times of defiant protest against the military and the government defined the late 60s. In cities like São Paulo or Rio de Janeiro, dictatorship pushed Brazilian music past Bossa Nova's age of innocence to a growing social awareness called Music Popular Brasileira or MPB, and with it came new performers. This fourth disc includes offerings from Gal Costa, Milton Nascimento, the late Clara Nunes, Simone, Jorge Ben Jor and Ivan Lins. You'll also find a rare version of Joyce's "Feminina" (Feminine) as just one more example of how MPB has paced its country's social development.

Brasil: A Century Of Song is an unmatched collection, the perfect starting place for someone wanting to learn more about the roots of Brazilian music and an indispensable addition to anyone's Brazilian music library. Although each of the CDs may be purchased separately, we advise you to pick up the box set. It contains a well-written 48-page book that details each song and its importance in the spectrum of Brazilian music, complete with an essay from Oscar Castro Neves and an insightful introduction from Milton Nascimento.

You may preview Blue Jackel Entertainment's new box set, Brazil: A Century Of Song 24 hours a day by calling our Brazilian Music Review Listener Line at (847) 292-4545.

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Author: Mello, Rodney Article Title: recado Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.7; N.122 Publication Date: 02-28-96 Page: p. 5

recado.

We are dedicating a big chunk of this issue to Carnival. Besides being the subject of our cover story, the theme comes back in a tale by our worldwide best-seller writer Jorge Amado and then in an excerpt from the recently released book The Brazilians.

Carnaval, and Rio's Escolas de Samba in particular, have become an integral piece of this puzzle called Brazilian soul. From Friday of Carnaval to Ash Wednesday the whole country stops, takes a deep breath, sheds all inhibition, and dives into revelry.

It's the purest form of catharsis and sublimation. The poorest from the Rio's slums forget their predicament and become kings, queens, politicians, authority, whatever their imagination makes them. The men and the women, who have been anonymous servants throughout the year, dress as a noble and go to the streets to be shown live on prime-time TV.

From pricey seats and bleachers celebrities and the well-to-do from all over the world applaud and envy that show of vitality and make-believe put on by the same people who tomorrow will be back cleaning their homes, sweeping their streets, taking care of their children. At least for those few days the roles are reversed and the mutual signs of mistrust and fear give place to admiration and gratitude.

To understand Carnaval is to get a special invitation inside Brazil's psyche. Welcome to the party!

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Author: Dalevi, Alessandra Article Title: Rio's follies Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.7; N.122 Publication Date: 02-28-96 Page: p. 8

Rio's follies.

"After Carnaval we will talk," "We can't do anything before Carnaval," "Can't you wait just until Carnaval?," "I know you from another Carnaval". In Brazil, these phrases are repeated by leaders, businessmen, students and the people in the streets. Every year is the same thing. The year doesn't seem to start before Carnaval - which happens in the days preceding Lent. In 1996 Ash Wednesday, the day when the revelry stops, is February 21.

Rivaled only by soccer, with every passing year this popular celebration has stretched from just a two-day part to one of several days. By and large, the folia (merry making) now starts on Friday guaranteeing 5.5 days of parties (nobody goes to work before Wednesday noon). In some areas, however, the whole week preceding Shrovetide has been taken by Carnaval festivities.

The government has learned to deal with the phenomenon and the latest economic plans instituted in Brazil have all happened around or just after Carnaval. One of them was even called "Carnaval Plan". Then there was the Summer Plan, the Cruzado Plan, the Collar Plan. The present economic program. the Real Plan, was also implemented in the weeks preceding Carnaval. Critics have said that the purpose is to introduce the changes during a time when people are anesthetized and more interested in which costume they are going to wear than how much money they are going to get.

According to some more productive minds, Brazil can ill afford to stop the country for a whole week every year while the Escolas de samba (samba schools), trios El‚tricos (musical trucks), and blocos (dance groups) take over the streets bringing the traffic to a halt. After all, besides more traditional holidays like Christmas, Labor Day and Independence Day, in Brazil there are also national - states and cities add their own no-work days - holidays: April 21 (Tiradentes - a martyr of independence), Holy Friday, Corpus Christi, October 12 (Nossa Senhora Aparecida, Brazil's patroness), November 2 (Finados - Day of the Dead). Not too long ago, Saint Joseph, Saint John, Saint Peter, all had their national holidays.

There isn't much to complain about, however. Besides boosting the people's moral to unbelievable highs, Carnaval is also a money-making machine. The festivities bring more than half a million tourists from all over the world to Rio, Salvador (Bahia), and Recife and Olinda (Pernambuco) - the main showcases of the pagan feast. At least 50,000 of them are foreigners. During Carnaval the occupation rate of hotels in Rio is around 98%. Carnaval heats up the domestic economy causing a frenetic search for plane tickets, hotel rooms, special clothing, confetti, ballroom rentals, beer and condoms. Booze and promiscuity, however, don't tell the whole story. Rio's Escolas de samba for example guarantee a year-round job to thousands of artists, craftsmen, seamsters. All in preparation of 90 minutes of ecstasy on the avenue.

The so-called barracoes (warehouses) where all these people work have an average of 80 employees. The money to pay them come from Liesa (Liga

Independent das Escolas de Samba - Samba Schools' Independente League), an entity created in 1988. Until then the Escolas depended on handouts from the authorities and bicheiros (rich drug dealers and book-makers) who still have their say-so over the schools management. Today Liesa makes money, which is divided among its members, charging for TV rights, tickets sales for the parade and publicity. Tickets for rehearsals and consumption of beer in the clubs complement to budget. As soon as the Carnaval parade ends and the hangover passes, people start to recycle their old clothes and floats and begin to plan for the next Carnaval show.

The first Carnaval celebrations were brought from Portugal in the shape of entrudo (Lent's entry). It was a very aggressive practice in which people would throw at each other the so-called limoes-de-cheiro (odorous lemons - paraffin or rubber balls filled with perfume, water and sometimes very suspect liquids).

In 1604, the police banned the entrudo. The heavy play often ended up in bruises for the participants and there have been even some cases of death. Until the end to the last century Carnaval balls in Rio were emceed by police officers. They announced the beginning and the end of the party and made sure people wouldn't smoke or scream during the ball.

At the start of this century the illegal entrudo was still being practiced and Rio's mayor Pereira Passos made an appeal to the teachers so they would tell their students about the prohibition. Passos suggested that people were encouraged to use lança-perfume (perfume squirter - a metallic bottle with perfume ether) to play Carnaval. The product, which also was used to get highs, would be banned in the 60s by President Jƒnio Quadros.

Entrudo has finally disappeared from the big centers, but it still can be seen in some small towns such as Cruz Alta in Rio Grande do Sul. The practice of throwing things at each other never stopped, however. Nowadays people almost invariably bring a good stock of gentler confetti and serpentina (colorful paper streamer) to the Carnaval parties. Rio's commerce started to sell Carnaval masks and costumes by the 1830s. Newspaper ads from those times offered "ladies' breasts for men who want to dress like women."

It was only after the Republic's installation in 1889 that the more modern Carnaval practices started to bloom. Carnaval groups such as cordoes, sociedades carnavalescas, blocos, corsos and ranchos were all born at the beginning of the century. O Abre Alas (Open the Rows) composed in 1899 by gifted musician and women's right leader Chiquinha Gonzaga was the first song made to be sung and danced to on Carnaval. That would start a tradition that has much contributed to the development of samba, marcha and other rhythms enjoyed by Carnaval revelers.

All over the country Carnaval owes a lot to blacks. It was natural that they dominated the festivities in Bahia and the Northeast since they are majority in these areas. But the Escolas de samba, born in Rio and copied by almost every other region in Brazil, were also created by black people and only recently have been crashed by socialites and other white artists and personalities.

With slavery abolition in 1988, the city of Rio de Janeiro found itself with two classes of blacks: the ones who had a job and were able to continue living in town, and the unemployed ones who went to adjacent hills looking for a place to pitch their tent or shack and live. The two communities, however,

continued linked by their love of music and dance.

While the town blacks went to the weekend balls given in their communities by the tias baianas (aunts from Bahia), the hills' blacks used to promote dancing parties at the foothills. The police ended up prohibiting these revelries under the pretext that they always ended up in fights.

Determined to show authorities that they could be trusted as much as the tias, the blacks from Est cio, a neighborhood from the São Carlos hill, formed in 1928 the first escola de samba, the Deixa Falar (Let Them Talk) which would become later the Est cio de S . The name school given to the group was just a little prank due to the fact that the Carnaval enthusiasts used to get together in a building across the street from an elementary school.

The second escola, Estacao Primeira da Mangueira (Mangueira's First Station) would appear one year later. Composed by several other blocos from the Mangueira neighborhood the school would become in the years ahead the most traditional and representative of all of Rio's Escolas de samba. Renowned composer Cartola was one of its founders. But the in 1935, after the creation of Portela, another heavyweight of Carnaval, the samba schools started to gain some respectability. It was during dictator Getúlio Vargas's first administration that Rio's - the city was then the federal capital - desfiles (parades) became official.

At that time, the open-air show moved from Praça Onze's narrow confines to the wide downtown avenues. Only in 1984 would Rio create at Marquˆs de Sapucai avenue a definite place for the desfiles with the building of the Passarela do Samba (Samba Walkway) which is better known as Samb¢dromo. Designed by Brasilia's architect Oscar Niemeyer, the site is a half-a-mile pathway with a square at the end called Praça da Apoteose and concrete stands on both sides able to hold close to 100,000 spectators.

Nowadays the Escolas de samba parade, which happens on the Sunday and Monday preceding Ash Wednesday, can be called the "greatest show on earth" and it won't be any hype as the one used by American circuses. There are 18 major samba schools who belong to the so-called Group A and parade on Monday. The richest ones like Mocidade Independente de Padre Miguel and Imperatriz Leopoldinense can spend $1 million to stage their yearly show. Smaller ones like Imp‚rio Serrano spend a minimum of $250,000.

Together they put more than 60,000 dancing and sweating bodies on the streets - some Escolas have more than 5,000 members - during a spectacle that lasts 12 hours and is seen by 100,000 people at the Sambodrono, hundreds of thousands on the streets and by millions more on live TV. They are judged by a panel of experts who give points to several items including costumes, originality and rhythm. Every year the two schools with the lowest points are demoted to group B while the nest from that group have a chance to compete in the special group the ensuing year.

Escolas de samba are divided in alas (groups) for the presentation before the jury. A big school can have as much as 70 alas with an average of 80 participants in each one of them. That means more than 5,000 people. The comisSão de frente (front commission) is an ala always present. It has the most important members of the school and frequently it also has some pretty model or actress. This group opens the parade. The mestre sala (master of ceremonies) and the portaestabdarte (lag bearer) follow them. They are a couple who won this position of the parade for their extreme ability in

sambaing the Carnaval. The floats (carros aleg¢ricos) come in between the alas and bring the so-called destaques, men and women wearing luxurious clothes and features, but often times covered by little more than a cache-sex and body paint.

Before an escola de samba ever venture on the Avenue it has to choose a theme, it's the samba enredo (samba plot) which must deal with a national matter or even international if it is a popular subject. By October each escola has already chosen their favorite among several songs composed to be the plot. Well before Carnaval, all the sambas enredo from group A are reunited into an album which sell more than a million copies every year.

The carnavalesco - every schools has its own - a kind of art director, is the one who chooses the enredo and takes care of all the details so that the final product is true to its conception. He has been accused of commercializing and eliminating the popular roots of the Escolas. Others, however, think that thanks to him the Escolas have professionalized and were able to survive and prosper.

Even those who have had a chance to look frequently and up-close at the Escolas de samba desfiles will be waiting with anticipation for the next parade. Despite all the public rehearsals, every escola keeps always something in secret until it's revealed during the show in the streets. It can be sound effect, a special choreography or even a whole float. Portela, for example, introduces every year new special effect for its symbol, the eagle. Beija-flor is becoming famous for holding out on its always mysterious candelabra.

Using the enredo Ratos e Urubus, larguem minha fantasia, (Rats and Buzzards, leave my costume (or fantasy) alone) controversial carnavalesco Joaozinho Trinta planned a surprise showing of Christ as a beggar in 1989. The news leaked and Rio's archbishop went to the Justice "to prevent the sacrilege." The Christ has never shown his face but was nonetheless the sensation of that year. Joaozinho Trinta's Jesus, came to the streets covered with a black plastic bag and the sign: "Even banned, look for us."

Naked bodies and the exposure of women's breasts have become a tradition during the desfiles, even though the show is seen by children in the streets and at home on TV. But in 1989 incensed by model Enoly Lara's no-parts covered apparition, which was taken as a provocation, the Liga Independente das Escolas de Samba decided to ban "disrobed genitalia." That same year Joaozinho Trinta used his enredo Todo Mundo Nasceu Nu (Everybody Was Born Naked) to show dancer Jorge Lafond stark-naked on a flat's top. For some, keeping clothes on during the parade seems something impossible. Gorgeous model Luma de Oliveira, for example, threw her elaborated bra on the streets during her 1987 appearance alleging discomfort. The public loved it and months later she was starring on TV Globo's prime-time novela (soap opera).

Despite some cleaning-up in the last few years, Rio's drug lords (bicheiros) continue to be the main benefactors of the Escolas de samba. That they haven't lost the grip on their "schools" was very patent recently when Luizinho Drumond, a well-known bicheiro gave the order that the escola de samba Imperatriz Leopoldina shouldn't spare any money to try and win the Carnaval parade for the third consecutive year. How much they are going to be spending, however, is a state secret.

Bicheiro Drumond, who has been a Maecenas for Imperatriz, is in prison serving

a six-year sentence, but he continues to do all this business from jail. Several other bicheiros also behind bars are doing the same. It's even expected that Luisinho will get a special authorization February 19 to watch the parade from the Samb¢dromo's bleachers.

For the first time, Imperatriz Leopoldinense will be paying homage to princess Carolina Josefa Leopoldina, daughter of all-powerful Autria's emperor Francis I, and the woman after whom the escola was named. To be truthful to history, carnavalesco Rosa Magalhaes traveled to Vienna to complement her research on Carolina's life. The enredo Leopoldina, Imperatriz do Brasil (Leopoldina, Empress of Brazil) will show Leopoldina's life from her childhood in Austria to her wedding with Brazil's emperor Dom Pedro I. There will be nine carros aleg¢ricos (floats) to tell the whole story. The most luxurious one will probably be float number 7 in which the princess, then 19, is received by the Brazilian court upon her arrival in Rio.

Rio's Escolas de samba parade has become the main showcase for TV artists and models interested in getting a jump start on their careers. Anything goes in this effort to be noticed: flirts, little or no clothing, and physical fight when everything else fails. It was during last Carnaval that model and call girl Lilian Ramos became famous after pictures of her with then President Itamar Franco were published worldwide showing her most intimate secrets. Ramos scandalized the nation wearing nothing more than a T-shirt, which revealed her pantyless anatomy every time she raised her arms to dance. She was the first one to defy the genitalia ban from 89.

Carioca Val‚ria Valenssa has become a top-model after being spotted by Globo TV in 1992 rehearsing for the parade on her Caprichosos de Pilares escola de samba. Three years ago models Andr‚a Guerra and Denise Lima slapped each other to guarantee a place on the main float of Acadˆmicos do Grande Rio, a smaller school which has been calling attention because its main female dancers usually show up topless. Says Babi Fontoura, an agency Ford mode: "To get a contract during Carnaval you don't have to talk to anybody. All you have to do is to be seen and to cause a good impression.

Rio's official parade has also a special place for the blocos, groups less organized than the Escolas which have between 200 and 500 people. They can be blocos de enredo (theme groups) or blocos de empolgaçao (excitement groups). Three of the blocos de empolgaçao became legendary and are considered hors-concours. They are Bafo da Onca (Jaguar's Breath), Boemios do Iraj (Iraj 's Bohemians) and Cacique de Ramos (Ramos Chief). Among the best known blocos de enredo there are the Bafo de Bode (Goat's Breath) and Quem Fala de N¢s Nao Sabe o que Diz (Whoever Talks About Us Doesn't Know What He Says).

Carnaval has also been a fertile soil for popular songs. Tunes from the 30s, 40s and 50s are still among the most popular during the Carnaval season. They are almost invariably very easy to remember; vibrant, short and repetitive. Often they are also very irreverent and it seems there is no taboo they can't break. The news and history have given much inspiration to gifted composers like Lamartine Babo, whose Hist¢ria do Brasil from 1934 is still very popular. The lyrics, which talk about Indians, feijoada (Brazil's typical dish), and Rio, start with: "Quem foi que inventou o Brasil? / Foiseu Cabral / Foiseu Cabral / No dia 21 de abril / Dois meses depois do Carnaval." (Who was the one who invented Brazil? / It was Mr. Cabral / It was Mr. Cabral / On April 21 / Two months after Carnaval). Lamartine was also the one who celebrated the arrival of the hot-dog mania in Brazil in his 1928 marcha Cachorro Quente: Comer cachorro quente l no bar / por certo a moda vai pegar / por nao ser

vulgar (To eat hot-dog in the bar / for sure the fashion is going to catch on / since it's not vulgar).

As in the last few years, the favorite songs for this Carnaval are coming from Bahia, a northeastern state. All over the country everybody seems to be singing these days Asa de Aguias's X", Satan s (Beat It, Satan) and Gera Samba's Segura o Tchan (Hold the Charm). The first ditto, which talks about exorcism and religion, couldn't be more in tune with the zeitgeist. The Catholic Church and the establishment have been in a tug of war with the prosperous and street-smart evangelical sect Igreja Universal do Reino de Deus. Quasi-monopoly Globo TV has been incessantly pounding Universal which has a competing TV network. Segura o Tchan, the other song, has risque lyrics filled with sexual innuendos. Nothing new. Decades ago, Chiquita Bacana, who had nothing but a banana peel to cover herself became a big hit and continues to be played year after year.

In Bahia there are no Escolas de samba, even though there are blocos, generally with African names like Muzenza and Ara-Kˆtu. Carnaval there is less a show and more a participatory spectacle in which everyone is invited to sing and improvise steps on the streets following the trio El‚trico (a huge truck with a light and sound system), while players and percussionists guarantee the ceaseless syncopated rhythm of frevo, axe, samba, and new musical stules that bloom anew each Carnaval season. The first trio El‚trico happened in 1950, when composer Dodo, all dressed up as a rainbow, connected the guitar to his car's battery. Nowadays, a trio El‚trico is so powerful that the energy it consumes would be enough to power a 30.000-people town.

That's why Baiano composer Caetano Velloso wrote for a past Carnaval a frevo song that says: "Atras do trio El‚trico so nao vai quem ja morreu." ("Only the dead will not follow the trio El‚trico). Bahia and Rio have been in constant rivalry in the last few years to see who dishes out the best Carnaval. Hundreds of thousands of Brazilians and foreigners have joined in Bahia's celebrations and many consider theirs the fairest of all. But there are still millions of die-hard Rio Carnaval fans. Those who want to be closer to the trio El‚trico must buy a colorful costume called mortalha (shroud), which helps finance the moving bands. A mortalha can cost from $100 to $250. If you don't have a mortalha, you still will be able to pular (jump) Carnaval, but you will be called pipoca (popcorn).

During a typical Salvador (capital of Bahia) Carnaval, which officially lasts for six days, close to 500 shows are presented, 2 million people go to the streets and ballrooms to dance and look. And around 200 blocos, cordoes and afoxes (groups who sing in African dialects) plus 100 trios El‚tricos help to enliven the celebrations. To guarantee the order 10,000 police officers are on duty during these days.

Timbalada and Olodum, both fairly recent phenomena, are the two most respected Carnaval groups in Salvador. Created by percussionist Carlinhos Brown, Timbalada is a band with ten singers and 250 musicians who play timbales (kettle-drums) and other percussion instruments such as agog" (cowbell which is hit by a wooden stick) and surdo (drum). Olodum, which means "supreme divinity" in Yoruban was founded in 1979 under the leadership of Mestre Neguinho do Samba and it has become an industry with memorabilia, international shows and periodical record releases. Paul Simon used the group as background on his album The Rhythm of the Saints. Olodum is also a bloco and it has more than 3,000 members.

Outside of Rio and Bahia, Pernambuco is the state with the best Carnaval in Brazil. In Recife, the state's capital, and Olinda, people go to the streets to dance to the sounds of maracatu, the regions typical rhythm. But it's the frevo that everybody mentions when talking about Pernambuco's Carnaval. São Paulo, which represents 60% of the Brazilian economy, has never been famous for Carnaval. Cariocas (native from Rio) have always derided what they see as the awkwardness of Paulistas when sambaing.

Proud Carioca, diplomat, composer, poet, bohemian Vinicius de Moraes has called São Paulo samba's grave. The city, however, has been emulating the Cariocas and even built a Samb¢dromo similar to the one in Rio de Janeiro.

Its Escolas are far from the splendor of its Carioco counterpart, but have been improving and even some passistas (samba dancers) have been daring enough to show up stark naked on the avenue, dancing on the floats.

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Author: Welles, Violet Article Title: Yankee Samba Dandy Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.7; N.122 Publication Date: 02-28-96 Page: p. 16

Yankee Samba Dandy.

In 1969, the same year that North Americans stepped on the moon, a group of San Francisco's Bay Area Brazilians took a small but historic step of their own. Opening the doors of a tiny hall in South San Francisco, they invited the world in. There were no costumes. The music was taped. By Rio or Bahia standards, the celebrants, mostly American, were sedate. But it was the first Brazilian Carnaval Ball on the West Coast.

Twenty seven years later, the event has become one of party-minded San Francisco's favorite entertainments and the longest running Brazilian Carnaval Ball in the United States. It is now called the Bay Area Brasilian Club/Friends of Brazil Carnaval Ball to reflect a progressive shift of leadership a few years ago.

By any name, this one nightful of fun is what finances the Club's activities year round. Many of these concentrate on serious community needs: seminars on immigration, work, drugs, emergency family funding. Others concentrate on culture: concerts by Brazilian musical artists like Joao Bosco and Beth Carvalho, a film exhibition and San Francisco's First Children's Day. But on Carnaval night, revelers concentrate only on samba, frevo, marcha, samba reggae and ax‚.

Since 1984, the San Francisco Carnaval has been held in the Galleria, a soaring, multi-tiered building, which adapts naturally to festivity. Each year at Carnaval., it is embellished with banners, streamers, serpentines. Last year, twin cardboard cutouts of a two-story high Carmen Miranda smiled down on the crowd.

This year - "The Night of the Masquerade" decorations will be topped by a 24 by 24 foot carnaval Mask winking seductively at the two to three thousand people who are expected to attend. Include among them is an upscale group from the Domaine Chandon Club, most of whom, it is likely will be attending their first authentic Carnaval Ball.

And authentic is the key word. Through the years traditional Carnaval idols like Elsa Soares and Emilinha Borba have come up from Rio to join local Brazilian performers. Carnaval regulars through the years have included Lisa Silva. Aquarela, directed by Maria Souza; Carlos Aceituno's Fogo na Roupa; and Oxumar‚, guided by Gilda Maria. On-stage also, for the past 11 years has been The Brazilian All Star Big Band, under the direction of Celia Malheiros.

Although most of the Band's members are professional performers, there are some whose every day lives are very different. Among the bespangled entertainers are Marilu, who details foreign cars; Marisa, a travel agent; and Roberto, one of the top Portuguese court interpreters in California.

The evening will also include a tribute to Neuza Brown, a native of Rio, who took a rhythmic stop of her own in the history of Bay Area Carnaval Balls. She

was the first sambista, the first person to bring the fantastic costumes and the fiery spirit of the Escolas de sambas to the Bay Area dance floor.

Carnaval `96's theme, A Noite dos Mascarados (The Night of the Masquerades) is one that has been popular among revelers at Carnaval Balls for hundreds of years, in Italy, France and Portugal. Both the elegant Carnaval Ball and the raffish, downright dirty pre-Lenten entrudos of the Portuguese poor were exported to Brazil and, like so much else in that country, it was the mixing which made Carnaval different than any other celebration on earth.

Despite the theme, the masks are optional One member of the Club, touched lightly by poetic inspiration, explains:

"Wear a mask or don't wear one

To the Brazilian night of fun!"

While San Francisco celebrants wrestle with that one, Brazilians and non-Brazilians all over the US are following their own traditions and preparing their own Carnaval Balls.

New York actually held the first Carnaval Ball in the country at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel but there have been some years when the event was skipped. This year, however, there will once again be a Carnaval Ball at the Waldorf.

Los Angeles will hold the 15th Carnaval Ball sponsored by Samba e Saudade, at the Hollywood Palladium. Florida Brasileiros will samba at the Seville Beach Hotel in Miami Beach, their ninth such celebration. Made-by-Brazilian Carnaval Balls have also appeared, from time to time, in Chicago, San Diego and even Arizona.

More and more the spirit of celebration, the excitement of the upcoming change of seasons and just the desire to have one rare old time makes the Brazilian Carnaval Ball more popular each year.

Someday, perhaps, it may even challenge the New Orleans Mardi Gras in popularity as an "all American entertainment institution."

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Author: Manhaes Marins, Marcos Article Title: And if we shared those millions? Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.7; N.122 Publication Date: 02-28-96 Page: p. 17

And if we shared those millions?.

Brazil will spend, in a single movie, public money enough to produce 10 goods Brazilian films! Brazilian cinema is not an industry, a business like in Hollywood, but when actor Guilherme Fontes's overbudgeted project which will deal with TV and newspaper mogul Assis Chateaubriand received official approval, it reminded me of director Michael Cimino's disastrous superproduction Heaven's Gate and I asked myself: "What are we getting for so much money? Where are the bad judgment or the irregularities in this case?" Irregularity number 1

In 1994, as published on the Di rio Oficial da Uniao, Parliament approved for the year 1995, a total value dedicated to Brazilian Cultural Projects enough to produce 80 moving pictures with an average duration of 1:30h and average cost of $1,200. In Brazil, actors and technicians don't demand Hollywoodian wages. It happens that the Culture Ministry has given one eighth of the national yearly cake to one single film project. This when there are nearly 100 movie projects waiting for this chance. Irregularity number 2

That project was approved "ad referendum", which means it has not been judged by the Film and Video Committee (CNIC-IBAC) as other film projects have to be.

Irregularity number 3

Authorized on December 1, the Chateaubriand project gave only 20 days - And this during the Christmas season - for the people involved to raise the budget money from sponsors. It's known that even experienced producers as Dona Flor and Her Two Husbands's Lu¡s Carlos Barreto usually take more than one year to raise funds for a middle-budgeted film. Irregularity number 4

That privileged project had no budget until the beginning of December 95, while there is a pioneer project called Cabeça de Para¡ba with exactly the same objectives - producing a movie with mini-series version, telling the life of Assis Chateaubriand, the father of Brazilian TV - being developed together with the Culture Ministry since 1992. And this mini-series screenplay has been published and registered since May 11, 1994, before the release on August 4, 1994 of journalist Fernando de Moraes bestseller Chat", o Rei do Brasil.

Brazil was producing 100 films a year in the `70s, but his number had fallen to zero 1992 when President Fernando Collor de Mello closed Embrafilme. Recently, the national movie industry has shown signs of life. An important mark of the renaissance of the Brazilian Cinema was the film Carlota Joaquina by Carla Camurati. It cost about $600,000 and it was a big hit in Brazil, selling more than $4 million in tickets.

Walter Salles's Terra Estrangeira (Foreign Land), another successful quality film cost even less and was invited to compete in the US Sundance Film Festival.

The most expensive movie finished in 1995 was O Quatrilho, produced by Lu¡s Carlos Barreto, who previously produced Dona Flor and Her Two Husband's". Barreto spend $1.6 million in O Quatrilho and was able to sell 60% of its shares at the Stock Exchange. Mr. Barreto produced a first class film which has received applause from the audience and has even been considered for an Oscar nomination. The average budget to produce a Brazilian film is about than $1.2 million. That's not the little. After all, this is close to the budget of many successful Woody Allen's films. Quentim Tarantino's Sex, Lies and Video-tape cost less than this, got a prize in Cannes and pleased the public.

That creative way of producing is appropriate for a country like Brazil. Moreover, the most successful Brazilian film of all times, Dona Flor and Her Two Husbands made a mere $11 million. And this during a period that spanned more than 10 years. A Dama do Lotaçao with superstar S"nia Braga sold $7 million in tickets. Lucio Fl vio, $ 6 million.

Now a minister authorizes $12 million for a single movie. Big money is no warranty for success. We have many expensive flops in Hollywood to prove that. In Brazil, I remember for instance a project called Chico Rei, film and mini-series directed by Walter Lima Jr., an experienced film maker who failed. And he had plenty of money thanks to a co-production with some European countries in Europe. The costs soared and the disaster was so big that the negative film rolls are still in the lab waiting to be paid.

And even if the Chateaubriand project becomes a huge hit, I believe that Brazil would benefit much more if it had ten new movies made instead of only one. That would also mean jobs for 1,000 film professionals instead of the 100 who will be benefited. Besides that, with this kind of money ten Brazilian filmmakers, experienced or not, could have an opportunity to exercise their talent. This way, we would have ten options and we would multiply by ten the possibilities of producing works of art as well as money making hits.

We have to start producing again 50 or 100 films a year. (The United States produces more than 300). Then, in a large market, yes, one or other movie may cost a fortune and put at risk its company as it happened in Hollywood with Orion, Carolco and Metro-Goldwyn-Meyer/UA. What will happen if we put in jeopardy our embryonic market which has released only five films in 1995?

The first time actor Guilherme Fontes announced in December 1994 his intention to produce a film on Chateaubriand life, he declared he would need no more than $5 million dollars to make the film. At that time he said to be in negotiations so Al Pacino would play Chateaubriand. According to Fontes himself, $3 million would go for film production and $2 million for publicity. With $12 million, what is he going to do with the other $7 million?

Several documents about this questions can be viewed in the Internet at http://www.ibase,br/~cinemabrazil/ forum.html).

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Author: Barreto, Carlos E.F. Article Title: Banks in hock Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.7; N.122 Publication Date: 02-28-96 Page: p. 19

Banks in hock.

The end of 1995 was marked by political and economic tension in the Brazilian Parliament. Political scandals as the "Pink Folder" affair or the SIVAM (Amazon surveillance project) telephone taping case, and the financial crisis were shaking hard the Real Plan named for the new Brazilian currency. The plan which made a monster 50% a month inflation into a tame yearly 16% is forcing banks to change to a new market structure. In a normal economy, the banking system functions as a link between investors and savers. Under an inflationary economy, it becomes a mere inflation tax collector due to the loss of value in money deposited in banking accounts.

The Real economic stabilization plan of July 1994 has generated chaos in the financial system. This in turn is pressuring the government to create new set of rules to stimulate restructuring the therefore strengthening the banking institutions. Brazil has 246 banks - more than Canada and France - and according to the economy minister Pedro Malan this is not a good sign. There are too many banks for too little money, he argues. Malan believes that the new economic environment in Brazil will cut this number in half by the end of the century.

In 1988, Brazil had 100 domestic banks and the new constitution - loosening the requirements to open up such institutions - paved the road to a boom in the financial system. Inflation fueled an easy way to make profits and banking became a good business. For example, banks would act as government agents collecting water and energy bills from the population but those funds would only be passed to the government these days later.

At the time, Brazil was running an average 80% monthly inflation rate and three days represented an 8% easy gain. In 1993, the 40 biggest banks earned $9.1 billion from this floating money - 26% of the banks' total receipt - added to the $2.1 billion in profits. But in the first six months of 1995, this number had declined to $203 million - accounting for less than 1% of their total receipts and followed a $1.4 billion drop in profits. The inflation was profitable for the banks but left them weak administratively and laggard in adapting to a new stable economy.

The Central Bank's president, Gustavo Loyola, defends the idea that banking mergers are essential to strengthen Brazil's financial system. Usually, these banks for sale are in bad shape and the government needs to create a mechanism to stimulate other financial institutions to take over these white elephants.

The PROER, Program of Stimulus to Restructure and Strengthen the National Financial System, was put together by the Cardoso government to help banks merge and acquire one another. Loyola believes that "the program is not to benefit a single system but the whole economy." He sees banks as a heart in the economy pumping investments into all sectors. The PROER has the full support of two former economic ministers, M rio Henrique Simonsen and Ernane Galvˆas, who see an urgent need to adjust the country's financial system to a

new era.

The restructuring of financial systems is not a Brazilian phenomenon, but a global occurrence. It's continually happening in the US. In Japan, the Bank of Tokyo merged with the Mitsubishi Bank, and in Hong Kong, the Bank of East Asia merged with the United Chinese Bank. The Dutch ING Bank acquiring the bankrupted British Barings reinforces the phenomenon. The globalization increases competition which forces banks to increase receipts and decrease costs.

This justifies the changes in many international banks. The Credit Commercial de France merged with the Bank of Montreal, the Itamarati Bank acquired the Crefisul, the Itaú Bank bought the Banco Francˆs-Brasileiro, and the Hong Kong Shangai Bank associated with the Bamerindus Bank which in turn sold 6% to the Midland Bank.

Since July 1994, the Brazilian Central Bank liquidated 15 banks and intervened in another six. The Banerj (Bank of the State of Rio de Janeiro) and the Banespa (Bank of the State of São Paulo) are two large state-owned banks under intervention due to bad administration and politics. In this interventionist process, the Bank Bozano, Simonsen won a bid to administer and then privatize the Banerj, under the Central Bank since the end of 1994.

The Bozano, Simonsen has been an aggressive player in the process of privatization of state owned enterprises and thus has a vast experience in cleaning bankrupt businesses turning them into profitable ones.

This innovative process of intervention and privatization used by the Central Bank opens up avenues to a new way of dealing with problematic institutions, delegating the cleaning-up job to the private sector. Even though the Banerj is to be privatized, the São Paulo state government has been reluctant to do the same with Banespa. Moreover, a larger bomb dropped in the country's financial market was the Banco Econ"mico. Econ"mico, an old private Brazilian bank, was put under the Central Bank intervention after a $3.5 billion shortfall.

The Econ"mico had to be split into two: the profitable side of it was sold to the much smaller Excell Bank and the other is under the government intervention for eventual liquidation. The Excell has been required to inject $309 million to increase the capital of the new bank. Despite the financial crisis, the Banco Excell bid to buy the Econ"mico had the Swiss Bank support a sign of confidence in the Brazilian banking system.

Banco Nacional, created in 1944 in the state of Minas Gerais, was the latest financial institution to go belly up. It was Brazil's seventh largest bank. The Nacional was acquired by another bank from Minas, the Unibanco, the sixth largest Brazilian bank, which was founded in 1924. These two institutions represent traditional Brazilian families running business as small shops.

The deal generated the third largest Brazilian bank. Citibank and the Bank of Boston bought the left-over agencies from the Nacional. The merger represents a $500 million reduction in expenses for the two banks involved. This figure represents more than the two institutions were expecting to profit in one year.

According to a Lloyds Private Bank's consultant, the Brazilian economy can handle no more than 150 banks, a little over half of the existing number.

Mergers and acquisitions will continue. The merging of institutions result in huge gains from economies of scale and reduction in costs.

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Author: Velloso, Wilson Article Title: Doing the right thing Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.7; N.122 Publication Date: 02-28-96 Page: p. 21

Doing the right thing.

An expert businessman undertakes an overall assessment of Brazil, its people, its economy. There has never been a better time or better reasons to be optimistic about the future, he concludes.

This is a review of a paper written by Saïd Farhat for several customers of SEMPREL, his lobbying company. Farhat prepared it in English for the benefit of his clients who couldn't speak Portuguese but have huge interests in Brazil. A long-time Federal civil servant, Farhat began his career with the Brazilian Geographical and Statistical Institute (IBGE), in the country's remote Northwestern territory of Acre, now a full-fledged State (IBGE is Brazil's census bureau).

When he was done with the IBGE, he joined a major Brazilian advertising company where he designed and directed public opinion surveys and later managed agency offices in London and elsewhere. After a stint as an executive of the Vision Publishing Group, he acquired its ViSão magazine whose publisher and editor he became; several of his editorials earned him the animosity of the Army brass at a difficult time of the military dictatorship (that ruled Brazil form 1964 to 1983).

With the sale of ViSão, Farhat felt free to offer his remarkable social and political talents to a presidential candidate, General Joao Batista Figueiredo as a PR adviser. He managed to change radically Figueiredo's image, carving for him a civilian niche and placing him much closer to the Brazilian electorate. When Figueiredo was elected, the last Army general to serve as president, Farhat was appointed Minister of Communications and did a commendable job, but again got on the wrong side of the armed force which forced his resignation. After a brief political and unsuccessful fling as a candidate to the Senate from Acre State, Farhat established SEMPREL.

Brazil has the fourth or fifth largest land area [3.3 million square miles] in the world, depending on how you compute and place the territories of the former USSR. Its population is over 160 million. According to estimates of the UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), Brazil produced 75 million tons of grains in 1994. It has 129 million acres under cultivation, 431 million acres in grazing lands, and 348 million acres in usable land.

In 1994, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Brazil was 450 billion dollars, of which $249 billion (55.3%) was generated by trade and services, $156 billion (34.6%) by manufactures, and $45 billion (10%) by agriculture.

However, as Farhat points out, the overall GDP per capita - $4.630 - is practically meaningless because of the catastrophic difference between North and South, or more specifically SE Brazil, and NE Brazil. In a comparison between the States of São Paulo and Pernambuco (which is fairly prosperous in NE terms) São Paulo takes the lion's share with a $4,630 GDP per capita, while Pernambuco's is $1500. São Paulo has 5.6 million cars and Pernambuco 601,000.

The average monthly wage of a Paulista worker is just over $1000, while his/her Pernambucano counterpart makes $175. The countrywide average salary is $650 per month.

Brazil, Farhat points out, is "not one, but several countries." He goes on to focus on this point by lining up data from a UNICEF state-by-state study based on the 1991 census and referring to children's conditions of survival and the percentages of the children in those conditions over the total child population between the ages from 0 to 6.

Extreme cases of (1) children in worst survival conditions are: Maranhao 73% São Paulo 0.9%; (2) children in midpoint conditions: maranhao 10.8%, São Paulo 6.3%; and (3) children in better conditions: Maranhao, 13.9%, São Paulo 92.8%.

Thus, the author argues, it is easy to see why most businessmen, both domestic and foreign, tend to pick up the Southeast and the South, the Brazilian ares with the highest incomes, markets, buying power, and "well-to-do" consumer habits. The resulting concentration of job opportunities "further aggravates the immense gap between the two Brazils."

In a country where the richest 10 percent of the population own 48 percent of the GDP, as against only 12 percent of the GDP in the hands of 50 percent of the population, it is easy to estimate that 14 percent of the Gross Domestic Product is held by the richest 1 percent of the population.

Farhat does not mention it but, like in the US, politicians in Brazil show little political will to change the picture, balance the scales of compassion, really solve the country's many and extremely serious problems. Besides their concern with their own economic interests and their anxiety over re-election, their approach is Marie Antoinette's: "They have no bread? Let them it cake!"

In the absence of a desire to weld the country together, a task that the author believes would take two generations, the 10 million Brazilians now living "well below the poverty line" can only expect to put up with "poverty, poor health, a shorter life span, and fewer opportunities to improve the quality of their lives."

Then comes the clincher: "This [situation is] further aggravated by the fact that the rich pay low or virtually no taxes whilst the poor carry the heaviest tax burden, principally disguised as `indirect' taxes on consumption, taxes on salaries, and other forms of work compensation. Let's hope Republican Congress-people in Washington don't hear of this."

As a result, the essay goes on, "the rich local and regional markets... will become richer and richer while the rest of Brazil...may get poorer and poorer." The rich local and regional markets are defined as São Paulo City and State, the States of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Paran , Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, with the possible addition...of Mato Grosso do Sul." But not everything is bad

On the positive side, Farhat points out, there has been a sizable downswing of 15.15 percent in population growth, from 38.87 in 1980 to 12.72 percent in 1990. This may have happened because of a decrease in the rate of fertility: from 4 children per 100 women over 15 in 1980, to 3,7 in 1985 to 2.7 in 1990. Simultaneously, infant mortality rates also declined form 65.8 per thousand live births in 1980 to 51.6 per thousand in 1990. In addition, life

expectancy at birth grew from 41 years in 1940 to 62 years in 1980 to 65 years in 1990, raising the age of Brazilians in general. Seniors over 60 years, who were 1.7 million (4.1%) in 1940 now are 10.9 million or 7.4 percent of a much larger population. On the other hand, food production increased significantly from 56.1 million tons of grains in 1990 to 75.2 million tons in 1994, 34.% in five years. Highlights:

In 1940, feeding each city dweller required the joint effort of 2.5 farmers; nowadays, each farmer feeds 3.6 city dwellers.

From 1982 to 1992, the total cultivated area fell by 30 percent but production of certain grains, in tons per acre, increased by 14.9 percent.

In 12 months of stability and inflation (after the "inflation industry taps" were practically turned off by the present administration) the minimum monthly wage, considered a "basic reference" for work compensation, jumped from $ 68.93 in July 1994 to $108.46 in June 1995, for a 67.4% gain. Inflation fell from an average of 43% a month in the first half of 1994 (about 5/7,000% inflation per year) to 25/30% in 95, and is still decreasing.

The basic food basket (enough to feed a family of four for a month) costs the same as one year ago, or a little less.

Because the family wage as a unit has gone up, and keeps going up, "those who were not eating now can think of eating," said a North-eastern worker. And the work force has kept relatively peaceful, although unemployment rose from 3.8% in January 1988 to 4.5% in May 1995.

Government-owned companies formerly operating in the red have been sold. Many are now making money and paying taxes.

After the quake that followed the Mexico financial crisis, Brazilian reserves are recouping and now reach over $40 billion in ready cash.

Positive foreign, investments added up to $2.4 billion in the twelve-month period ending May 1995 (Central Bank data).

The per capita GDP in constant value currency grew by 10.9 percent between the first quarter of 1990 and the second quarter of 1995.

Actual GDPs, which were $35.5 billion in 1970, $444.2 billion in 1993, and $456 billion in 1994, are projected to reach $500 billion in 1995.

Manufacture of motor vehicles increased from 966.7 K in 1985 to 1.58 million in 1994 - a 63,4 percent difference, turning Brazil into the 9th largest automotive manufacturer in the world, following the UK with 1.6 million but ahead of Italy with 1.53 million.

Energy consumption by industry has been risen from 50.2 K TEP (equivalent to tons of oil) in 1983 to 71.5 K TEP in 1993 - an increase of 29.8%.

In 10 years, the foreign trade of Brazil accounted for $521.8 billion, with a surplus of $129.3 billion. If recent trends persist, Brazilian foreign trade will reach $150 billion a year by 2000/01, with $75 billion a year in export and basically the same amount in imports.

Economists forecast that if the performance of the last 10 years holds as an

acceptable yardstick, and new opportunities are added at the present pace, the historical growth level of Brazil GDP should be approximately 7 or 8 percent a year, as it was in the 70's.

The present projection is for some $25 billion to be invested in new money over the coming years. Likely attractive fields include automotive, that has caught the eye of Peugeot and Renault from France, Honda and Toyota from Japan, ASIA, Hyundai, and KIA from Korea, Scania from Sweden, Ford and GM from the US. Retail and fast food are being considered by Carrefour from France, as well as Arby's, Kentucky Fried Chicken, McDonald's, and Wal-Mart from the US.

Food and beverages beckoning to Brazilian corporations such as Antarctica and Brahma, Unilever from the UK, Coca-Cola, Gatorade, Pepsi, Procter & Gamble from the US. Computer hard and software are being considered by Samsung and Goldstar from Korea, Apple, Compaq, IBM, and Microsoft from the US. In the heavy industry and equipment sector there is interest from Boshc/Siemens from Germany, Philips from the Netherlands, ABB-Asea/Brown-Bovery from Sweden/Switzerland, Alcoa and GE lighting from the US Several hundred other smaller companies and conglomerates are also willing to invest in Brazil.

Among other fields now wide open to native and foreign investment in infrastructure are communications (telephones, nationwide and local networks, electronic hardware, satellite services), mail (messenger, courier, and other services), mining, natural gas, petroleum and derivatives, rail (equipment and service).

The rise of double-salary families is expected to bust open the Brazilian markets for home appliances (automatic refrigerators, time-controlled gas ovens, microwave ovens, dishwashers, washing machines and dryers, small kitchen and personal appliances, cars, computers, peripherals, and software, utility vehicles, RV's, motor cycles and scooters, camping equipment, boats, holiday travel, tour packages, hotel and catering, tour buses, cable TV, interactive TV and radio, etc.

The increasing modernization of households in big cities is already putting a premium on good skilled domestic servants. Middle-class couples are learning fast to pick up the slack although begrudgingly, and missing the hard-working, diligent Marias of yester-year. Commercial laundries, Laundromats, and dry-cleaning establishments will make many Chinese rich.

Many of the reforms in the pipeline, says Farhat, including several requiring amendments to the Constitution, are expected to (a) end discrimination favoring companies established under Brazilian law, no matter the national source of their capital.

The new legislation is expected to: abolish government monopoly in communications and allow private competition with the existing state-owned systems; open the mining sector to private capitals, both native and foreign: allow foreign ships in Brazil to provide coastal passenger and freight services; abolish the States monopoly in the distribution of natural gas for residential and industrial uses; open oil prospecting, exploiting, hauling, processing, to private interests both Brazilian and foreign and grant them licenses to import and export crude, subproducts and derivatives; change the domestic banking laws and regulations to permit foreign capital banking corporations to operate commercial banks and render a full range of financial services; change the tax laws to permit "access to individual banking records" in specific cases and circumstances.

Already in consideration by the Brazilian Congress are bills aiming to: reform social security and allow participation of private companies and schemes; levy a "health tax" on each bank deposit or withdrawal; allow foreign corporations to operate hospitals, offer health insurance and kindred services; prune the vast Federal bureaucracy and give sizable rewards for improved efficiency in the State and county management.

The net result of all the proposed changes is to allow "regular taxpayers" to pay lower personal taxes; rein in into the system all the now virtually "exempt" rich people, thus broadening the country's tax base; raise and income tax for those on the higher brackets and simultaneously cut corporate taxes, including payroll taxes; emphasize direct taxation, shifting the tax burden to consumers, with relief for producers. Many of these measures, Farhat warns, will be fiercely opposed in Congress.

He ends his monograph saying that the coming years will be exciting ones for those companies who know Brazil from experience and realize that the country "is an excellent base to manufacture, perform services, buy and sell world-wide," provided they have the "intelligence to see, the managerial skills to plan and perform," as well as the valor to risk, the confidence to experiment, the know-how to find the right solutions, and the staying power to reap the fruit of their investment and labors.

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Author: Nelson, William Javier Article Title: The black question Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.7; N.122 Publication Date: 02-28-96 Page: p. 35

The black question.

When one looks at the populations of Mexico and Brazil, some differences stand out. For one thing, the percentage of persons described as "Negro" or "mulatto" are higher in Brazil than in Mexico. On the other hand, when compared to the United States, Brazil and Mexico share some of the same features: ambiguity and flexibility in racial labeling, multiplicity of categories, the tendency of being selectively inaccurate in listing one's "race", more acceptance of intermediate racial categories between "white" and "black".

Yet, as indicated in Brazil by the celebrations of the death of Zumbi and recent agitation for "black" rights, problems of persons of African descent have assumed a more center stage than in Mexico. Certainly, that focus is nowhere near that of the US, where "black/white" conflict is a daily fact of life; however one gets the impression of very little African/non-African conflict in Mexico.

Both Brazil and Mexico have a legacy of slavery, but there has long been a popular impression that Mexicans are descendants of Spaniards and Indians - only. Even college texts on race relations illustrate this kind of thinking. In fact, barring a specific agenda to focus on the African Diaspora, attention placed on Africans in Mexico is minimal across the board. I used a certain library software package which listed 188 percent articles written on Mexico and found no articles which had Africans as a theme.

Differences in Brazil and Mexico are more demographic and economic rather than philosophic. First, although intermediate racial categories and miscegenation were accepted both in Mexico and in Brazil, there were more Africans brought to Brazil than to Mexico (therefore a greater number to be absorbed into the population). Second, the Indian population of Mexico was more numerous, centrally located and culturally dominant than in Brazil.

Thus, instead of the Brazilian case of African/ Portuguese mixtures with an admixture of Indian, the Mexican example was one of both Spaniards and Africans being absorbed into a vast Indian population. Third, slavery in Brazil was both longer and more economically important in Brazil than in Mexico, creating more and deeper emotions of master/slave, exploiter/exploited in Brazil. Fourth, although Mexican culture has elements of racism, the concept of mestizaje (the idea of the goodness of being classed as recially mixed) is more deeply rooted in Mexico than in Brazil, where the population is increasingly collectively desirous of the "white" label (a term which is both exclusionary and by nature pointed toward an ideal of being light rather than brown).

The apparent focus away from the African presence in Mexico starts with the reality of actual racial and ethnic percentages in Mexico's population. Figures from the 1990s indicate that only 0.10% of Mexico's population is Black or Negro. In 1950, only 0.4% of Mexico's population was classified as

Afro-mestizo. A loot at this data would lead one to the supposition that "Africans in Mexico" was and is a novelty at most, especially when compared to the overwhelming Indian and (Spanish/Indian) Mestizo catas mestizo populations grew rapidly. Since the Spanish seldom made an absolutely clear, analytical distinction between race and culture and never prohibited interracial marriage, miscegenation never encountered the obstacles it did in the North American colonies.

Fluidity, Flexibility and Ambiguity

Miscegenation is of little consequence, however, unless the society has provisions which allow for its social significance. By way of comparison, the North American colonies (as well as the United States) were the scene for miscegenation among Africans, Indians and Europeans. Because of the "hypodescent" rule, however, miscegenation between Africans and other groups has had little social consequence because, among North Americans, any African ancestry constitutes membership in the "Negro" or "Black" group.

By distilling combinations which include African ancestry into one socially relevant (Negro, later black, later African-American), North Americans have nullified any social effect of miscegenation including Africans. Those North Americans who claim that the US is a melting pot are essentially correct - except the pot is not meant to include persons of African origin.

On the other land, the Ibero-American racial classification experience has been, for the past 500 years, an exercise in ambiguity, subjectivity, flexibility and, in many cases, outright lying. The incredible number of racial and color designations in Ibero-America boggle the mind. Starting with Hernan Cortes and his mestizo offspring, the Spanish seemed to have accepted the idea of intermediate racial groups - something foreign to the North American mind. This preoccupation with intermediate racial terms was soon reflected in New Spain's population - and, unlike the case of Anglo-America, intermediate racial terms included persons of African origin. Eventually, by 1570, demographic calculations became more complex. An anonymous colonial painting entitled Las Castas reflects this plethora of racial terms. Of the 16 different racial categories depicted in the painting, 13 portray persons with African ancestry.

The use of intermediate racial terms had several effects. One was that there became no solid enemy color group against which African (or anyone else) could fight. Individuals with dark skin were occasionally able to advance due to some (usually military) heroics.

There were always lighter-skinned never-do-wells around and the really rich people were removed from almost everyone (of any color) anyway. The second effect was an acceleration of the tendency of Africans to take on the culture of those with whom they came into contact.

For those Africans who mated with Indians and produced zamboes, this sometimes meant that they remained in their Indian communities. For those who identified with Spaniards or who were in the towns, they soon took on Iberian characteristics and absorbed much of the Indian/Spanish cultural mix which (due to the large numbers of Indians) was a fact of life.

A third result of the complexity of racial nomenclatures was an ambiguity and unwieldiness which militated against being able to instantly react to one uniformly on the basis of race. It is relatively easy for a person to develop

a social etiquette for dealing with two, three or even four racial categories, but it is ludicrous to expect him, during his day-to-day existence, to create appropriate patterns of action for each of 16 or 32 different categories.

Moreover, as anyone familiar with families supposedly of the same race knows, different siblings can have different complexions and hair textures. In the multi-layered classifications eventually created in New Spain, genetic reliability by appearance became a suspect proposition at best. Subjectivity in Racial Labeling

In addition to racial classification becoming complex, it also became elastic and subjective. For example, Aguirre Beltran noted that, by 1570, the Spanish authorities developed the practice of calling legitimate sons of calling legitimate unions Spanish and calling illegitimate sons of Indian/ Spanish unions mestizo, Given the fact that, of all the castas in New Spain, the African, or slave casta was the lowest, people began the habit of shading racial evaluations so as to minimize African ancestry. This is why, given that laxity in identifying with Africa, it is astonishing that, in both 1570 and 1810 population, estimates by Aguirre Beltran, the Afro-mestizo population was nearly as great as the Indo-mestizo population.

Leslie Rout is graphic in his assessment of the racism present in New Spain, but ironically this very racism served to skew racial classifications away from those including African ancestry and into those which highlighted Indian ancestry. African ancestry became gradually absorbed into a broad group of brown-skinned and olive-skinned persons. In Brazil, the contradictions

Presently, Brazil and the US surpass Mexico in terms of economic prowess and overall potential. However - ironically - Mexico has provided an example of a country with importation of African slaves, but little problem between persons of African descent and others. The Mexicans did this not with the US-style social mechanisms of "civil rights" movements and legislation designed to force people to behave equitably but rather with miscegenation, multiplicity of racial categories and an ability to absorb Africans into the population with comparatively little difficulty. In other words, the Mexicans "out-Brazilianized" the Brazilians. Presently, it is an open questions as to whether Brazil will move more toward the model of Mexico, toward the US model - or remain the way it is today: a bundle of contradictions.

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Author: Gilman, Bruce Article Title: Choro, Chorinho, Chorao Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.7; N.122 Publication Date: 02-28-96 Page: p. 40

Choro, chorinho, chorao.

Great master of music have always affirmed that it is impossible to create a modern work, original or revolutionary, without a deep knowledge of the traditions and musical legacies of our ancestors. But for all rules there are exceptions, and with choro things were different.

The birth of popular music at the turn of the century occurred in several countries and started with different proportions of the same elements: European dances (mainly polka), the specific accent of the colonizer, and the rhythmic influence brought by the African slaves. The process that generated danz¢n in Cuba, beguine in Martinique, and ragtime in the United States forged choro in Brazil.

Between 1860 and 1870 the pioneers of choro were playing more a repertoire of European polkas, mazurkas, waltzes, and tangos with Afro-Brazilian syncopation than a unique genre. A few musicians were manipulating the elements, changing rhythms, tempos, melodic lines, and instruments. The seeds had been planted.

Virtuoso flautist and leader of the group Choro Carioca, Joaquim Ant"nio da Silva Calado (1848-1873), was experimenting with a new style that incorporated improvisation and developed a dialogue between soloist and accompanists. Polka bands were initially comprised of woodwinds and horns. The clarinet was the soloist's instrument. The trumpet was in charge of the counterpoint. Calado introduced the cavaquinho and violao.

In Rio de Janeiro during the second half of the nineteenth century the flute, violao de sete cordas (seven string guitar), and cavaquinho were becoming the instruments of choice for these vanguard choro ensembles. Flute was the soloist's instrument, violao supplied the bass, and cavaquinho the rhythm. The music sounded spontaneous, almost as if the violao, de sete cordas was improvising the bass line, and the cavaquinho taking liberties with the rhythm, but only one instrument - unlike North American jazz - soloed in choro.

Assimilating the strong influence of these virtuoso musicians who were its fundamental material, choro was officially born through the works of Chiquinha Gonzaga (1847-1935) and Ernesto Nazar‚ (1863-1934). These two composers gave choro its musical individuality by utilizing rhythmic, melodic, and harmonic elements in combinations and proportions that were original and distinct from everything that had come before and that sounded totally different from all other styles of Brazilian music.

Chiquinha Gonzaga was educated as a classical musician and wrote not only choro but many popular styles including tangos, polkas, and waltzes She emphasized the rhythmic aspects in her work. Her harmonies were simple, her melodies easily assimilated. With this mixture Gonzaga obtained noted success not only with choro but with her songs for the theater (at that time the main vehicle for spreading new trends in music).

Ernesto Nazar‚, also classically trained, wrote with definitive harmonic and melodic sophistication. He nationalized the forms that came from abroad - waltz, polka, schottische, mazurka, habanera, and tango - by arranging this instrumental band music into piano reductions and also by composing his own choros for the piano. His waltzes are considered by many to be similar to Chopin's.

It is evident from his choros that Nazar‚ was also influenced by his musician colleagues. With Apanhei-Te Cavaquinho (I Got You Cavaquinho) the soloist improvises unpredictable riffs until he can no longer be followed by the accompanying instruments, and in Ameno Resed the piano imitates the cavaquinho's rhythmic accompaniment.

Choro's classical from comes from the Chopin waltz and has been closely associated with Brazilian music since the early compositions by Nazar‚. This ABACA form presents a leading or main theme, then a second, repeats the first, presents a third, then makes a final repetition of the first. The fusion of choro's rhythmic, harmonic, and melodic elements with the waltz from pleased public tastes and characterized the "involved" and "connected" nature of choro.

The people who were playing and listening to this music came to be called "músicos de choro." Interestingly, on early recordings all references to this variety of music are to polkas, not choros. Nevertheless, choro had developed into an independent genre after the turn of the century, and composers were unequivocally calling their works choros. The newborn genre, distinctively Brazilian and with particularly Carioca (from Rio) patterns of phrasing and rhythmic counterpoint, developed and passed its first decades of existence open to a tremendous variety of external influences.

But what is choro? Mauricio Carrilho has said that all the best popular Brazilian music is choro, Chega de Saudade by Tom Jobim, the tune that marked the inauguration of bossa nova, is a choro, albeit a choro disguised as bossa nova. It may be played in the style of bossa nova, but it is structurally a choro.

There is much debate about the origin of the name. Some feel that the name comes from the Portuguese verb chorar - to cry - and stems from choro's lilting melodic lines that sound like they are weeping. On Jac¢ do Bandolim's LP `Na Roda do Choro' a musicologist who wrote the liner notes contends that the term originated from x"lo, a word used by Afro-Brazilians for vocal or dance concerts. Today the term can mean a group o instruments (flute, violao, cavaquinho, bandolim/mandolin, clarinet, pandeiro), the act of getting together to pay choro, or a melody in 2/4 characterized by sentimental phrases and unexpected modulations.

Choro is not only the Brazilian music which is closest to European classical, it is the essentially Brazilian genre. Developing from European forms, African rhythms, and a classical spectrum of harmony that had been modified by the early masters; choro eventually acquired its own identity. Among all the styles that come from Brazil, it is the genre that speaks most of the Brazilian personality.

Choro is Brazil. Brazilians have always known this intuitively. Europeans, Japanese, and Americans have played samba, bossa nova, even baiao after Hermeto Pascoal and Egberto Gismonti started to spread baiao outside Brazil.

But they don't play choro. Choro for them is an unknown language. Only the best instrumentalists are able to execute choro's very specific structure, extreme melodic leaps, unexpected modulations, breakneck tempos, and improvisational language - a language heard nowhere else in the world. It is the music of the outstanding Brazilian instrumentalist.

Wagner Tiso, pianist and arranger for Milton Nascimento, feels that only Brazilians can play choro. Tiso said that it is not enough just be a good technician, that much of the music being recorded today is diluted in the studio by musicians who can technically execute it but lack the depth and heart to make the performance authentic. Tiso also noted that choro is the best example of where this doesn't happen. The choro musician must have something more. This something more is what Villa-Lobos called the integral translation of the Brazilian soul in the form of music.

Choro reached maturity with Pixinguinha. He gave choro its form and orientation. The perfection of his modulations and the virtuosity of his counterpoint caused music analysts to assert that Pixinguinha was the Bach of choro. A curious comparison but one with substance. According to Radam‚s Gnattali, Pixinguinha was the greatest flautist of all time. At rodas de (choro jam sessions), he was able to improvise for hours without stopping.

Among the several groups that Pixinguinha organized was Os Oito Batutas (The Eight Masters). They spent six months in Paris during the early 1920s playing choro and maxixe (a dance ancestor of the samba). What Pixinguinha saw and heard on that trip is an example of external influences placed decisively on the head of the genre's master. When Pixinguinha and Os Oito Batutas returned to Brazil they added saxophone and trumpet to their instrumentation and ragtime to their repertoire.

Os Oito Batutas was comprised of illustrious choro figures such as Joao Pernambuco, the violonista and first great composer of choros for violao solo, and Donga (1891-1976) co-author of the first samba ever recorded, Pelo Telefone. This points clearly to a relationship between samba and choro that is seldom mentioned in studies about Brazilian popular music. Today recordings of Pelo Telefone are always made by choro musicians. The close relationship between the two genres is evident through music composed and played by the same musicians. Donga, Pixinguinha, Nelson Cavaquinho, and Paulinho da Viola are obvious models of the choro-samba affinity.

A similar yet more diverse connection is found in the career of Benedito Lacerda, nicknamed Regional do Canhoto. Lacerda led a back-up studio trio that accompanied recording artists in all genres of Brazilian music for over fifty years. The trio had to play rancheiras, gaúchas, cocos, emboladas, baioes (Luiz Gonzaga, the king of Baiao used to play and compose choros), carnaval marches, sambas, and frevos. Chico Buarque, Clementina de Jesus, Jackson do Pandeiro, and Elizete Cardoso were among several generations of singers and composers who were accompanied by Lacerda's trio.

Paralleling this sphere of activity was Lacerda's own work composing and performing choro. Benedito Lacerda, Jac¢ do Bandolim, Altamiro Carrilho, Abel Ferreira, and Valdir Azevedo were principal players in the choro renaissance of the 1940s which produced the lion's share of the repertoire heard today.

In classical concert music choro has always been present. Villa-Lobos played clarinet and sipped cachaca (sugar cane liquor) with friends at rodas de choro in Rio's suburbs. Ernesto Nazar‚ was one of his musical mentors. Almost all

of Villa-Lobos' woodwind music was inspired by choro, and his choros are extraordinary. In his orchestral work Bachianas Brasilerias No. 5, the choro influence is heard in the cello playing a pizzicato figure imitative of the violao's part in choro.

Much of the same can be said in relation to Radam‚s Gnattali. Choro's influences is extensive in his Brasilianas, in his concertos, and in several works of chamber music. Gnattali's daily work took him even closer to choro than did Villa-Lobos'. He played with several generations of choro musicians and composed the most refined choros of all time.

The harmonic elaboration and polyphony of Gnattali's Su¡te Retratos pays homage in four movements to Pixinguinha, Anacleto de Medeiros, Ernesto Nazar‚, and Chiquinha Gonzaga, Gnattali maintained that these musician-composers were the four masters and innovators of Brazilian music. Each of the four movements celebrates one of these masters in the expressive musical language that is stylistically exact for that particular composer and in a manner that only the genius of Radam‚s could have created.

From the trio format of Camerata Carioca (also called Trio Carioca), with whom Radam‚s Gnattail worked for the last seven years of his life, through his stints with the National Radio Orchestra and with his own quintet and sextet, this leading composer of Brazilian music had in choro the fundamental material that he would employ again and again in the composition of his original works.

Trio Carioca - Gnattali, Luciano Perrone (drums), and Luis Americano (clarinet) - was created in 1936 by the artistic director at RCA Victor with the declared intention of translating into "choristic" language the music of Benny Goodman. At that time, the dominance of the big bands permeated the composition of choro and the performances of the top woodwind players. This points again to the conclusion that choro's development was a dynamic process open to outside influences, that in evolved quickly, diversified, and recycled information. Gnattali and Villa-Lobos proved through their work that no genre of popular Brazilian music has ever come closer to concert music than choro.

Ary Barroso, the great, composer of Aquarela do Brasil who came to the United States with Carmen Miranda in the 1940s, used to scold up-and-coming singers on his Brazilian radio program when they announced that they were going to sing a sambinha. He would tell them that it was derogatory and prejudiced to use the diminutive inha since they didn't say jazzinho, or beguinizinho, or fox trotezinho. His crying out and shaming the performer (one of Ary's trademarks) would cause the live audience to burst into laughter.

Ary Barroso felt that this term diminished the value of samba. After all, a jornalzinho was a newspaper that wasn't' really important nor taken seriously. For similar reasons choro musicians did not like nor accept the word chorinho. Many felt that the diminutive was used as a shield; some choro musicians were ashamed of themselves for the music they loved to play. Eventually the term became accepted as an affectionate way of referring to the genre. Maurico Carrilho, the brilliant musician devoted to the study of popular Brazilian music, defends this thesis.

The whole process of choro development underwent a very sensitive deceleration in the mid-1950s, and by the beginning of the 1960s choro was almost completely forgotten by the public and the media. What had happened? How was it transformed from popular music to the music of a restricted and elite group?

Many answers would fit here. The fact is that musicians like Jac¢ do Bandolim, Abel Ferreira, and Waldir Azevedo, did not have the means to codify and pass on their knowledge, and consequently much information was withheld. The instructional methods endorsed by some of these artists were solely concocted (without the musician's collaboration) to make money for the editors and publishers. Another fundamental points is that these top "amateur" choro musicians looked at playing and writing choro as a hobby, a personal entertainment that eventually might bring in some small profit. They didn't see professional possibilities in choro.

By the early sixties (time of bossa nova), choro had almost disappeared. It was the victim of disinterest and prejudice. Bossa nova had taken off. It had become an international movement. People in Los Angeles and Paris were singing The Girl From Ipanema. At the Brazilian consulate in Los Angeles, Vinicius de Moraes (a connoisseur of music known as the pope of bossa nova) had the interest, knowledge, and connections to disseminate the movement on the west coast.

The bossa nova was modern. It came to university stages through the hands of students in tune with the current pop culture who defended and directed students' interests. While choro was something that the old, the retired, or the lower class enjoyed; bossa nova was pushed to the fore by educated people in the universities. Besides, at that time, lyrics were as important as the music itself. Although a vocal form with lyrics written to existing choro titles developed later, it was not common. Choro became alienated.

The great musicians of choro lived in their own exclusive world. They would meet at private all-night jam sessions (saraus) - almost spiritual gatherings - that were restricted to those in the choro brotherhood. Inevitably one of the musicians would bring a friend who wanted to "jam." If the new player could "cut-it," he would be accepted and would eventually bring in somebody be knew that wanted to play or an acquaintance just to listen. The saraus were almost a form of resistance to the encroaching bossa nova.

Ernesto dos Santos Donga, in a conversation taped in 1962, said that choro had a type of social organization, that a great respect of the genre was cultivated among the choroes (choro musicians), a respect that was extended also to those who were listening. He went on to say that people without talent were not admitted, and that a newcomer would have to be able to solo and to accompany other choroes or they would demolish the intruder.

Eighty percent of everything played in saraus was choro. It was a delicious opportunity to meet other choro musicians and listen to their improvisations. The sarau differed from the performance practices in other Brazilian styles. It was closer to the after-hour jams and "cutting sessions" of the American jazz tradition. There are other similarities between choro and American jazz, and it is common for people to say that choro is Brazilian jazz. Interestingly, choro's development in Brazil narrowly predated the rise of jazz in North America.

The complex anatomy of the choro is one of its strongest and most important characteristics. Choro, like jazz, has a specific nomenclature, an anatomy made of archetypes. Choro musicians are required to be not only proficient on their instruments but also to have an extended perception of "codes" and "passwords" which enable the players to combine their vision and technique to construct torrential improvisations.

The harmonic palettes of both choro and jazz were modified from the classical European tradition. Choro, however, has little use for blue notes (the lowered third and seventh degree of the major scale characteristic in American blues and jazz). Waldir Azevedo used blue notes, but he was from the Northeast and his use was intuitive. The flat seventh is referred to by some as the setima nordestina (northeastern seventh) and is usually attributed to African influences, as are flattened thirds, fifths and sevenths in American jazz.

In both styles the soloist improvises on the theme and form of the composition. The best improvisers in both styles are those who make the best note choices, develop ideas relevant to the tune, use extensive rhythmic vocabularies, say what they have to say in the time necessary to say it, then step back. At saraus, players manipulate cunning and subtle themes to cut down and demolish any fledgling participant whose ego gets too out of hand. These codes and cutting sessions are eye-opening lessons for the players. They are similar to those lessons taken by the best jazz musicians and should not be interpreted as a negative characteristic.

At the beginning to the 70's Paulinho da Viola recorded Mem¢rias: Chorando. He felt that the escolas de samba had become overly commercialized and bureaucratized and turned from the sambas that made him an idol to playing chorinhos. It was the beginning of choro's rebirth for the public at large. At about this same time, music critic S‚rgio Cabral produced the show Sarau that brought Paulinho da Viola together with the band Ipoca de Ouro and united the different generations of choro musicians and admirers. The choros of Paulinho brought new harmonies and projected a modern perspective that prejudicial people did not suspect were possible.

A new generation of choro admirers formed the escola Camerata Carioca under the leadership of composer Radam‚s Gnattali. The music was sophisticated, erudite, almost classical in nature, and played by musicians who were no longer ashamed of the choro. After all, those who know how to play, play choro. Maurico Carrilho and Raphael Rabello were just two virtuosi of the genre who were drawn to this group.

The 1970s revival was further stimulated by musicians like Paulo Moura and Hermeto Pascoal who included choros on their recordings. The revival was also sparked by the availability of the authoritative instructional methods written by Afonso Machado for bandolim and Luiz Otavio Braga and Henrique Cazes for violao. These methods were important to choro's developmental process and may have nourished a passion for choro in Brazil's next generation of musicians.

Choro's survival today depends on its ability to conquer a space in the domestic and import CD market, the development, production, and promotion of artists, and the distribution of their work. Fortunately, some smaller companies with profound and invigorating visions of Brazilian history (Brazil CDs, World Network, Acoustic Disc) are working to secure the visibility of the genre's prominent artists. With a lot of work and minimum support from the recording giants, choro could occupy a conspicuous place in world music circles.

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Author: Adams, Scott Article Title: Brazilian Notas Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.7; N.122 Publication Date: 02-28-96 Page: p. 45

Brazilian Notas.

It's been said that there's a world of music in Brazil and the best parts of its inclusive nature are to be found in Canto D'alma and the Brazilian/German group Xiame (pronounced "cee AHM mee") from Traumton Records. Just as with Bossa Nova, and then later with MPB, Canto D'alma is in many ways, an evolution of the Brazilian musical mind-set: part pop, part new age, part contemporary jazz fusion, the album builds on the groundbreaking style of other Brazilian International artists including Full Circle and even Cama de Gato, or guitarist Victor Biglione. There are elements mindful of classical chamber works... Heitor Villa-Lobos come to mind. All of which is to say that Xiame's music is not easily classified, just easily enjoyed.

The amalgamation of musical styles from the group members, bassist and vocalist Jorge Degas, guitarist Michael Rodach and percussionist Andreas Weiser, allows for tight ensemble play and tonal texturing that can carry a peaceful, dreamlike equality. Both the title track and "Sabi ," which opens the 11 song album, create a relaxed palette, compelling the listener to become more involved with the music and less attached to the pulls and tugs of daily life.

"The Wedding Day" which features Danish Singh Naja Storebjerg begins with a nod toward Pat Metheny and exhibits yet another facet of Xiame's unique approach to a Brazilian-based "world music." The scope of their music can be minimalist or expansive, or even both at the same time, which goes far to explain the uncommon strengths of ambient music as found in "Heart Beats As Long As...," the vocally spiced "Stena" and the Bossa-like "Name Upon The Sand." "Dancing Elephants" is anything but ponderous, providing a sassy jazz groove for Rodach's guitar play. And Degas, whose credits include time with Al DiMeola shines on the appropriately titled "Wild Impatience."

Also available from Traumton Records is Xiame's self-titled debut CD, which includes a stunning version of Thelonious Monk's "Round Midnight." This album, with its strong rhythmic pulse and innovative blend of jazz, Brazilian and dance music will leave you with little choice but to redefine your ideas concerning world music. My favorites? "Rio de Janeiro" and "Gone But Still Here."

Flora Purim. For Brazilian music fans in the 70's, there were no other two words that quickened the pulse, that created more anticipation than those. Purim's emotional "Mother Earth" voice played itself as some ethereal musical instrument, evoking rain forest images and the call of the wild. Her uninhibited spirit and six octave range helped her to garner two Grammy nominations and the prestigious Downbeat award for "Best Jazz Vocalist" no less than four times Two new releases form B&W Music showcase Flora Purim's revitalized career with her husband, percussionist Airto. And for those of you who had wondered whatever happened to Flora Purim, wonder no more, for even in the face of change, some things remain the same.

Flora's Speed of Light is her first solo recording in over four years, and she picks up right where she left off; on the cutting edge. Incorporating a lifetime of musical experience, she channels Brazilian Samba and jazz fusion into new directions, including, London's new soul, dance and acid jazz scenes. Songs such as "Wings" showcase Purim's acrobatic vocal range and expressive vocal scatting, riding along Arito's explosive percussion. And "Light As My Flo" carries today's bass driven club music to new heights with guests Chil Factor. Others, such as "Rhythm Runner" blend seamlessly between the Flora we remember and the Flora she's become. Through it all, Airto has been the platform for her success as an artist and survival as a person.

Together, they created the group Fourth World with guitarist Jos‚ Neto, Bassist Gary Brown and keyboard/flute player Jovino Santos to explore the world influence of rhythmic fusion in jazz. Fourth World's new album, Encounters of the Fourth World is a live portrait of this talented ensemble's work on tour throughout Europe earlier this year. Onstage, Flora and Airto are Ying and Yang, dancing on the edge of an electric pandeiro, swayed by the twang of the berimbau, the ring of the agog". The rhythm of life, driven by the pulse of their music. "Do you know me?" Flora asked a crowd recently as she walked on stage. "You don't know us until you've heard our music." So here's a piece of advice. Get to know Flora and Airto soon.

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Author: Page, Joseph A. Article Title: In the Land of Carnival Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.7; N.122 Publication Date: 02-28-96 Page: p. 54

In the Land of Carnival.

In the surface it is a spectacle that beggars the imagination a feast for the eyes and ears, a plunge into the realm of ecstasy for participants and onlookers alike. This unique blend of music, dance, and pageantry proudly (and without apologies to the Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey Circus) lays claim to being the "Greatest Show on Earth," and as such Carnival takes its place as one more jewel in Brazil's crown of superlatives. Indeed the festival and Brazil are so closely intertwined that Brazil has been referred to as "Carnival Country" (a phrase used by Jorge Amado for the title of his first novel.)

The parade is the ne plus pre-Lenten, the orgiastic, end-of-summer, pre-Lenten, nonstop festivities that suffuse Rio de Janeiro with an irresistible delirium and have become multitextured metaphors for many aspects of Brazilianness.

The annual procession unfolds within the narrow confines of a facility designed by Oscar Niemeyer and inaugurated in 1984. Brazil's premier architect converted a mile-long stretch of paved roadway next to a nondescript brewery in downtown Rio into a corridor capable of channeling the energies of a flood tide of marchers numbering in the thousands. Criticized by some for its ultrasterility, what has come to be known as the Sambadrome explodes into life during Carnival week, when it welcomes an enthusiastic audience of ninety thousand who occupy steeply banked concrete bleachers, luxury boxes, and ground-level seating, and some fifty thousands marchers representing neighborhood association called samba schools. The parade route ends in an open area aptly named the Plaza of the Apotheosis, with a huge arch, also designed by Niemeyer, spanning the far end of the area.

To accommodate the number of schools constituting what is now called the group especial (special group), the parade unfolds on two consecutive nights. The first marchers enter the Sambadrome before the sun sets: the last do not cross the finish line until well into the next morning. The heat may be stifling and torrential rains may drench participants and spectators to the bone, yet the show has always gone on, even during the darkest years of World War II and the uncertain days just before the 1964 military coup.

The foreign tourists who flock to the Sambadrome in ever-increasing numbers delight in the audiovisual aspects of the parade. The gut-pounding aspects of drums accompanies relentless waves of humans awash in dazzling color who swirl and bob in synchronized movement. Many of the costumes are astonishing, many of the floats breathtaking. And then there is the surfeit of bare flesh, glistening with sweat and the generous application of glitter - gorgeous young men cavorting in the skimpiest of raiment's, gorgeous young women exposing their breasts.

Virtually every Brazilian in the crowd is familiar with each school's theme song because it has been available on tapes and records for several months and

is repeated over and over again during that school's performance. Many in the audience add their voices to those of the marchers. The samba beat of the percussionists makes the earth reverberate, and soon most of the spectators are on their feet, arms swaying, hips twirling, in communion with the procession passing before them.

For Brazilians the parade has layers of meaning. Indeed, and incredible as it may seem, there is much more to this sumptuous spectacle than what meets the eye. It has provoked all manner of passionate debate. The scores given to the presentation of each samba school by an official jury mean of for the winners a year of special glory (including lucrative engagements for some members of the school); while the losers are relegated to the "minor league" and do not get to participate in the next year's parade of the group especial. Naturally there are always sharp disagreements about the judging.

Arguments often touch on subjects beyond the competitive aspects of the show. Attempts to censor nudity and supposedly sacrilegious floats have produced spirited polemics. Moreover, there has most recently been a great deal of discussion of the fundamental issue of whether the parade has been transformed from an authentic vehicle of self-expression by Rio's poor (and mostly black) neighborhoods to a highly commercialized enterprise aimed primarily at foreign tourists and unduly influenced by the underworld characters who bankroll many of the samba schools.

Brazilians may also take not of the elements of drama often involved in the staging of each group's procession. A Brazilian professor who has worked to produce samba-school presentation puts it this way: "There are all kinds of things that can go wrong in the staging area. A float might collapse, people might not show up or might show up drunk, the leaders might get into arguments with one another. Nothing happens exactly the way you expect. The tension is tremendous."

During the march itself crises may occur that may become apparent to those who know where to look for them. For example, a costumed starlet perched high above a float may suddenly become faint and appear to be about to fall, and there may be no way to reach her expect with the use of cranes on trucks stationed in the Plaza of the Apotheosis.

The themes elaborated by the floats and costumes interpret and reinterpret the nation's past, culture mood, and sense of identity, often in a very critical way. (Recent topics have included the abolition of slavery, the exploitation of Amazonia, and the evils of consumerism.) Each samba school has a tradition and a complex personality of its own that attracts the partisan support of spectators as well as television viewers. Celebrities from the sports, arts, and entertainment worlds appear as "start" on the floats or mingle with rank-and-file marchers.

The parade brings to a fitting end the annual Carnival of Rio de Janeiro, which in the eyes of many is one of the defining elements of Brazil. The festival opens on the Friday before Ash Wednesday, when "King Momo" (for many years a jolly, obese young man nicknamed Bola) is proclaimed temporary mayor, in a ceremony in which he orders all his subjects to enjoy themselves to the fullest. Thereafter, for five nights and four days, a marathon of merrymaking convulses the city, as delirious celebrants shed all their inhibitions (along with most of their outer garments) and respond to the ubiquitous, nonstop pulsing of drums conveying the infectious beat of the samba.

Anthroplogist Richard G. Parker has defined the ethnic of the Brazilian Carnival as "the conviction that in spite of all the evidence to the contrary, the still exists a time and place where complete freedom is possible. As the tropical summer draws to a close, society suspends its rules, hierarchies reverse themselves, and the struggles of daily life, give way to the uninhibited pursuit of fun and pleasure.

In the "anything goes" atmosphere of Carnival, neighborhood groups called blocos adopt imaginative or outrageous names: for instance, Simpatia e Quase Amor, or "Sympathy Is Almost Love," an Ipanema bloco; and Sovaco de Cristo, or "Christ's Armpit," the designation adopted by people who live beneath the outstretched arms of the statue of the Redeemer atop Corcovado Mountain. In costumes or bloco. T-shirts, they take to the streets and cause monumental traffic jams, which the authorities as well as trapped motorists tolerate with surprising equanimity in the spirit of the season.

Exhibitionism, a natural outgrowth of the cariocas ' flaxation on physical appearance, bubbles irrepressibly to the surface, most noticeably at gala balls in social clubs and nightspots, where the city's "beautiful people mix with local as well as international celebrities and display their bodies with or without the help of dazzling costumes.

At all levels of society cross-dressing has long seen a popular practice during Carnival. Heterosexual men do not hesitate to parade about in feminine attire that has in many instances been made for them by their wives. Even young boys customarily disguise themselves as girls. For avowed transvestites, Carnival is a time when society permits them to have free rein, and they cavort about with wild and often hilarious abandon, blocking or directing the flow of vehicles on the main arteries of Copacabana and Ipanema.

Hugh Gibson, in his 1937 book Rio, notes that although many writers have sought to capture the Carnival of Rio de Janeiro, the event eludes description. "The strange things is that none of [them] seem to realize that Carnival is not nearly so much what they saw as what they felt; a feeling which enables two million people to be turned loose in the streets for four days and nights with little or no restraint."

The masked faces of Carnival revelers in a sense represent the real countenanace of Brazil. Indeed, to make use of an insight offered by the Argentine writer Luisa Valenzuela, in a certain sense Brazilians go about in costumes during the rest of the year and regard what they wear selves. Carnival as indicative of their real selves.

To be a genuine Brazilian, it is said, one must be able to succumb willingly and wholeheartedly to the enchantment, the delirium, and the splendor of what has become a national allegory. Although this claim is perhaps an exaggeration, the inversion of reality that defines the event - whereby males dress as females, virtuous women as prostitutes, good Christians as devils, the living as the dead, the old as the young, and the poor as nobility from Brazil's past - matches the surreal quality that lies near the essence of all things Brazilian. People from every walk of life transform themselves into whatever they want to be. The Brazilian mania for spontaneity and disorder, sparkle and noise, and pleasure and pathos assumes is ultimate expression.

Yet the Rio Carnival has its critics: those who say that it has deteriorated from a genuine manifestation of popular culture to a media extravaganza concocted by professionals, exploited by publicly seekers, totally

commercialized, and increasingly staged for the entertainment of foreign tourists. The samba schools, they aver, are no longer associations serving the needs and aspirations of the slum (and predominantly black) neighborhoods from which they sprang, but rather unwieldy conglomerations struggling to meet the pressures of putting together an elaborate spectacle that calls for expenditures far beyond their means. Thus it has become fashionable in some quarters to belittle the Rio event and point to the street celebrations in Salvador and Olinda in the Northeast as much closer to the true tradition of Carnival.

The exact origins of Carnival are unknown. Some point to the prehistoric practice of painting the body and wearing masks and feathers during rites intended to exorcise demons. Others trace it back to Egyptian, Greek, and Roman festivals during which a pleasure-seeking celebrants behaved in crazed manner and set out to disrupt the established order. Momus, the name given to today's "King of Carnival," was the god of mockery in ancient Greek mythology.

Despite its pagan roots, Carnival eventually gained acceptance, with some modification, in the Roman Catholic world of the Middle Ages, where it became a pre occasion to feast and bid good-bye to the indulgence of the flesh before the season of fasting and penance began. Singing, dancing, and the wearing of disguises enlivened the festivities. Masked balls gained great popularity in Italy and France, especially among the upper classes and intellectuals, who brought to the celebration displays of wealth and refined taste. But by the end of the nineteenth century, Carnival had become virtually extinct in Europe.

In the New World, however, Carnival flourished. Its evolution in Brazil reflected the peculiar nature of the festival brought across the Atlantic by Portuguese colonists. The pre-Lenten affair in Lisbon had a distinctively unruly character. The Carnival, or entrudo, as it was called, was dirty, boisterous, and at times involved criminal activities. People fought on the street with eggs and eggshells filled with flour, gypsum, and even mud. From windows pranksters emptied bags of sand on top of onlookers and hurled rolls, cakes, and oranges filled with water and perfume. For the rich and powerful, it was merely another excuse to eat well and indulge other appetites.

It was this vulgar and violent entrudo that the Portuguese transplanted to their New World colony. In the street bettles that regard in Rio de Janeiro, the weapons of choice were the limoes-de-cheiro, or wax balls filled with water or urine, and large bottles from which revelers squirted red or black ink on passers-by. Gentler pranks involved people pouring talcum powder or whitewash from the balconies of their town houses. When the royal court relocated to Rio de Janeiro in the first decade of the nineteenth century, the festivities were so disorderly and in such bad taste that foreign visitors to Brazil assumed that the observations had indigenous rather than portuguese origins.

From time to time, the authorities attempted to suppress Carnival, but without success. Indeed, King Joao's son, who later became Pedro I, and the latter's bookish son. Pedro II, enjoyed the entrudo enormously and immersed themselves in the spirit of the occasion by soaking other members of the royal family with water and perfume.

Throughout the years the gadgets used to inflict Carnival mischief became increasingly sophisticated. Wax limoes-decheiro gave way to balls made of rubber, celluloid, and when plastic. In 1892 the French invented the

serpentina, a coil of thin paper that would unwind as a streamer, and the Brazilians immediately put them to use during Carnival. At about the same time they also adopted paper confetti, a Spanish fabrication. Watches and guns that could project water made their appearances at the beginning of the twentieth century. Perfume squirters in all sizes came from France. What made them particularly popular was the fact that their contents might include ether, which produced the same intoxicating effect as cachaca, the national drink the government banned during Carnival.

In imitation of the extravaganzas that had become exceedingly fashionable in Europe, an Italian resident of Rio organized the first masked ball in 1840. The affair, staged at the Hotel de Italia, became an annual Carnival event and was so successful that theaters began to sponsor their own Carnival galas. By the end of the century the balls were competing with one another to produce the best decorations, orchestras, and special guests. The hosts also used gimmicks; for instance one highly popular 1879 masked ball was staged at a roller rink, with participants dancing on skates. There were scandals, such as that of the 1890 ball where the French cancan was first performed in Brazil. Initially polkas were played at the galas, but later other musical numbers were included - waltzes, tangos, cakewalks, and even Charlestons.

Most of the ideas for costumes at the Carnival balls originated in France. The most popular disguises assumed by ladies were Gypsies, Orientals, Indians, and Moors; while men dressed as Satan, Dominoes, royalty, hustlers, smugglers, and clowns. Boys donned jockey outfits.

The institution of the Carnival ball continued to evolve in the modern era. Galas proliferated in 1932, when the government sanctioned the celebration of Carnival. Their venues spread from hotels and theaters to social clubs and nightclubs, and they were traditionally scheduled during the five nights before Ash Wednesday. Today the Carnival balls draw abundant media coverage. Glossy magazines devote page after page to photos of the famous faces, scantily clad bodies, and extravagant costumes on display at affairs such as the "Sugar Loaf Ball" on Urca Hill and the "Champagne Ball" at the Scala nightclub.

The Carnival ball provides yet another example of how Brazilians from the upper, middle and intellectual classes aped European fashions. As an institution it coexisted with the entrudo as a means of celebrating the arrival of Lent. At the same time other traditions with a more distinctively Brazilian flavor with a to evolve.

In 1855 a Rio newspaper announced that the members of a new aristocratic organization that had recently been created planned to parade in costume along the streets on the Sunday of Carnival week. The emperor and his daughters were among those in attendance when the eighty members of the group staged what was the first Carnival parade in the history of Brazil. A martial band of "Cossacks from the Ukraine" opened the march. They were followed by lavish floats bearing such notables as "Don Quixote" and "King Ferdinand the Catholic," along with Chinese mandarins, assorted dancers, and other figures. A group of mounted horsemen brought up the rear.

The enthusiastic applause of spectators at the march was evidence that a trend had been set. Similar groups, which came to be known as grandes sociedades (great societies), began to formed from the ranks of students, intellectuals, journalists, high government functionaries, and other who could afford the expense of membership. Before long the Carnival parade of the grandes

sociedades became an institution. The presentation began to reflect the political views of the group members. During the imperial period, some societies advocated the adoption of a democratic form of government. Many urged the abolition of slavery. One way of communicating this message was to buy certificates of freedom for a group of slaves and then let them ride on one of the allegorical floats.

The grandes sociedades swiftly grew very competitive, often trying to outdo one another in sophistication and learning. They fought their battles through the newspapers, and the weapon of choice was poetry. This spirit of contentiousness occasionally turned inward, producing squabbles that caused members to leave and form their own new societies (a tendency that would later be repeated at the samba schools).

Elegance and sophistication bordering on preciosity graced virtually everything connected with the grandes sociedades. Yet the care with which the presentations were staged did not prevent complaints from both elements of the public and police when the allegorical floats carried women in stages of undress that offended contemporary sensibilities.

In addition to the balls and the parades of the grandes sociedades Rio's elite had another outlet for celebrating Carnival. The corso, which originated in 1907, was a procession of open motor vehicles carrying gaily costumed cariocas who tossed confetti, serpentinas, perfume, and bons mots as onlookers as they passed along some of Rio's broad avenues. They corso enjoyed a high degree of popularity, until the proliferation of automobiles and resulting traffic congestion brought an end to the practice in the 1930s.

The parades of the grandes sociedades and the corsos served as occasions when people from the wealthy and intellectual classes performed for the amusement of spectators of humbler origins. Eventually the roles of performer and onlooker would be reversed. For in the late nineteenth century, other groups began to march during Carnival week, and one day they would replace the sociedades and the corsos as the principal attractions of Carnival.

The first organized effort on the part of Afro-Brazilians to participate in Carnival appears to have occurred in 1885, when a groups of blacks of Congolese origin took to the streets to criticize Brazil's imperial regime. Disguising themselves as figures such as old men, devils, clowns, kings, queens, and the dead, they carried their banners through Rio's downtown at Carnival time to give vent to frustrations of the common people. A mestre, or "master," blowing a whistle acted as leader; percussionists supplied the rhythm; the old men performed certain steps; and the clowns sang a refrain. Called cordoes, these groups multiplied in succeeding years. They came to represent share satire cloaked in anonymity.

Another distinct type of Carnival group was the rancho. Some say that blacks from the Sudan created the first ranchos. They began as rather closed societies that maintained totemic traditions in their names and colors, and evolved into associations drawing members from the working and lower-middle classes. More refined than the cordoes, the ranchos permitted women to participate, and they accompanied their presentations with string instruments, clarinets, and flutes as well as drums. Instead of one mestre, the ranchos had three; one for the orchestra, one for the chorus, and the mestre de sala, who was in charge of choreography. The themes they adopted were generally mythological (involving gods of the forest, satyrs, nymphs, and goddess), and the music they played was original.

The most modest of the Carnival groups were the blocos (also known as blocos de sujos, or "blocks of dirty ones"), formed by friends living on the same blocks in lower-class neighborhoods. In 1889 the police for the first time authorized the participation of some twenty blocos in the festivities. These groups improvised everything, from their costumes to their parade steps. Their spirited and boisterous behaviour, which more than occasionally led to street fights, kept alive the tradition of the entrudo. The newspapers sponsored contests to crown the yearly champion of the blocos, as well as of the cordoes and ranchos.

Out of these various strands emerged the organizations that today dominate the Carnival scene. The exact origins of what came to be known as "samba schools" remain shrouded in doubt. Several claim the distinction of being the first. Police repression of the blocos and the "respectable" cariocas, disdain for the samba music that had evolved on the morros (hills) in and around Rio inspired the formation of new associations rooted in lower-class communities, modeled after the ranchos but incorporating the spirit (and some of the personnel) of the blocos. These new groups were called samba schools.

Some day that inspiration for the name came form the presence of a nearby teacher-training school. Others insist that the founders of the schools saw their institutions as vehicles for teaching and passing from generation to generation the forms of music and dance indigenous to Rio's poor (predominantly back and mulatto) neighborhoods. Moreover, referring to the new organizations as schools would lend them prestige.

The samba schools succeeded in transforming the pre-Lenten festivities in Rio de Janeiro. They made samba the music of Carnival, used mass culture as a vehicle for protest for both the lower and middle classes, served as showcases of "racial democracy" in Brazil, and eventually became an indispensable source of revenue for the city.

During the 1920s the samba schools came down from the morros to the Praca Onze (Eleventh of July Plaza), located less than a mile from Rio's downtown, on the Sunday and Tuesday of Carnival week. Female members dressed like Bahian women, with long, wide skirts, turbans, necklaces, and bracelets; the men generally preferred either stripped, pajamalike outfits or the shirts and hats worn by the city's malandros, or hustlers. Crowds gathered to watch them dance and sing sambas that dealt with contemporary national or local themes.

At a time when modern technology, in the forms of the radio set, the phonograph, and phonograph record, was rescuing the samba from disrepute and was converting it into a national craze, the regime of President Getulio Vargas decided to promote the samba schools from their position on the fringes of Carnival and to make them bona fide participants in the annual affair - a measure consistent with the myth of racial democracy that the government was promoting. In 1932 the first official samba-school competition was one of the events of the Carnival celebration. This was the beginning of a tradition that continues to the present day.

The price the schools paid for recognition was the necessity of submitting to government control and the condition of dependency that went with it. The authorities set the criteria for judging the annual contest and placed limitations on the themes that costumes, songs, and floats could convey. One of the early, regulations limited presentations to events of personalities drawn from Brazilian history. In 1939 a school that had selected "Snow White

and the Seven Dwarfs" for its theme suffered the indignity of disqualification.

The community organizers and samba composers who held positions of leaderships within the schools prized acceptance and recognition by society above the creative independence they had enjoyed during the 1920s. Therefore they did not resist the imposition of ground rules that put restraints on articulations of discontent they might otherwise have incorporated into their Carnival presentations.

In the six decades between the first official authorization of the samba-school parade and the present day, the route along which the schools march has undergone several changes that have taken the procession from the Praca Onze to Rio Branco Avenue in the heart of the downtown district, then to the broad Avenida Getulio Vargas nearby, and finally to Niemeyer's colossal Sambadrome. Each new site permitted a larger number of spectators than before to witness the event.

Throughout the yeas the Rio Carnival has gained an ever-increasing measure of worldwide renown. The film Black Orpheus might have done more than anything else to bring the event to the attention of people everywhere and to assure its immortality. In his film French director Marcel Camus demonstrates with powerful sensitivity how the illusion of Carnival takes over the lives of samba-school members. Although the score by Luiz Bonfa and Tom Jobim uses more bossa nova than samba, the lyrics that poet Vinicius de Moraes wrote for one of the songs captures the essence of Carnival in a way that has never been matched. "Sadness has no end, the song proclaims, "but happiness does."

The actual scenes of the Carnival parade in Black Orpheus have mesmerized moviegoers for years. Other films, such as the James Bond epic Moonraker, and books such as like Gregory McDonald's Carioca Fletch, have used the parade as an exotic backdrop for plots that have little to do with Brazil, and this publicizing of the event has contributed to the building up of Carnival as an international tourist attraction. But Black Orpheus makes viewers yearn not to attend the festivities themselves but also to understand more about the context that the movie vividly portrays.

Participants in the Carnival parade must follow a stylized format that at the same time leaves room for enormous creativity. Each school selects an enredo, or "plot," for its annual march. The compulsory components of the group's presentation permit the enredo to unfold.

Thus the school's marchers must include a comisSão de frente (front commission), or welcoming committee, which leads the procession and introduces the school's enredo; a dance master (male) and a flag bearer (female) who perform an exquisite pass de deux, the latter carrying the colors of the school and spinning about with such remarkable grace and economy of motion that her feet seem never to touch the pavement; the bateria, or percussion section, providing the samba beat to which the school marches, the allegoric floats, decorated to illustrate the enredo and carrying the school's destaques, or dazzlingly costumed "stars"; and the alas, or "wing," discrete groups of dancers, each with its own outfits and colors. The alas must include baianas, a group of older women dressed in versions of the traditional hoopskirts worn by black women in the city of Salvador. The baianas dance in a whirling motion that produces one of the most spectacular visual effects of the parade. All marchers sing their school's theme song, the samba enredo, which conveys the story they have come to tell.

Samba schools have customarily served as strong community organizations that absorb the energies of their members throughout the entire year. Shortly after one Carnival, preparation for the next one begins. The enredo is developed, composers compete fiercely to have their song selected as the annual samba enredo, costumes are sewn, and floats are constructed. Beginning in November, weekly meetings bring participants together to rehearse the music and dances they will present in their march. The need to scrimp on meager salaries in order to pay for their costumes does not dampen in the least the enthusiasm of the favela-dwellers for whom appearing in Carnival is an all-consuming pursuit.

Over the years the samba schools and their performances have undergone a dramatic transition. In the 1960s an increasing number of people from Rio's upper and middle classes "discovered" the schools, whose rehearsal halls they began to frequent and in whose alas they began to enlist. As a result the samba schools underwent a degree of bleaching, although they remain predominantly black.

In addition, there was a change in the process by which the school's put together their shows. Traditionally, this had been the province of people from the neighborhoods that produced the schools. But by the 1960s the march of the samba schools was turning into a complex tableau emphasizing the visual and requiring the help of outside professional. Indeed, a school's presentation became increasingly dependent on the genius and leadership of one person, the carnavalesco, or "Carnival master," who coordinates the efforts of costume designers, artisans, composers, and performers. These directors have become the luminaries of the Rio Carnival, and for a number of years the brightest and most controversial star in the galaxy was a short, round-faced, curley-haired, self-educated, wildly imaginative virtuoso whom everyone calls Joaozinho Trinta (a name that translates into English as Johnny Thirty).

Born in 1933 in São Luis, the capital of the northern state of Maranhao, Joao Clemente Jorge Trinta lost his father at the age of two and grew up in very modest circumstances. As a teenager he migrated to Rio de Janeiro, and in 1956 he joined the corps de ballet of the Municipal Theater, where he performed on the same boards with Dame Margot Fontaine and Alicia Alonso. His first love was spectacle, and he learned as much as he could about the staging of ballets and operas from set designers, wardrobe people, and other specialists at the Municipal Theater. The transition from the legitimate stage to the Carnival parade route was a natural and inevitable step for him.

"Carnival spectaculars are the Brazilian equivalent of opera," he has explained. "The samba enredo is the libretto, the bateria the orchestra, the sambistas [samba dancers] the ballet corps, the destaques the prima donnas, and the allegoric floats the sets."

Serving as carnavalesco first for Salgueiro, one of the well established Rio samba schools, and then for Beija-Flor, a newer school from Nilopolis in the impoverished Baixada Fluminese Joaozinho complied an enviable winning record in the Carnival, competitions of the 1970s and 1980s. From his first enredo with Salgueiro - portraying the conquest of Maranhao by the French, as seen through the eyes of the eight-year-old French King Louis XIII - his sumptuous presentations went far beyond anything that had previously been attempted in the parade. He did not shrink from daring themes, such as the supposed presence of the ancient Phoenicians on the Amazon River (and their transport of precious gems back to the court of King Solomon), and developed them with

costumes and stately floats that raised lavishness to new levels. He has been innovative on many fronts. Indeed, the first woman to bare her breasts during the parade, and the first male nude marched with Beija-Flor.

Critics accused Joaozinho of deforming the true spirit and tradition of the Carnival parade. They claimed, among other things that he was ignoring the wretchedness of everyday life in Brazil and was imposing unwarranted financial burdens on the poor people who made up the bulk of the membership of the samba schools.

Joaozinho's response was characteristically vigorous. "If I made an enredo out of poverty," he said in a 1987 interview, "no one would march. These people are poor all year long. Why would they want to parade as wretches?" The classic, oft-quoted rejoinder the aimed at his detractors was "The poor like luxuriousness. It is the intellectuals who like misery."

Yet Joaozinho could not resist fashioning another, quite different reply to his critics. In 1989, staging one of the most astonishing and revolutionary pageants in the history of Carnival, he concocted an enredo whose title translates as "Rats and Vultures - Let Go of My Fantasia" (a play on a word that in Portuguese means both "Carnival costume" and "fantasy"). It succeeded brilliantly in converting lixo (garbage) into luxo (luxuriousness). The comisSão de frente and one of the alas (wings) dressed as beggars in tattered, multicolored rags. Another of the alas represented a group of lunatics and performed as though they were straight out of the theater of the he absurd. Dancers disguised as prostitutes and young street thieves cavorted wildly. There was a float piled high with surrealistic "garbage" and labeled Beggars' Banquet. The directors of Beija Flor, including Joaozinho himself, paraded as uniformed garbage collectors. It was a stunningly original tribute by the poor to the poor, the likes of which had never been seen on the streets of Rio. The panel of jurors found it excessively avant-grade and awarded Beija-Flor only second place, but many impartial observers disagreed.

Staging elaborate presentations in the Carnival parade did not, of course, originate with Joaozinho Trinta. He merely turned out to be consistently better at pulling it off than any other carnavalesco. Moreover Beija-Flor's former guiding light has insisted that the costumes and floats his school uses look much more expensive than they actually are. We are very creative in the use of cheap materials, yet we have gotten the reputation of being extravagant."

Criticism of Joaozinho have related to matters beyond his alleged extravagance. Purists have faulted him for deviating from hallowed traditions that date back to the very first parades of the samba schools. They have argued that by orienting his presentation to please foreign tourists and by imposing his own peculiar views and tastes, he has lost contact with the real meaning of the Carnival parade, which has always been a form of self-expression for Rio's slum communities.

There is another way to view the negative reactions Joaozinho has stirred. He was an outsider from the north, rather than a product of Rio's Carnival culture. He was a poor boy who made good on his own rather than a Rio intellectual. In addition, His Beija Flor samba school was located in Nilopolis, an impoverished suburb populated by migrant northeasterners who are not part of the local Carnival tradition.

Joaozinho insists that Beija-Flor brings tremendous benefits to the community.

"Nilopolis is a poor suburb, but we are showing people what they can accomplish on their own, with the right kind of leadership. Young people work with our carpenters, sculptors, and seamstresses, and learn trades. Our school has created a any care center for 300 children. From October to March, membership of the school perform three nights a week in Rio for tourists. We have traveled and paraded in Paris, Nice, Morocco, Jordan, and Zaire.

"Some say that Carnival is an opiate, a way of deceiving the poor; but it's exactly the opposite; a way to open people's eyes and show then that life has other qualities, other emotions, other possibilities.

A number of forces have shaped the current figuration of the Rio Carnival. The completion of the Sambadrome in 1984 increased the scale of things and reinforced an already existing trend toward more and more elaborate costumes and allegoric floats. With the economic decline of Rio de Janeiro, tourism became its most important "industry," making inevitable the transformation of Carnival into a major attraction for foreign visitors (which in turn necessitated a large-scale facility to accommodate spectators).

Moreover, the tremendous power of the mass media in Brazil has influenced the Carnival parade, which has become a major television event. The television cameras have tended to focus on the participating celebrities (and on displays of nudity, before they were banned from prime time) rather than on the traditional and collective aspects of each school's presentation. The networks have also insisted on a degree of scheduling control over the parade, so that they can maximize their exposure to the nationwide viewing audience.

The samba schools have felt the effects of these changes. The expenses of stating a Carnival march have skyrocketed far beyond the financial capacities of the lower-class neighborhoods that continue to server as the hearts and souls of the schools. The government, though maintaining control over Carnival, contributes but a modest percentage of what the parade costs each school. Therefore, the schools have had to search for other sources of income. Rehearsals for the parade have become weekly fund-raising events, through the charging of admissions fees and the sale of refreshments and souvenirs - practices that have been the diluting presence of tourists and people from Rio's middle class. Indeed, because of the dire financial straits in which many of the schools have found themselves, anyone with the proper connections has been able to buy his or her way into participating in the march down the Marques de Sapucai Avenue.

This has made the schools vulnerable to the importunings of "civic-minded" bicheiros. The jogo do bicho, or "animal game," is so intimate a part of the fabric of Brazilian culture that its link to other staples of Brazilianness, such as Carnival, should not be surprising. It was logical that the bicheiros, in search of respectability and goodwill in the communities that patronize their business, would become backers of many of the samba schools.

The first of the bicheiros to identify with a school was an Afro-Brazilian named Natalino Jos‚ de Oliveira. Beginning in the 1950s until his death in 1975, this charismatic "sugar daddy" not only channeled some of his earnings from the jogo do bicho into neighborhood social projects; he also became the patron of the local samba school, Portela. This earned for him the sobriquet Natal da Portela and an aura of legend that continues to the present day. The school paid tribute to him in its 1987 Carnival presentation, and a motion picture released two years later presented a glorified version of his life.

A number of other bicheiros have followed in his footsteps. They have arranged to have themselves named presidents or honorary presidents of samba schools, upon which they have then bestowed substantial sums of money. They have also combined forces to form the Independent League of Samba Schools, an entity that has successfully pressured the government of the city of Rio de Janeiro for a larger share of the tourist and television revenues generated by Carnival.

Those who decry the current state of the parade of the samba schools seem to forget that this hallowed institution has been in a constant state of evolution since its birth. In a sense, the "crisis" of today results from the success of the samba schools in producing a sight-and-sound extravaganza that has deeply touched and excited Brazilians and people from all over the globe. The universal appeal of the parade has taken it far beyond the precincts of folklore, and turning the clock back to a more innocent, less complicated era hardly seems feasible.

Nor is it at all clear that most of the poor people who annually electrify the Sambadrome would want to deprive themselves of the experience. A United States consular official who paraded with one of the schools for several years described it in terms that Americans might understand: "There are 90,000 spectators cheering you on, millions are watching on TV, and you are just ordinary folks. It's like playing in the Superbowl, or the World Series, all compressed into an hour and a half."

Heated debate over the Carnival parade erupted after the 1991 event, when Mocidade Independente spent nearly $800,000 on its winning presentation; Mangueira, a popular school that had refused to take money from any bicheiro, did so badly that it nearly lost the right to march with the group especial. At the same time, the bicheiros threatened to withdraw their schools from the official parade and stage their own Carnival show, an act of defiance that for better or for worse would completely privatize the parade.

The samba schools' subservience to the bicheiros has been an unavoidable sequel to their submission to control by the government, and this symbiotic relationship mirrors the dependency of other enterprises on privileges and subsidies provided by the state. Unfortunately, the bicheiros, as well as government officials, have their own agendas, which probably do not feature the promotion of the self-expression of the lower classes that has traditionally been the defining element of the samba-school performances.

It would indeed be tragic if the Carnival parade became totally commercialized. Several years ago entrepreneurs were concocting a scheme for constructing luxury hotels along Rio's southwest beaches, farm from the center of town, where a new "sambadrome" would be installed and weekly samba-school marches would be staged for the benefit of tourists. Although this scenario remains on the drawing boards, a version of it comes to life in O Samba dos Vagalumes (The Samba of the Fireflies), a novel by Rodolfo Motta Rezende, whose imagination conjures up a nightmarish, nonstop parade in the existing Sambadrome, attracting hordes of enthusiastic foreign visitors, some of whom watch from their windows in a now hotel overlooking the Marques de Sapucai Avenue.

Although truly unique in its impact on the emotions of spectators and participants alike, the Rio de Janeiro Carnival parade is perhaps most remarkable for the evidence it officers, year after year, that lower-class Brazilians are adept at conceiving, organizing, and successfully executing a

highly artistic pageant that compares favorably with entertainment offered anywhere in the world. The samba schools have somehow managed to overcome the various crises associated with the event and the staggering difficulties in staging it.

The parade is a legitimate source of national pride, and it should be taken to heart by all those who would doubt the capabilities of Brazil's common folk. At least in expressing their Brazilianness year after year in the defining event of the Rio Carnival, they demonstrate to anyone with eyes to see and ears to hear their ability to plan, work together, and produce. The challenge facing the country is to harness this dedication, diligence, imagination and enthusiasm and apply them to other areas of endeavor, in ways that will do the most good for the ordinary people of Brazil.

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Author: Mello, Rodney Article Title: recado Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.7; N.123 Publication Date: 03-31-96 Page: p. 5

recado.

The numbers of the Brazilian Diaspora are imprecise, but at least 1.5 million maybe 2 million Brazilians have left Brazil since the early '80s to try their luck in Europe, Japan, South Africa, the US, and almost any place imaginable on earth. To guarantee their stay - sometimes only very temporary - some have even concocted far-fetched stories about present political persecution

The political and economic situations have been improving at home. A 50% a month inflation has fallen to a mere 0.5% this past February and the new currency, the real, continues to show signs of strength. The strong currency buys nothing, some argue, however, and the exodus continues unabated. Disenchanted with an economic plan after another that went haywire, many Brazilians are still skeptical and refuse to accept that the instability is just something from yesterday's papers and the story books.

In contrast with other transitional migrations, the Brazilian Diaspora is made almost exclusively of people with at least a high-school diploma and frequently with a college degree. A great number of them left Brazil as tourists and now are living in clandestinity in their new countries. Why would they take menial jobs in New York, Japan and all over Europe?

We try to answer this and other questions and hope our cover story will help close the gap between those Brazilians who left the country and those who stayed, those far from home and separated by the seas in different continents, and those disparaged by their own countrymen, who having come first accuse the undocumented newcomers of cheating their way into the First - and painful - World.

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Author: Gallant, Katheryn Article Title: THE BRAZILIANS ARE COMING Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.7; N.123 Publication Date: 03-31-96 Page: p. 8

THE BRAZILIANS ARE COMING.

From Hong Kong to Japan, from England to South Africa and throughout the United States, Brazilians are on the move. They are tourists, students, business executives, housekeepers and prisoners. Some of them hope to return home once they have saved enough money to insure a comfortable lifestyle. Others are willing to tell fantasies of political or police persecution to obtain asylum - and free social services in First World nations.

Before the 1960s, Brazil was a country that people immigrated to. From the early 19th century to the mid-20th century, Germans, Swiss Italians, Spaniards, Poles, Czechs, Russians, Japanese and others joined Portuguese in searching for new opportunities in Brazil. After the coup d'‚tat of 1964, thousands of opponents of the military regime went into exile. Although most of these exiles returned to Brazil after the amnesty of 1979, the number of economic emigrants grew in the `80s. Since 1987, when about 300,000 Brazilians lived outside the country, emigration has increased at a rate of 20% per year.

Since April 1991, there have been no official statistics about Brazilian emigrants. The only number available is that of passports issued by the Federal Police. That came to a total of 436,177 in 1993, the most recent year for which statistics are available. However, this does not necessarily mean that everyone who got a Brazilian passport went abroad and never came back.

Nevertheless, Roberto Fabene, a representative of the International Trade Service of the Brazilian Federal Police, believes that the emigration rate has increased since 1991. "Everything indicates that it has grown progressively all these years," he said.

According to Brazilian demographer Jos‚ Alberto Magno de Carvalho, director of the Center of Development and Regional Planning at the Federal University of Minas Gerais (Cedeplar - UFMG), there were between one million and 2.5 million Brazilians living outside Brazil in 1995. The Brazilian Geography and Statistics Institute (IBGE) adds that the statistical "absence" of 1,379,928 Brazilians between the ages of 20 to 44 from the 1991 census (which IBGE researchers discovered while making demographical exercises with the census results) has only one explanation: emigration.

Where are these Brazilians living abroad? Perhaps half of them live in the United States. The largest Brazilian settlements are on the East Coast. New York, with its "Little Brazil" district on 46th Street, has an estimated 80,000 to 150,000 Brazilian emigrants. Another 150,000 are estimated to live in Boston, and 65,000 in Florida (mostly in the Miami area). About 20,000 Brazilians live in California, divided approximately equally between the San Francisco and Los Angeles metropolitan areas. The cities of Houston, Texas and Washington, DC also have about 10,000 Brazilians each. .TX.-More than half the Brazilians who immigrate to the US, according to the Center for Immigration Studies in New York, already have friends or relatives in the US

with whom they stay after they arrive in the country. In 25% of the cases, the immigrants do not plan on returning to Brazil.

"Despite what many people think, most Brazilian immigrants arrive with money and contracts to stay in the US some time before getting a job," Gino Agostinelli, of the Center for Immigration Studies, has told the São Paulo newspaper Folhade São Paulo. "They aren't desperate fugitives, but people with money who are looking for another way of life."

About 65% of Brazilian immigrants to the US find a job within three weeks of their arrival. At first, most immigrants seek jobs in the same field in which they worked in Brazil - principally because this is one of the easiest ways of getting a green card, the permanent resident visa for aliens living in the US. However, almost 70% of Brazilians living in the US are illegal immigrants.

This fact means that the vast majority of Brazilian immigrants end up working in menial jobs with salaries between $1000 and $2000 a month. Only about 4% of Brazilian immigrants who came to New York to stay earn more than $3000 a month. Generally, these are legal immigrants who work in occupations related to the jobs they had in Brazil.

While 59% of Brazilian female immigrants in New York have gone to college, 56% of them work as maids, housekeepers, cooks or nannies. Among the men, while only 4% have no more than an elementary school education, almost all of them are working as laborers, construction workers or bus boys in restaurants. However, the two occupations in which Brazilian immigrants have an almost total monopoly in the New York metropolitan area - shoe shining among the men, go-go dancing among the women - are also considered the most shameful.

Since the 1930s, West 46th Street between 5th and 6th Avenues has been the commercial Mecca of Brazilians living or visiting New York. It took New York City Hall some 65 years to note that fact. Finally, on September 7, 1995 - Brazilian Independence Day - New York City officially gave the title of "Little Brazil Street" to what Brazilians call Rua 46. Like Italians, Chinese, Puerto Ricans and other immigrants to New York, Brazilians now have an official claim to their chunk of the Big Apple.

Most Brazilians who live in New York do not make their homes on 46th Street, or even in Manhattan. Instead, they usually reside in Astoria, a neighborhood of the borough of Queens.

Unfortunately, not all Brazilian immigrants to the US find what they are looking for in the land of Uncle Sam. "It's not worth it to live in illegality. We are really humiliated," R‚gis Ferreira, a 27-year-old student, told the Brasilia newspaper Correio Braziliense. Ferreira was an illegal alien in the US from 1989 to 1993. He washed dished, delivered pizza, painted houses and mowed lawns. After two years of menial jobs, Ferreira gave $5000 to a lawyer who offered him a chance to get a green card. However, the lawyer disappeared with Ferreira's savings. Thwarted in his hopes to become a legal resident of the United States, Ferreira returned to Brazil.

Going East - Every other day, Varig Flight 838 departs from Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo to Nagoya Airport in Kobe, Japan. Each 27-hour flight brings to Japan a new contingent of dekasseguis - Brazilians of Japanese descent who seek better economic opportunities in the land that their parents or grandparents left. For the past three years, the number of dekasseguis has increased. Although no official statistics are available, it is estimated that

there are about 170,000 dekasseguis working in Japan. Only the US has more Brazilian migrants.

Nisei (children of people born in Japan) are allowed to work for three years in Japan, while sansei (grandchildren of native-born Japanese) can only stay in Japan for a maximum of one year. Dekasseguis are often found in jobs (such as manual labor and factory work) that native-born Japanese seldom do themselves, and for which the dekasseguis - almost invariably middle-class, and frequently college graduates - are overqualified. However, the salaries of $2000 to $3000 a month are the great attraction to working in Japan. Even taking the higher cost of living in Japan into account, many dekasseguis can save much more than they could back home.

Marcos Ino is a 28-year-old Paulista (from São Paulo state) of Japanese descent. Although he is the son of Brazilian-born parents, their dual citizenship technically makes him a nisei. Ino has been living in the city of Gifo, near Nagoya, for three years. Before coming to Japan, he worked as a technician in an elevator factory in Villares for $1000 a month. Now he has a lower-ranking position in a paper factory, but earns three times more than he did in Brazil. With his wife, Elaine, who works in a firm making cellular telephones, the family salary is $5000 a month. They are saving money to buy a home after they return home. "This would be impossible in Brazil because the money that's left over at the end of the month would only be enough for weekend entertainment," Ino said.

About one-third of the dekasseguis do not speak their ancestral tongue. According to Paulo Matsubara, a 48-year-old mechanical engineer working in a factory that makes automobile headlights, this is a source of amazement to Japanese. "They don't understand how somebody with a Japanese face doesn't speak their language," Matsubara said.

Lina Nistzu graduated from college with a degree in public relations. She left a banking job in São Paulo to work 14-hour days in a ceramics factory near Nagoya. According to her sister Lucy, Lina does not mind the near-feudal conditions: the wages are better. "Salaries in Brazil are very bad," Lucy Nistzu explained. "It's shocking that somebody with a degree in public relations prefers to do factory work in Japan. But that's Brazilian reality."

London's call - Great Britain has the third-largest number of Brazilian residents. The Brazilian Arts & Community Centre (BA&CC), a London-based organization that offers aid and support to Brazilians in England, has estimated that about 80,000 Brazilians live in the United Kingdom. The vast majority live in England, mostly in the London metropolitan area. In fact, the neighborhood of Bayswater, near the famous Hyde Park, has so many Brazilian residents that is has acquired the nickname "Brazil-water."

Since 1985, when more than two decades of military rule ended in Brazil, 535 Brazilians have requested political asylum in Great Britain - 450, or 84%, since 1993. Statistics from the Home Office (a department in the British government that controls the entry and permanence of foreigners in the country) state that 190 Brazilians requested political asylum in Britain in 1993. In 1994, there were 145 requests from Brazilians. In the first six months of 1995, 115 Brazilians sought political asylum in Great Britain. On the other hand, in all of 1994, only 26 Cubans asked the British government for political asylum.

This does not mean that people are fleeing any actual political persecution in

Brazil. Almost all of the asylum seekers entered Britain as tourists and only then asked for political asylum. The wave of requests for political asylum conceals a desire to stay legally in Britain - with all expenses paid by British taxpayers. While the request for political asylum is being processed, applicants receive $60 a week, complete health insurance, low cost housing and authorization to work legally in the country.

The Home Office has refused to grant refugee status to all 130 Brazilians since 1985 whose cases have been closed. Although penalties for people who file false requests for political asylum in Britain are harsh (a $3000 fine a ban on traveling to any nation in the European Community and the possibility of having to repay the British government for all the Social Security benefits which the false refugee received), this does not faze Brazilian asylum seekers. "For Brazilian, the climate is favorable to the false refugee," said Mary de F tima Lee, president of the BA&CC.

"Samanta" (not her real name) is a 21-year-old Brazilian who has lived in London for three years. In an interview with Sylvio Costa of the Bras¡lia newspaper Correio Braziliense, Samanta confessed that she lied to apply for political asylum. "It was when all that mess was going on, and PC [Farias, the man behind the scandal that forced President Fernando Collor de Mello out of office] was in hiding here in London," she said.

"My son had just been born. I went to the Home Office with the baby and I told them I had helped Collor, and that I couldn't go back home because I'd be risking my life," Samanta said.

"It was so ludicrous a story that, before the year-long time limit that they had given me to stay here as a political refugee had passed, they sent me a letter telling me that I had 28 days to leave the country," Samanta continued.

Instead of leaving, Samanta decided to marry an Englishman. As the wife of a British subject, Samanta receives the same Security benefits that she had as an asylum seeker. These include the "housing benefit," which pays all of Samanta's rent (about $800 a month).

Samanta is content with her London life. She speaks fluent English and is studying fashion design in college. "Here, I can bring up my son, study and go for my degree, which is worth a lot in Brazil. Over there, I couldn't do any of that," she said.

Affluent migrants and tourists - Emigration can be found at the highest levels of multinational corporations as well. Brazilian business executives are currently in Uzbekistan, Cuba, England, Argentina, Spain, Hong Kong and the US working in such areas as finances, marketing and human resources. Ant"nio Carlos Guimaraes, director of human resources at Xerox, told Brazilian weekly newsmagazine Is to that Brazilians' experiences with hyperinflation make them especially well-suited to confront the challenges of new markets in emerging countries. "And in this, Brazilians are PhDs," added Lywall Salles, the director of Chase Manhattan Bank in Hong Kong.

It is not cheap to send a Brazilian executive abroad. Each worker at Xerox do Brasil who is transferred abroad costs an average of $300,000 a year. "Expatriates are expensive, but they're worth it," Guimaraes joked. Also, each executive in a management position receives an extra $1000 to $1500 a month for working outside Brazil.

Carioca (from Rio de Janeiro) Franklin Pereira, who has headed the commerce and industry department of Unisys in Boca Raton, Florida and is currently the sales and marketing director of Epson in Los Angeles, compared Brazilians and Americans in the business world. "Adapting to the US isn't as easy as it seems. Despite our similar cultures, we lack dynamism. The American executive is practical. In Brazil, executives confront a lot of bureaucracy and things get delayed in functioning. It's not the professionals' fault, however. Brazilians are very versatile. The business firms themselves are what make Brazilians seem stupid."

Not all Brazilians who are going abroad plan to emigrate. In 1970, only 179,000 Brazilians - two out of a thousand - could enjoy a foreign trip. Now, there are more Brazilian tourists than ever before. In 1995, 3.1 million Brazilians traveled outside the country, according to a survey by the Brazilian Travel Agents' Association (Abav). Two percent of all Brazilians have gone on business trips or vacations beyond their nation's frontiers.

The popularity of foreign travel is due to three factors, according to the Brazilian weekly newsmagazine Veja, which published a cover story on the topic last January. First, the Brazilian middle class has never found it so affordable. A week-long package tour to New York (plane tickets, hotel room and excursions included) costs as little as $900 a person. That is cheaper than spending the same amount of time in a first-class hotel in a capital of one of Brazil's northeastern states. Another reason is that foreign travel has become much easier to arrange.

Not too many years ago, Brazilians who wanted to indulge in overseas travel had to make a compulsory deposit, buy dollars on the black market and declare how much money they planned to bring. Buying merchandise abroad was out of the question. Now, Brazilian tourists can leave the country whenever they want, bring as much money as they can and even use credit cards issued by non-Brazilian banks. Finally, the economy khas stabilized. The strength of the real - which is worth more than the US dollar - makes it tempting for Brazilian tourists to shop for bargains in countries where prices are lower, and the variety is greater, than at home.

The result has been an explosion of Brazilian tourists. Brazilians occupy third place in foreign tourists to Disney World in Florida, behind only the Canadians and British. Travelers from the largest country in South America also are the second-most likely overseas visitors to the ski resort of Aspen, Colorado, with only the Germans being more prevalent. According to a US government study, Brazilian tourists are arriving in the US at a faster rate than tourists from any other country.

Brazilians are also going to countries that were previously unknown territory to them. For example, 30,000 Brazilians went to South Africa in 1995, twice as many as went to that country three years previously. Eight thousand of those Brazilians in South Africa went to celebrate New Year's Eve 1995 at the Palace Hotel in Johannesburg, the only six-star hotel in the world.

What do Brazilians like to do while traveling? One type of voyage is reminiscent of the 1969 film If It's Tuesday, This Must Be Belgium. As you may recall, that was the story of American tourists trying to visit seven European countries in 18 days. Like those hapless Yankees, many first-time Brazilian tourists attempt to see and do everything in two or three weeks. They return home totally exhausted and need another vacation to recuperate!

The second prevalent type of vacation is the shopping spree. According to Janet Unger, director of marketing at the renowned New York department store Bloomingdale's, "Brazilians now occupy fourth place among our biggest buyers." As of last summer, Bloomingdale's began to hire Portuguese-speaking sales clerks to assist the wave of Brazilians shoppers.

Just in 1995, tourists from Brazil spent $2.2 billion on purchases, food, hotel rooms and transportation in the US. The number of Brazilian tourists, which was just 398,000 in 1990, almost doubled in five years. It is estimated that there will be a million tourists in the US by 1998, and a whopping 2.2 million by the year 2005.

For the French historian Frederic Mauro, of the National Foundation of Political Science in Paris, the stampede of Brazilians to the First World is comparable to another exodus within Brazil's own borders: that of Northeasterners who arrive at the bus depots in Rio or São Paulo in search of opportunity. "The Northeastern migration is a smaller-scale portrait of what is happening throughout the world," Mauro told Brazilian newsmagazine Veja in 1991. "The poorest people, when they are in trouble, always find space in big cities."

This analogy, like most comparison, is far from exact. One difference is that the dream of the wonderful South no longer excites Northeasterners as much as the American or European dream inspires the natives of southern Brazil's urban centers.

By 1990, only 10,000 migrants came to São Paulo, much less than the 200,000 who arrived each year during the 1960s. The sertanejos (backlanders) of Brazil's Northeast now prefer the gold mines of Amazonia or the more prosperous cities in the interior of São Paulo state. Largely for financial reasons, they have not yet thought of taking Manhattan.

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Author: Velloso, Wilson Article Title: Bye, bye, US Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.7; N.123 Publication Date: 03-31-96 Page: p. 16

Bye, bye, US.

"The true direction of Brazilianhood is to march toward West," preached the cowboy strongman Getúlio Vargas, who ruled the country - legally or illegally, by hook or by crook - from 1930 to 1945 (with an elected recall in 1951-54). In our day and age, Vargas would perhaps wave the same flag. But for reasons of opportunity, very different from his nationalistic demagoguery, "corporativist" and fascistic leanings, and the policies of "profiteurism" he introduced into the country's institutions..

Westward, Ho! indeed, since advancing to the West you end up at the Pacific Rim. The immense Pacific Ocean and its whole new economic constellation that has supplanted the traditional Oriental order.

Warbroken, devastated, and militarily demoralized a few years ago, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia now comprise a vibrant industrial-financial complex that competes with yesterday's military victor. How did they get there? Through a new kind of democracy-with-discipline, with patient observation and imaginative research. And the expectation of a fairly long wait from idea to achievement to success.

Many years ago, an American inventor, Weltmark, had his color TV rejected by the U.S. authorities for not being black-and-white compatible. NHTS was the winning American standard, pushed by RCA. A small and obscure Japanese company bought the Weltmark patents, researched and experimented tirelessly with them. At long last, it became SONY, the brightest color TV this side of the German PAL standard. Today, Sony is a worldwide power. In America it controls film and record companies, movie chains, and has a wide variety of performers under contract.

Who had heard of Toyota outside Japan? It was an ancient and respected domestic carmaker. After the are it invaded the U.S., where it is now a partial partner of General Motors and manufactures in California and GEO line: Storm, Prizm, Metro.

For Brazilians the conclusion is obvious: we should look around for another star to hitch our economic chariot on. A slavish, broadside imitation of all things American may bring us ruin in a world that is increasingly "One Market." As articles appearing in News from Brazil have pointed out, let's judiciously follow, introduce, imitate, copy only such theories, tactics, procedures, things that can be thoroughly Brazilianized, or which have been already universalized elsewhere.

For too long have our economic policies been closely tied to the U.S. ones. The present might be the moment to break away and shop around. With the full understanding, of course, that the "Asian Way" must be thoroughly investigated. And rejected in those parts that may be abhorrent to the Brazilian Way.

As a citizen of Brazil, a country of immigrants, I see that we already do many things better than the Americans. For instance, when we quietly reject the hyphenation of our nationality. We are not a bunch of Native Brazilians (meaning Indians), of African Brazilians (meaning Blacks), Luso-Brazilians, Italo-Brazilians, Nipo-Brazilians.

We are simply Brazilians, without handles, and our different nationalities bring together our many talents and our own jeitinhos, the same way we may lunch on kibe or teriyaki, and dine on pizza, paprikashtchirke, or rod¡zio de churrasco, enjoying on Saturdays a heavy load of feijoada, or bacalhoada, or callos ala madrile¤a. All of the above helped down the hatch by a caipirinha caprichada, or a kaipirovshka estupidamente gelada. Or, in a more petty bourgeois manner, with a hamburguesa, a Skol or a modest guaran espumante.

All of which shouldn't stop us from learning, getting information, researching, and discussing, from Monday through Friday, the relative merits of the different systems. Then we may get to know, for instance, about the dark side of the American Way which engendered, among other sensational news stories, the Men‚ndez Brothers, rich guys who killed their mother and father accusing them of abusing sexually their kids; the sordid "sporting" exploit of Tonya Harding, the uncontrollable urge to win at any cost, even breaking the legs of a team mate; or the horror story of the druggie who cut open his wife's abdomen to "save" a foetus from her demonic influence; or Milliken who stole millions in criminal stock manipulations, or Aramony who embezzled millions from the premier American charitable organization, the United Way; and the anti-Semitic, anti-Black armed Militias.

Above all, now that the world is in a state of flux, Brazilians should be extra-cautious about once again "taking the wrong streetcar." It would help, though, if they remembered that Kung Fu-Tsu, whom we call Confucius, "discovered gunpowder" during the 5th century B.C. Chou dynasty, at a time when the Chinese wallowed in corruption, greet, immorality, dishonesty, hypocrisy and other shortcomings we all have seen at close quarters. He preached a rededication to the fundamental virtues of ALL citizens - hard work, obedience to the law, honoring the parents and the whole family, avoid waste, and save.

Which were, more or less, the same great virtues Brazilian citizens practiced under the rule of Peter II and for about half a century under the Republic. Let's resurrect as heroes - in today's parlance - men like Prudente de Morais, Campos Salles, Rodrigues Alves, Affonso Penna, who were not after the fast buck, the permanent search of reelection, and did not buy popularity by giving sinecures away.

And if Asians, Europeans, Americans, Africans, and Oceanians can teach us, counsel us, and help us, let's say welcome and thank you, and keep alert against the shameless scoundrels and nincompoops in our midst. No need to execute them: just display them on a public pillory for several days at a stretch. A São Paulo building company could easily design a 21st century pelourinho.

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Author: Barreto, Carlos E.F. Article Title: Coming of age Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.7; N.123 Publication Date: 03-31-96 Page: p. 17

Coming of age.

Signed in 1991, the Mercosul Common Trade agreement, grouping Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay, reached an important turning point in 1995. Early in December, the Presidents of the four countries signed in Madrid, the first accord with another trade bloc. The pact signed with the EU (European Union) marked the acceptance of the Mercosul in the international economic arena as well as the European confidence on its political success.

Later that same month, the Mercosul bloc signed a free-trade agreement with Bolivia, an effort to advance even more South America's economic integration. Furthermore, talks with Chile towards a free-trade agreement with that country are making substantial progress. These events manifest the level of faith in the bloc and its future major role in the economic development of Latin America.

From the European point of view, the accord with the Mercosul has political and economic resonance. Politically, it permits the EU to maintain closer participation in a region where they have a great historical, cultural, and societal affinity. Economically, the accord secure European companies stability, juridical guaranty and access to a market comprehending 200 million consumers and $800 billion GDP (Gross Domestic Product). The accord sets for a free-trade area by 2005. According to Pedro Malan, the Brazilian Finance Minister, presently the Mercosul has 22 investment projects under analysis which total $16 billion. Malan foresees a flood of investments coming in from overseas and specially from Europe and other Latin American nations.

The European Union concentrates 38% of the world trade flow which implies a financial and commercial dominance. Forty percent of all banks installed in the Mercosul are European, and European companies constitute the main source of foreign investment in the four countries. For example, after a wave of privatization, Spain's Telefonica de Espa¤a and Italy's Societa Finanziaria Telefonica per Azioni SpA control most of all big telephone companies south of the Panama Canal.

According to report from Price Water-house, the region will experience in 1996 a year a intense activity in mergers, acquisitions and joint-ventures. In 1995, such business activity grew 60% compared to the previous year and foreign investment then accounted for 38%. Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay are responsible for one third of Latin America's total trade and 70% of Latin America's total GDP. The EU is their main partner, reaching in 1995 a record high in volume of trade - 27% of Mercosul's total exports was to the EU while 17% went to NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement), and 26% of the total imports came from the EU against 23% from NAFTA.

Another important achievement to the market economy of the Mercosul was reached with Bolivia. The so-called 4-plus-1 agreement, serves as a free-trade bridge connecting the Mercosul to the Andean Pact - a bloc constituted by Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. The reason

for this type of agreement lies on a Mercosul regulation which forbids member countries to individually join other blocs. However, the Andean Pact countries can.

A major infra-structure project necessary to integrate both blocs is under way. A 3,440 km (2,137 miles) of navigable rivers will constitute the Paraguay-Parana and the Tiete-Parana waterways. These waterway systems will lower transportation cost of all products traded within the region. Furthermore, talks to sign a 4-plus-1 agreement with Chile have already started. And Chile has signed a free-trade agreement with Mexico and is currently working to sign another one with Canada. Even Guyana, once a strong nationalistic country, is talking to open its borders to Brazil.

In a recent article published in the Wall Street Journal titled, "Latin Nations, unsure of US motives, make their own trade pacts," shows Mercosul's alternatives to expand its borders. The article states that Chile's acceptance of NAFTA has encountered strong opposition from the US Congress which lead to Chilean officials to bypass American bureaucracy towards freer trade. The simultaneous resignation of six US government officials responsible for Latin American foreign policies and the delay in replacing them shown the lack of US concern with the region. According to US Trade Representative, Mickey Kantor, "the greatest victims of tariff and nontrade barriers are small and medium-size companies."

For example, a Massachusetts textile company, Quaker Fabric Corp., is a having a hard time selling in Argentina. That country benefits from duty-free textiles from Brazil and competition form US goods, after a 25% tariff, is minor. US textile in the Mercosul has also strong competition from fabrics coming from England, France, Italy and Belgium which by 2005 will benefit from a tariff-free market. US executives are disappointed with Washington which is promising too much but doing too little to integrate the economy with neighboring countries. Caterpillar, a US manufacturer of heavy agriculture machinery, said that after Chile joins Mercosul, sales from US factories will be shifted to Brazilian factories. At the end, US workers will be the losers. As Latin America develops, the business environment will become more difficult for US companies.

In the past few months, many trade agreements between the Mercosul and other countries have been signed. Stated leaders have gone back and forth while other nations are just watching Mercosul's development. In 1995, trade among Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay doubled to $16 billion. As Ford's President, Alex Trotman, stated in January at Switzerland's World Economic Forum, "Mercosul is just starting its future."

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Author: Velloso, Wilson Article Title: Are we ever going to learn? Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.7; N.123 Publication Date: 03-31-96 Page: p. 19

Are we ever going to learn?.

In mid-January the Apple Company announced a loss of $69 million in its latest three-month business period. What has that got to do with Brazil? Plenty.

Plenty because at the root of this dismal result is Apple's long standing decision to go it alone. Going it alone means more gross profit; and, even if the tax bite is bigger, the net profit is higher than is the case with the non-Apple computer companies, a community of several hundred.

Brazil has an ancient and sorry story of "going it alone". For many years, from the last century, Brazil had been the only producer of rubber in the world. It set the prices and the terms. The money rolled in. Part of it was mixed into the mortar used into the Teatro Amazonas in the jungle-capital of Manaus. British steamers sailing to Par (Bel‚m) did not bother going to Rio or Santos. Or anywhere else in Brazil. It was Manaus or bust.

The poor rubbertappers, who owed their souls to the company store, and were paid by the kilo, began adding rocks and other heavy debris to the rubber as the latex coagulated in big balls, in the smoke of open fires. It was their way of getting even and a bit more of money from the big rubber barons (some of whom imported Italian opera companies to sing "Aida" for them in the Teatro Amazonas). in the end, the workers' sneaky revenge did bankrupt their bloodsucking exploiters. At the same time, they torpedoed the Brazilian monopoly of rubber.

Brazilian books tell how the British "stole" 11,000 or 33,000 young plants - who was counting? - and smuggled them to the Far East, where they gave birth, in the Federated Malay States and other Somerset Maugham-tale areas under British control, to all Far East rubber plantations. The books never mentioned how rocks in the raw rubber balls had broken and damaged plant machinery and enraged European industrialists.

In a book written more than 60 years ago, a German, "investigative reporter" called Anton Zischka, told the full story. His work, Wissenschaft bricht Monopole [Science Breaks Monopoly], relates how those uncounted thousands of tender seedlings of Hevea brasiliensis travelled to England under Equatorial sun, shaded by tarpaulins, watered several times a day, and how most wilted and died. Only a dozen and half survived. They were taken to the famous Kew Gardens, near London, where dedicated botanists babied and nurtured them, strengthened them, and finally helped them become trees. It was the much more mature and hardier Kew Garden trees that spawned the millions of rubber trees of today in Malaysia and the neighboring rubbed countries.

In 1951 I wrote in Rio a melancholy article "The End of a Dream: Brazil Imports Rubber from the Orient." It was a lesson that should be taught in all classes of "Brazilian Problems" and, in depth, in courses of Economics. Is anybody listening? Has anybody learned anything?

Back to Apple: In spite of its tremendous success, its 4-year lead over IBM, its many spectacular inventions, Apple has had ups and downs in the last few years. And while it gripped jealously its monopoly, in the firm belief it had a better product and that the market would recognize it, it lost ground, the economic analysts say, because of: greed and self-centeredness.

While Apple kept everything for itself (mostly the profit), IBM got into a community of computer gear manufacturers, licensed its patents to competitors who introduced their own improvement. IBM used Intel microprocessors in large scale and worked with Microsoft (which produced its first "Disk Operating System" (DOS), and other software, then "Windows" - a fabulous panoply of programs. Today Microsoft has eclipsed most US companies and, following IBM's example, has licensed scores of other makers to make DOS for many computer-makers, and much more in the wide area of software.

In spite of the debacle of its Rubber Empire, Brazil still keeps to the misguided notion that monopoly is more profitable. Yes, it is, in the short run, but Brazil is not in business for 5, 10 or 20 years. However, monopoly has been a government-blessed policy in Brazil: * The teletypewriter, invented before First World War I, and widely used worldwide, was reserved exclusively in Brazil for the armed services. It was only after the end of World War II that teletypewriting (both Telex and Teletype are registered trade marks) became generally available in the country, provided by a single operator, the Post Office. When I arrived in Washington in 1955 news from Brazil arrived at the Embassy by the dash-and-dot Morse code... * Silkscreen printing, an art of ancient Chinese origin, was introduced in Brazil under the name Planograf by a company that managed to monopolize its [public domain] technique for many years, and made a mint. * By opening the country to several automakers simultaneously, President Juscelino Kubitschek tripped a business-military cabal whose intention was to exploit the automotive industry as a monopoly. * As soon as the first small personal computers (as against the large mainframe computers sold by IBM and other US makers) arrived, their manufacture in Brazil became "reserved to National industry" - actually a monopoly or a cartel - under the flimsy excuse of protecting the [then nonexistent] Brazilian PC industry. The result was the manufacture of a new clunkers that were already obsolete when marketed. They were put together with parts mostly smuggled into the country. There was no genuine computer industry, only pirated copies of hardware and software.

Wrote a "cyber wag": "In the end, Brazil managed the marvel of getting 30 years behind the times in 15 years of PC marketing." Since contraband has been a flourishing national industry for many years over the porous Brazilian borders, the "market reservation" umbrella just protected the smugglers at many levels. Many people got rich through this gimmick. * Knowledgeable people who had legitimate reasons to travel frequently between the US and Brazil were approached by "Market Reservation" agents and enticed to haul to Brazil all sorts of entire computing units (CPU, keyboard, monitor, printer, cables, software). In exchange for the courtesy, the "carrier pigeons" were given tickets, per diem, expenses, and honoraria, paid in cash when the mules contacted trusted Custom officers at Galeao, Guarulhos and other Brazilian airports. When the "informal" computer market got saturated, plain-paper fax machines became the main item of trade. * The EBCT, the Brazilian Post Office facade-corporation, tried to horn into the use of fax in Brazil, taking it away from another Brazilian government provider, Telebr s. But the "Brazilian ATT" held firm and the EBCT had to retreat. * Right now, Brazilians interested in getting onto the Internet have only one gate to deal with: Embratel, the satellite company. Without any competition, setting its

own rules and rates, Embratel has no interest in setting regional "hubs" to save users the real time on long distance telephone lines, some of which are hardly reliable. Embratel may charge whatever it pleases and, in theory, may refuse connections in the case of "undesirables". * Or, as they say in Brazil "Os caes ladrame a caravana passa" [The dogs bark and the caravan goes on].

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Author: Barbic, Sheryl Article Title: Lie of the land Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.7; N.123 Publication Date: 03-31-96 Page: p. 20

Lie of the land.

During the last constitutional revision in 1988, the Brazilian Congress incorporated Article 231 to recognize the inalienable right of indigenous people to their ancestral lands and natural resources, guaranteeing their right to exist as distinct cultures. 1991's Decree 22 strengthened the language of the Constitution by further delineating the primacy of indigenous rights over competing interests, thereby enforcing the demarcation of indigenous reserves based on aboriginal habitation. The Government stated that all 554 indigenous territories should be demarcated by October 5, 1993. To date, only 210 indigenous land titled have been granted.

A new decree signed by President Fernando Henrique Cardoso on January 8, 1996, however, signals a major step backwards for indigenous rights in Brazil, according to Brazilian and international indigenous rights groups. Decree 1775, these groups contend, impedes indigenous peoples' rights as guaranteed by the 1988 Constitution, compromising the already slow process of establishing indigenous reserves by permitting commercial interests to challenge the demarcation of indigenous lands.

Beto Borges, Amazon Campaign Coordinator for the Rainforest Action Network, a San Francisco based organization, states, "Decree 1775 delays the demarcation of new indigenous reserves, and challenges the legitimacy of existing ones."

Decree 22 enforced the demarcation of indigenous lands without allowing conflicting interests to appeal, but provided compensation to parties who already possessed legal title to these indigenous lands. Decree 1775 reverses the tenets of Decree 22 by allowing commercial interests to challenge the process of demarcation of indigenous lands. The new decree effectively permits invaders, such as ranchers, loggers, and miners the opportunity to contest the demarcation process in a given area. Economic interest may now legally take the natural resources out of the control of indigenous groups, thereby undermining the rights of indigenous people to their traditional lands as recognized in Article 231 of the Brazilian Constitution.

The new decree states that previously demarcated areas which are not yet fully registered are open to revision, including Yanomami territories. Yanomami peoples are preoccupied that political and economic interests are working to annul indigenous land rights. The Yanomami fear continued invasions of their lands by miners who destroy and pollute their rivers. Since 1987, the Yanomami population has been reduced by 25%. With the signing of Decree 1775, the international community fears the Yanomami population will decline even further.

Struggles by indigenous groups to retain their natural resources and the land itself are expected to arise. CIMI (Indigenist Missionary Council) cites that eight indigenous areas have already been invaded in the few weeks since the new decree became law.

Due to political and economic pressures, Minister of Justice, Nelson Jobim has been trying to revoke Decree 22 since 1991. Jobim argues that Decree 22 does not provide direito do contradit¢rio, or "the right to contest," on behalf on private economic interests. Decree 22 was ruled unconstitutional because it does not incorporate the adversarial process. The new decree, which effectively annuls Decree 22 may be used to benefit economic interests who have expressed their desire to capitalize upon Amazonian resources.

The only indigenous areas immune from possible review are the 210 fully demarcated and registered lands. The remaining 344 territories, which have been demarcated but not fully registered, are open to review, and will most probably be reduced. Such a revision in policy threatens to stall the future demarcation of indigenous territories in Brazil for years to come. The government states the demarcation process will continue, yet the Brazilian state has effectively paralyzed the demarcation process.

The first appeal has already been registered by Agropecu ria Sattin, S.A., located in the state of Mato Grosso, who are contesting the Guarani-Kaiowa territory of Sete Cerros. It is feared that escalating violence in this region will bring about an increase in the number of suicides by the Guarani peoples.

The National Indian Foundation (FUNAI) is responsible for registering land titles of demarcated areas. FUNAI is the administrative office scheduled to handle the appeals process, yet this office is not sufficiently equipped to deal with the gigantic demand that will be placed upon them from all of the new appeals. Within the G7 (Group of Seven) Pilot Project to Conserve the Brazilian Rainforests, $9.7 million have been earmarked by the G7 to be directed toward the demarcation of indigenous lands in Brazil. The international community fears G7 moneys will be misdirected toward the revision process, clearly not what the G7 funds were allocated for. Indigenous groups are asking the German government, the principal financial donor to the G7, to temporarily halt disbursements so these funds are not misdirected.

The international community fears Decree 1775 will facilitate the new model of privatization currently underway in the Brazilian Amazon. In rewriting Brazilian law, the government is making it legally possible for firms to invade indigenous lands for the purpose of cattle ranching, oil, mineral, and mahogany extraction. These types of unsustainable forest practices historically facilitate infrastructure development, thereby opening up remote and often pristine areas of forest which have long been considered the sacred lands of numerous indigenous peoples.

The consensus from Brazilian indigenous, and organizations supporting indigenous rights, argue that the FHC government should be held accountable for their actions. The international community is calling upon FHC to revoke Decree 1775 and reinstate indigenous rights to land title. The cultural survival of hundreds of indigenous groups throughout Brazil are in danger of extinction, they argue. Alarmed by the seriousness of human rights violations in Brazil, the Organization of American States (OAS) is in the process of writing an official report to the Government of Brazil encouraging the state to respect the international human rights to which Brazil is a signatory.

The Amazon Coalition, a group of US-based non-governmental and human rights issues in the Amazon, recently met in San Francisco to discuss the serious implications of Decree 1775. The Amazon Coalition has jointly sent a letter

to President Fernando Henrique Cardoso urging him to revoke Decree 1775.

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Author: Sampler, Daniel Article Title: Sambaing on-line Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.7; N.123 Publication Date: 03-31-96 Page: p. 22

Sambaing on-line.

Once upon a time in cyberspace... That would be a perfect beginning for this story. Because it talks about two sambistas from two samba schools in the opposite sides of the earth. What makes their story unique, isn't only the fact that their samba schools aren't in Brazil, or that they speak different languages, nor the fact that one is in a semi-desert region of the world while the other is near the Arctic Circle. The uniqueness about these schools is that they became sister samba schools via the Internet.

The Internet was created around 25 years ago by physicists in Switzerland to allow for easier exchange of information and data between scientists. In 1993, the same people created a multimedia standard for the Internet that allowed text, graphics, audio, and even video to be easily created and exchanged around the world. The World-Wide Web, (or Web as it is commonly called) has exploded from a few hundred sites in 1993, to tens of millions in less than two years and its growth has been steadily increasing ever since.

A few samba lovers (or sambistas as they are called in Brazil) began seeing the potential of putting samba information on the Web, began preparing their own sites in cyberspace not knowing how it would change their lives in only a few short months.

Let's face it: playing, dancing, and singing samba is not the most common activity, unless of course you are in Brazil. What is more common than coffee in Brazil, is more rare than diamonds abroad. Finding a samba group outside Brazil is more difficult than it was finding one Web page out of the millions in the Internet before there were search engines (search engines are web sites dedicated to helping find anything about anything on the Web). But the web created cybercommunities with no political, geographic, or cultural barriers. All of a sudden, the world was one community - and that included of course the sambistas.

The first samba group on the web was a fairly new samba school in Long Beach, California. Other groups followed. The Edinburgh Samba in the United Kingdom, a Swedish samba group, and also the Finns. Pretty soon there was a small group of people on the Web all with the same interest: samba. A sambistas mailing list was organized and soon, a World-Wide Samba Home Page was launched. (A "home page" is like the index of a book from which one can easily connect to other pages of information related to that site, whether it be local or from the other side of the world). Together, the World-Wide Samba Home Page and the electronic mailing list did what no other technology had done before: brought the international samba community together for the first time.

Other sambistas from around the world joined in. From Japan, Israel, and even Brazil people started coming on-line. The World-Wide Samba Home Page was voted as one of the top 5% sites in the entirety of the Web which contains an estimated 15 million pages..

The beginning - Harri Engstrand, president of Imp‚rio do Papagaio, a samba school in Helsinki, Finland, was preparing a Web page for his samba school when SambaL launched its own home page. Engstrand was a little disappointed that David de Hilster, the president of SambaL , had beaten him out. But he would get very soon over it, mainly due to the satisfaction to suddenly discover to many people around the world who shared his passion for samba.

Both schools were preparing for their annual Carnaval parades. Samba-L would have their first in Long Beach in June. For Imp‚rio do Papagaio, also in June, it was their sixth year. Carnaval passed and both David and Harri, like others, kept tabs on what was happening in other samba groups around the world.

David posted information about SambaL 's first anniversary party.

Harri saw the announcement on the Web and felt moved to see a new samba school surviving its first year. Knowing the joy and pain of starting such an organization outside of Brazil, he did something that would link even more the schools: he sent SambaLa carnival posters, a T-shirt, a birthday card and a small audio cassette containing a samba enredo (a samba school's annual theme song) in Finnish. Everything sounded Brazilian except for the fact that it was in Finnish.

David decided to take the challenge and learn the song even though he didn't know a word of Finnish. David, who has a master's in Linguistics, lived almost three years in Rio. Although he speaks Portuguese fluently, learning a samba in Finnish wouldn't be easy. SambaL 's president knows that the best way to learn a song in another language is to practice the melody first, ignoring the words. That's the way he has been learning new samba songs from Brazil.

Many people knew that David was learning a samba in Finnish and it didn't surprise them. "David is crazy!" is a phrase that the computer expert and artist hears a lot. After all, he did start a samba school without knowing what a samba school really was. The Finns also called him a "crazy" American for trying to sing Finnish without knowing Finnish. Finnish is supposedly one of the hardest languages in the world to learn. But that made the challenge even more interesting for him.

David decided to wait until the first Sunday of the month to officially "launch" the song. He wanted to video-tape the event for the Finns. He chose the first Sunday in November (the 5th, 1995) for the big event. He suggested to Harri that the two samba schools become sister samba schools. To his knowledge, they would be the first samba schools outside of Brazil to do such a thing. In Brazil it is very common for the larger samba schools to have affiliates or sister samba schools in other cities and even states. The larger schools usually help smaller schools by sending costumes and other things. This relationship would be one of friendship. Sort of samba school "pen pals".

It seems unimaginable that cyberspace could generate such passion and feelings over such a great distance. Many people say that cyberspace is a cold and impersonal place - a place that strips you of your natural senses and replaces them with artificial sensors. Yet such as attitude overlooks a revolutions that is taking place on the Internet that is making the impossible possible: the forming of a community that could not exist in the physical world.

And among the first settlements in cyberspace, one now hears the vibration of samba. And within that cyber community, two samba schools met, exchanged culture, and have become lifelong friends.

The cyberspace sambistas continue to grow and thrive. The non-Brazilian sambistas are now starting talk of organizing an international league of samba schools and an "Encontro 2000" (Encounter 2000) in Rio de Janeiro where all international samba schools would get together and form one large international samba school! All via the Internet.

But nothing said it better than the words of the Finnish song that made its way halfway around the world to California all thanks to this new technology: "Once upon a time... That much you can always believe if you just want to."

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Author: Shukla, Divya Article Title: Mogul in the making Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.7; N.123 Publication Date: 03-31-96 Page: p. 24

Mogul in the making.

Sunday afternoon Brazilian television entertainer Gugu Liberato has achieved success as a TV host, financial rewards as a savvy businessman and stardom as a master at publicity. The youngest child of Portuguese immigrants, Ant"nio Augusto Liberato (a.k.a. Gugu), contributed to his family's income by working at a real estate agency in São Paulo as an office-boy when he was 13 years old. Now at the age of 37, his net worth is calculated to be around $18 million.

Gugu Liberato is the host of a four hour television show called Domingo Legal telecast by the SBT network owned by the king of television entertainment S¡lvio Santos. The variety show concentrates mainly on humorous pieces similar to the American television show Candid Camera. Domingo Legal originally aired on July of 1994 and has captivated the Brazilian audience ever since.

In response to the show's popularity, the competitor network O Globo retaliated by assigning popular shows in the same time slot as Domingo Legal. Gugu fought back with a new idea - a weekly surprise visit to any one of the 500 thousand fan letters that he has received, so far. These weekly visits are not only a complete surprise, but also a complete invasion of privacy. In previous episodes, Gugu has walked through each and every room of the chosen home, with no regard given to what the homeowner might be doing, which often times has included taking a shower.

Domingo Legal's most popular skit is the piece called O Taxi Do Gugu (Gugu's Cab), during which the host dressed in one of his many disguises (he can be an old and grumpy guy or a young metal rocker will pick-up unsuspecting participants in a cab equipped with two hidden cameras. During one of these taxi rides, Gugu drove a passenger on a wild ride through the streets of São Paulo while pretending to be blind. And nothing stopped the host from actually driving on sidewalks, not even the screams of the passenger.

The Taxi Do Gugu show has offended passengers during at least two occasions. Once when a foul-smelling gas was released inside the cab, all in the name of humor, and passengers felt ill. Another time when the show contracted a young boy to throw paint on a passenger ruining her dress in the process. Afterwards, Domingo Legal's producer. Afterwards, Domingo Legal's producer. Homero Salles, opted to pay for all of the damages incurred and also chose to enact a few informal rules, which include excluding pregnant and elderly passengers from the cab episodes claiming that they might not be healthy enough to survive the scares provided by the gags.

Cruel humor? The Brazilian audiences seem to be eating it up! The Ibope (Brazilian system of ratings) has been registering record high ratings. The ratings have been so good that they have surpassed those received by Xuxa, the television personality best known for hosting a variety show aimed at children.

The rear doors of the taxi, used during the filming of O Taxi Do Gugu, are now kept locked following an incident with a passenger that threatened to jump out when Gugu, in disguise, said that the cab was being followed by a jealous husband. The fact that he was able to convince this passenger, along with others, is proof of his satisfactory acting abilities. For Gugu, the cab driver, it is hard not to be recognized as Gugu, the celebrity. He has even had to change automobiles twice. Gugu's taxi-cab-show inspiration is an aristocratic cab driver that he met during a vacation trip from Nice to Cannes, in France.

A master at publicity, Gugu is often romantically linked to several of the young dancers that appear regularly on the show, although, he admits to being a hopeless bachelor who is too busy to date. He often prefers the company of a good whisky.

Gugu says that his preferred hobby is gardening but rumor has it that the actual gardener is his driver Ant"nio, who takes care of the beautiful garden in front of his house.

The TV host's monthly salary of $70 thousand, in addition, to business smarts (in 1994 his companies made $24 million), has enabled him to be an avid investor. Gugu Liberato has owned several export companies, such as Banatropi which exported banana drinks to Europe. Banatropi, along with other food and beverage companies were sold by him when profit levels became scarce. Gugu currently owns Promoart and Gugu Promoçoes e Merchandising. Promoart promotes artists such as Banana Split, the duo Jean e Marcos and the popular singer Marcelo Augusto.

Along with a partner, he is investing in Parque do Gugu (Gugu's Park), to be built in a São Paulo shopping center. Parque do Gugu will be an entertainment center filled with video games, virtual reality games and space for shows.

Gugu's humble beginnings are a contrast to his current life style. He lives in the height of luxury in a house furnished with Persian rugs, two swimming pools and an art collection. The $1.5 million house is located in an isolated mountainous region of São Paulo called Aldeia da Serra, a barely populated area that is occupied by 800 families. This luxurious mansion is merely one of the five homes owned by this television host. Gugu also owns an apartment building.

When one mentions Gugu, it is hard not to draw comparisons between him and S¡lvio Santos. S¡lvio Santos, his mentor and employer, also had similar humble origins being the son of immigrants. S¡lvio didn't work as an office-boy, but he was a street vendor. S¡lvio and Gugu even dress alike - a formal suit and tie attire. When questioned about the similarities, Gugu's response has always been that there will never be an equal to S¡lvio Santos.

Gugu met S¡lvio Santos while studying journalism at the C sper Libero College in São Paulo. The latter employed him as a reporter for his Semana do President (The President's Week). Gugu was responsible for following and interviewing then President general Joao Baptista de Oliveira Figueiredo (1979-1985). Gugu's television host career actually started in 1982 when he starred in the show Viva a Noite. Prior to this he had been a radio personality for 10 years.

In an apparent contrast to his materialistic exterior and his chubby figure is

Gugu's spirituality. He keeps in his office a small chapel dedicated to St. Jude, known in Brazil as the saint for the impossible causes. Gugu, who was an altar boy, belongs to a deeply religious family. Gugu's mother, Maria do C‚u, told Isto  magazine of a miracle (prayers to St. Anthony of Padua) that made her youngest son recover from pneumonia as an infant, and to this day she is devoted and grateful to that saint.

Gugu Liberato's immediate goal is to own a television network similar to his mentor S¡lvio Santos. He even has a name for the venture: Sistema Liberato de Comunicaçao. Until then, Gugu will surround himself with art, fans, success and whisky, of course.

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Author: Gilman, Bruce Article Title: The Attack of the Killer B.....s! Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.7; N.123 Publication Date: 03-31-96 Page: p. 39

The Attack of the Killer B.....S!.

Unanticipated and coming from São Paulo, they're startling Brazilian children between the ages of 8 and 13. They're surprising teenagers with a mixture of off color words, good humor, and a total disregard of cultural mores. They're creating a fervor. There is no antidote for the young who crave a heavy-metal sting. Radios in Rio and São Paulo were assaulted by their unexpected concoction. Children's TV programs have been superseded by every Brazilian adolescents' favorite diversion today, a musical virus that answers to the irresistible name Mamonas Assassinas. Killer Breasts!

Surprise was the first reaction for those who heard the name of this band from Guarulhos, São Paulo, that launched its first recording in July. Nonetheless, the phenomenon of Mamonas Assassinas is the present condition of Brazilian pop music. The thinking is that the deficit of good ideas in MPB (Brazilian Popular Music) has created "alternative" groups that migrated from the secondary school playgrounds to recording studios and became the dominant sound on the radio.

Kids in Brazil have always adored changing the lyrics of well-known songs to objectionable ones and making a parody of the tune's original meaning. They have always loved suggestive jokes. As a result, people in Rio today can always tell which homes have children as they will inevitably hear a discharge of Mamonas Assassinas blaring out into the street. Analogous to Beavis and Butt-head in the United States, anything that amuses young people (the more idiotic the better) is fair game for the media.

To the despair of many Brazilian parents, their kids are consuming the newly released CD with voracious appetites. Attempting to please their capricious kids, some uninformed and "out of touch" parents have innocently agreed to buy the disc. Still upon first hearing, have forbidden their kids to waste their time with "such garbage: and have threatened to return the recording. As with most threats, however, the parents have had to bite the bullet. In the case of Mamonas, the bullet is rather large and goes straight to the head.

In the last few months, Mamonas Assassinas has been performing five shows per week, sometimes three in one day, charging an average fee of 20,000 reais (more than $20,000) for each time they take the stage, giving them an income of over 400,000 reais (around $440,000). Their first recording sold over 350,000 copies in the first two months after release, more than the last CDs by renowned singer-composers Caetano Veloso, Chico Buarque, and Milton Nascimento combined.

The attack-by-debauchery marathon seems to be beneficial. Their highly abusive lyrics plus a mixture of bizarre rhythms, has inserted Mamonas Assassinas as the most played group on Brazilian radio. In fact, Mamonas is currently getting more radio air-play in Rio and São Paulo than any other artist. Despite the fact that the recording is a comparatively new release, the band played recently at Arpoador beach to an enthusiastic crowd of over

three thousand that had their song lyrics memorized. Afterwards, with questionable sincerity, Dinho, the band's singer, stipulated in cynical terms that the band's music is a divine inspiration.

With or without the intention of offending, the group uses a heavy-metal guitar sound and ruthless lyrics to ridicule the continental Portuguese, the Caipiras (hillbillies), and principally the people from the sertao (backland people from the Northeast) who immigrate to São Paulo and Rio looking for work during the horrendous Northeastern droughts. These are people who dress and speak differently, who are often illiterate and who will do anything, any type of work, to survive in the big city. They are also a quick-thinking group of people who eventually become acculturated, but who are terribly exploited when they first arrive.

In the thousands of interviews the group has given, one question inevitably rears its head: Why Mamonas Assassinas? The relationship between the name and music is even more bizarre after eyeballing the group's trademark, an enormous pair of firm female breasts that tower over the band members who are carousing below them. The band's 22 year old bass player, Samuel, explained that he dreamt of a name that would bring them success. Even without the fantasies, the band hides behind a cover of natural irreverence.

Until a short time ago, the five Mamonas all had day jobs and would practice in their free time what they exchange today for enormous sums of money. The five live in Guarulhos, close to the international airport on the outskirts of São Paulo where watching planes take off and land is the principal entertainment for the poor. The only attraction in the city is the noisy. Cumbica airport. There is no night life in Guarulhos.

On Saturday nights, young people who have enough change in their pockets catch rides to the neighboring cities of Mairipora or Vinhedo where there is a little more happening. Because the five Mamonas, friends for more than six years, had eternally empty pockets, their only form of entertainment had been bringing together the rest of kids and guiding them through long sessions of brainlessness that helped to minimize their hard lives. They became specialists in inventing off-color escapades.

Samuel was an office boy for four years, and after that a clerk. His 26 year old brother S‚rgio, the group's drummer, worked as a production controller for Olivetti typewriters. Bento Hinoto, the guitar player, was the co-owner of a firm that used to install ceilings and office partitions. Júlio, the keyboard player and only member of the band who had a car, used to work as a technician in a diesel motor factory. Dinho, a Baiano, had a situation that his peers from Bahia would joke about but would also have preferred. He lived off of his parents allowance.

At 24, and with the mind of a 13 year old. Dinho is the soul of the group. He was born in Irecˆ in Bahia but moved to Guarulhos before he was a year old. His parents were going to chance living in the great city of São Paulo. His father is a real estate broker, his mother a housewife and evangelist. Needless to say, Dinho does not follow the word of the Gospel. But this does explain why religion is the sole area that has not been touched by the iconoclastic band's humor, that has in fact been avoided so far.

Until the fifth grade Dinho studied in public school. Later, he tried a vocational school, but in the end he was expelled because of his eccentricity. From the time he was a boy Dinho enjoyed making imitations and is very

convincing, especially with distinctive types of people like those from the north and from the interior of São Paulo with their characteristic accents and quaint expressions. He is a clown by nature and was early to discover his avocation for pantomiming celebrities. When he was only 15 years old, he went to a friend's wedding dressed as Michael Jackson wearing a silver jockstrap over his outfit and, of course, the sequined glove trademark. Even the priest laughed.

Dinho never studied singing but practiced by listening to recordings and repeating each nuance and every section until his interpretation sounded exactly like the original. In this way, his voice developed its variety of registers. Coincidentally, this is also the way that notable TV and radio mimics have developed their voices. Dinho never missed an opportunity to dress like a clod, go out into the streets, and interview people while imitating radio and political personalities. Today he continues these same antics on stage between songs.

The first contact Dinho had performing on a stage was thanks to his buffoonery. It happened outdoors at an apartment project for the poor close to where Dinho lived. It was a festa junina, a traditional June party where the backland people, the Brazilian hillbillies, are imitated. A rock band playing at the party was giving up because they didn't know how to sing an enormous hit of the time: Sweet Child O' Mine by Guns and Roses. The band announced that they would have to play an instrumental version of the tune unless someone at the party knew the lyrics and would be willing to come up on stage and sing. Dinho, the outrageous clown who spent his time showing-off even more so than his tasteless friends, went straight ahead.

He didn't know the lyrics but simulated the poses and mannerisms of a top model and pantomimed the singer Axl Rose. He pranced and swaggered around the stage making so much racket that he became a local idol. The public was ecstatic, and the band decided to adopt Dinho as their singer. They went directly from the show to a karaoke bar where Dinho made his friends explode with laughter.

The tremendous response to the band's new line-up prompted Dinho and his friends to start making some money. They began promoting themselves by performing at rallies for political candidates at the city hall in Guarulhos. Dinho, composer of most of the groups' songs, said that it was probably his fault that the candidates for whom he was working lost the elections.

Before becoming a success, Mamonas had been a band called Utopia that played funk and heavy-metal. Dinho brought his imitations into this arena with performances of tunes by Cazuza and Herbert Vianna of Paralamas do Sucesso. Utopia's music lampooned people and parodied the way they live. In fact, many of the tunes on Mamonas's current release were composed during this phase of the band's evolution, when its orientation was doing cover versions of other heavy-metal bands' material.

Utopia also did cover versions of tunes in many other styles: pagode, sertaneja, forr¢ and in this way developed a certain proficiency in those styles. Dinho had already learned to play violao (guitar) by playing backland music with his father. It is the band's familiarity, their competence with these diverse styles, which demonstrates that their versions truly bear no malice.

Guitar player, Bento Hinoto, a Japanese-Brazilian with dreadlocks, stated that

the guys in the band like all kinds of music, especially progressive rock, but that they decided to concentrate on a particular sound, a sound similar to engenheiros do Hawaii, (the trio from Porto Alegre that writes philosophical lyrics and uses heavy instrumentation) because Engenheiros were successful. Keyboard player and singer of "Vira-Vira", Julio Rasec, joked that Utopia once recorded a disc for an independent label that sold over 50 copies.

Through the experience of Utopia, the band's explicit humor and repertoire gradually developed. They took their music seriously at first but were not seasoned musicians and initially experienced monumental confusion on stage. Little by little they were finding that while performing one tune they were delivering an alternate message to their public. The Utopia phase of the group's history lasted for five years before the group decided to assume their current style and start writing the types of parodies that infect all of their shows today. The next step was changing the group's name and expanding the new repertoire. The change was apropos.

Impressed by the strong reception they were getting for their parodies, the band went to a low-budget studio in the very simple Trememb‚ neighborhood with the intention of recording only four of their funniest tunes. The owner of the studio was impressed and sent a copy to one of his contacts in Rio. The tape turned up in the hands of Joao Augusto, director at EMI, who asked if the band had more music. Although the band had very little material at the time, Dinho said that they had about 20 tunes and could record at any time.

The songs on the current disc, aside from the four that were recorded, in Trememb‚, were wholly composed in only three weeks. Each track plays like an episode of the Three Stooges and runs the emotional gamut from A to C. Even the technicians at the recording date were bursting out laughing at the band's absurdities. During the recording of "Robocop Gay," for example, the singer in underwear would imitate a girl doing a strip tease. Nonetheless, with these compositions and a poor quality tape the band landed a contract with EMI that allowed them to complete the final mix in the United States.

Besides plane fare and hotel costs each musician received an advance of $500.00 from Joao to shop for clothes. When they returned to Cumbica airport in Guarulhos, they arrived as the pride of their city and were dressed like idols. Today the group's performance attire is ad diverse as the styles of music that they parody.

The strength of Mamonas Assassinas, their humor and uncanny ability to parody other groups, stems from the long established tradition with São Paulo pop bands that delight in plagiarizing other bands and pop music in general and then lampooning the music. Premˆ, for example, recorded a loose satire on the tune "New York, New York" titled "São Paulo, São Paulo" that was humorously cynical and chided rather than praised the city's traffic, adolescent pickpockets, and pollution. The lyrics spoke with irony about the city's Italian immigrants and scorned its political leadership.

Despite the fact that Mamonas Assassinas follows a similar off-color style as the band Raimundos, they have an advantage over their peers from Brasilia. The Mamonas fusion of sound is more pop and less noisy, the ideas behind the band's foolishness fluctuate from tune to tune, a greater diversity of themes is present in the lyrics, and Mamonas Assassinas puts forth exceptional cultural insights.

Mamonas hasn't stopped at simple platitudes. They belittle the spoken dialect

of São Paulo where the plural form of nouns is not employed. Dinho sings without the pluralizing "s." But the parody doesn't stop with just the lyrics and grammar. Mamonas takes music like Henry Mancini's "Baby Elephant Walk" or "Should I Stay or Should I Go" by punk band The Clash and creates musical anecdotes with a scorching sarcastic tone. The singer Belchior, a success in the 70's with his philosophical lyrics, is imitated in the band's "Uma Arlinda Mulher": Vocˆ foi agora a coisa Mais importante Que ja me aconteceu Neste momento em Toda minha vida Um paradoxo do Pret‚rito imperfeito, Complexo com a Teoria da relatividade Num momento crucial, um s bio soube saber Que o sabia sabia assobiar E quem amafagafar os mafagafinhos Bom amafagafigador ser You are now The most important this That has happened to me In this moment In my entire life A paradoxical of the Past imperfect, Complicated with the Theory of relativity, In a crucial moment, a wise man knew how to know That the song-thrush knew how to sing And whoever amafagafar the mafagafinhos Good amafagafigador will be

The song just puts words together that don't mean a thing but can sound conclusive when taken all together.

Belchior is, as are many targets of these parodies, a fan of Mamonas. He stated that although the diction used in some of the group's music may have some reference to his way of singing, he doesn't feel that it is offensive. He is aware that it is not flattering but feels that the intention is not so much to criticize as to have fun.

All of the tracks from the current release have the potential of being played frequently on the radio. "Vira-Vira," an impeccable mockery of the continental Portuguese, is the third most often played song on the radio in São Paulo. The vira is a dance and a style of singing in Portugal. Despite their use of politically incorrect expressions, the band has made an incontestable bull's eye with the public.

"Vira-Vira" is unquestionably the most high-handed track out of the 14 no less irreverent ones. With the tune the Portuguese folk dance and song is raped by noisy heavy-metal guitars and a disturbing lyric content. The narrative speaks of the duress of a Portuguese baker who starts an adventure of group sex with a woman.

Besides this Portuguese couple, the band describes other amusing situations like, husbands who are worried about their wives' addiction to the television shopping channel, construction workers who are enamored with Jean-Claude Van Damme, homosexual body-builders and their ensuing activities. In the musical mockeries it is possible to identify parodies not only of singers like Belchior, but also of Zez‚ Di Camargo & Luciano, Cauby Peixoto, and Max Cavalera, singer for Sepultura.

The satire assumes levels of conceptual ideas because the ideas are prejudiced. Dinho, however, defends himself by saying that he doesn't speak badly about anybody, that he only shows daily life. He goes on to say that the music is not created by chance, that it is always inspired by some character around them.

Sometimes the inspiration comes from other compositions, as did the samba full of heavy-metal guitar "La Vem to Alemao" that had as its model "L Vem o Negao" by the São Paulo group Cravo e Canela. Mamonas batters samba pagode with "La Vem to Alemao." Although the tune is an explicit satire of the

pagode scene today, musicians from the pagode groups Art Popular and Negritude Junior participated in recording the track. Other pagode musicians, like Alexandre Pires from the group S¢ Pra Contrariar, applaud the validity of the groove and perceive the comical tune as it should be - a facetious joke.

"L Vem a Alemao" speaks about a man whose girlfriend dumps him for a blonde guy, the owner of a Ford Escort. Dinho interprets the pain of the betrayed with a voice identical to the singer of the pagode group Raça Negra, Luiz Carlos. But this is not making a mockery of samba. The groove is authentic pagode. Dinho said that the band made a real effort to catch what is important in the pagode sound mix.

Titas is a band that plays music from punk to reggae to brega (gooey romantic songs whose basic meaning has been changed for the worse). On their celebrated third album, Cabeça Dinossauro, which was chosen as the best Brazilian album of the 1980s by Jornal do Brasil, the rock band scrutinized modern societal institutions and assaulted all who uphold its hypocrisy. The album is satirized by Mamonas with "Cabeça de Bagree II." Bagre is common name for fish, but cabeca de bagre is also slang for moron. Hinoto's pulverizing slash-guitar style on the track demands hearing!

Marcelo Frommer, guitar player for Titas, has a 12 year old daughter that is a Mamonas fan and doesn't see any problem with the irony of Mamonas. He stated that Mamonas does everything on the basis of stereotype, imitating brega, imitating pagode. In the beginning he felt that Mamonas was in bad taste then started to view it as a healthy form of bad taste.

The heavy-metal dementia on the disc includes the tracks "Pelados em Santos" ("Naked in Santos," a São Paulo beach), Chopis Centis, and Robocop Gay. Chopis Centis targets people from the Northeast who become dazzled and seduced with the splendor of the big cities' shopping centers. In Rio the tune is among the 10 most often played songs on the radio.

A very good explanation for the public's receptivity of a group that mixes the most aggressive form of heavy-metal, with quick-witted arrangements that utilize a variety of rhythmic grooves - fado, pagode, rock, forr¢, sertaneja, and brega, (depending on who and what they are mocking) is that you listen and your laugh is instantaneous.

Another explanation for the band's success is that their lyrics capture and give more emphasis to the language and dialect used by Brazilian kids among their peers than any other song lyrics have up until now. These lyrics oscillate between mockery, bad taste, the grotesque, and the absurd.

Can they come up with material as strong for their next release? Dinho said that he wrote the lyrics to "Vira-Vira" in 15 minutes inside Julio's VW bug. He says that he is not afraid of being without ideas because he is not pretending, that nobody imagined it would be possible to put together the Portuguese vira dance with heavy-metal guitar.

In the same way Mamonas Assassinas is promising to catch everyone by surprise with their next release. It remains to be seen whether Mamonas Assassinas will be around for a while or if they are going to be only an exceptional craze that looses its breath when the joke is repeated. Until then the jokes just keep going by.

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Author: Adams, Scott Article Title: Brazilian Notas Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.7; N.123 Publication Date: 03-31-96 Page: p. 45

Brazilian Notas.

Take a look at a picture of Ricardo Silveira, and you'll have a portrait of international musicianship. For the better part of the last decade now, the Brazilian guitarist has consistently and creatively redefined his role in contemporary jazz by successfully balancing the cultures of two countries. On one hand, it's his Brazilian roots. On the other it's his nearly adopted home town of Los Angeles, which has been his address for most of his stateside years. the west coast has provided the essential bridge for Silveira in building a common link between his Brazilian heritage and his always anticipated future. This connection has evolved through his past recording projects for Verve, including Long Distance, Sky Light, Amazon Secrets and Small World. But now, hot on the heels of his latest release Storyteller from Kokopelli, Ricardo Silveira has found himself in a strange position. Back In Brazil. Recently, I caught up with him poolside at Copacabana's famous Rio Atlƒntica Hotel.

"I wanted to spend some time back here in Rio," he said. "It's been a long time since I've stayed around here and it was time for a change. I'll probably do some touring here and then begin writing again. Coming up with new ideas has never been a problem for me, but it takes time and a relaxed frame of mind and rio seemed like the right inspiration for now." Writing is just one of Silveira's strong suits. Storyteller's top charting sales and radio success is due in part to his ability to transcend cultural boundaries with a distinct musical style that appeals to a wide range of listeners. Many of the songs contained on the album are three of even four years old, the result of some creative soul searching and an expert knack for arrangement and tight ensemble play. This formula has been a constant in Silveira's work from the very beginning.

"My first Verve album, Long Distance was really a shot in the dark. Going in, I didn't have a strong sense of direction for the project, so I had to rely on my intuition and Liminha's perspective. Of course, I had some really great musicians to work with including Pat Metheny, Leo Gandelman, and David Sanborn. Leila Pinheiro made her US debut with that recording. Everything just seemed to fall into place. After that, we had something to build on." And build he did, with the next three albums reaching #1 on jazz radio playlists nationwide. Traditions began to form. Silveira stayed the course, augmenting his world class talent with top notch guest musicians from both the US and Brazil. And his intuition remains right on track.

"I don't think at all about what will sell or become a hit. I concentrate on what the song is telling me, what feels right. For instance, "Francesa" went through several changes before it got to the point where I felt comfortable with it. Everyone knows that there's a wide range in the quality of music for contemporary jazz, and it's amazing to me to see what groups like fourplay can accomplish for themselves. But sometimes, I'll hear something on the radio and think what is that?" Silveira's at his musical best when he incorporates soft flowing guitar melodies with improvisation that showcases his technical

mastery. He is widely regarded in Brazil as the best ever to come along in this regard. His years at the Berklee College of Music and then later with Herbie Mann provided the baseline for his accumulation of musical influence.

"I play from a Brazilian point of view, but not traditional Brazilian music," Silveira said. "There are elements of funk and jazz, but I don't like to say that I play fusion. There's a lot more to my music than just that." Ricardo Silveira's musical world began in Rio de Janeiro in October of 1956. Born into a creative family, his own interest in the guitar lay dormant until age 16. His cultural interplay with the US began about that same time, due to friendships kindled with students at an American school in Rio. Records were traded. Jobim for John Mayall. Joao Gilberto for Eric Claption. Bossa for Rock & Roll.

The mid 70's saw him in Boston studying music by day and playing at night with the aforementioned flute player, and Sonny Fortune. The venues soon changed to New York, and Silveira's career was underway. Studio work was then added to the mix and armed with his experience and expectations, he returned to Brazil. Three years with Milton Nascimento helped to launch his international reputation. He recorded and worked with the best Brazilian singers and musicians: Gal Costa, Ivan Lins, Gilberto Gil, Elis Regina to list but a few. His own debut album as a solo artist came in 1984, with Bom de Tocar (Good To Play).

Ricardo would be the first to say that looking back is only good for seeing where you were, so it's fair to ask where he's headed next: "This time in Brazil is important for me right now. My son Pedro and I are enjoying the time together and I'm starting to hum a few new melodies from time to time. But for me, the music takes time to develop on its own. I'm not in a hurry and I've got plenty of ideas to work with. I'm planning to tour the US this year with Los Gatos, a special Latin American group we've put together, and I'm really looking forward to playing with Abraham Laboriel and the rest of the members. It should be a great time. I'm just a musician that likes a lot of different kinds of music, and I feel it's great to have those musical worlds to explore."

You may sample these albums 24 hours a day by calling The Brazilian Music Review Listener Line at (708) 292-4545.

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Author: Wyszpolski, Bondo Article Title: Osman Lins redux Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.7; N.123 Publication Date: 03-31-96 Page: p. 54

Osman Lins redux.

For over 15 years, one of the most prized volumes in my personal library has been Avalovara, by Osman Lins, which was published in translation by Alfred A. Knopf in 1980. In September of 1990, when I reviewed the University of Texas Press paperback for News from Brazil, I wrote: "Re-reading it 10 years later, it seems to me an oversight of the highest order that Avalovara has been the only one of (Lins' prose works) to reach North America. Osman Lins was a true master. Where are his other books?"

The enforced patience has at last been rewarded. Sun & Moon Press has now given us Nine, Novena (1966), the inter-related short stories, or narratives, that marked Lins' break with traditional fiction and served as a testing ground for Avalovara, which followed in 1973. Almost simultaneously, Dalkey Archive Press has published The Queen of the Prisons of Greece (1976), the last novel Lins completed before his death in 1978 at age fifty-four. Both works are smoothly and intelligently translated by Adria Frizzi.

To round-out this double gift and surprise, The Review of Contemporary Fiction has devoted nearly 70 pages of its Fall 1995 issue to Lins, filling it with essays about him and his work, as well as the author's own musings on the art of the novel and the place of the writer in society.

In the January, 1994 issue of News from Brazil, Gregory Rabassa, the translator into English of Avalovara (not to mention such classics as Hopscotch and One Hundred Years of Solitude), said that "Osman Lins Certainly needs more attention; Avalovara is a masterpiece, an exemplar of the present form of the new novel." He also voiced the hope that it would become one of the enduring works of the century, for Latin America in particular and for the world in general. My own review asserted that "the author releases such a downpour of imagery that one may stop and pronounce him the Brazilian Blake or van Gogh." But since Avalovara has been available in Dr. Rabassa's fine translation for many years, we'll bypass it for now and instead look at the works that are newly available and therefore less familiar to an English-speaking audience.

The Queen of the Prisons of Greece is a worthy successor to Avalovara, but clearly the latter novel is Lins' masterpiece and the author has not outdone it here, only gone off in another inventive direction. Nriefly, the narrator's lover - Júlia Marquezim Enone - has been hit by a truck(!) and killed at age 33, leaving behind an unpublished novel she's entitled The Queen of the Prisons of Greece (the reason for the odd title emerges towards the final pages). The unnamed narrator, a high school science teacher, toys with an idea: "I dream of discoursing about my dead friend's book, visited so many times and still so full of secrets." He begins cautiously, deciding to keep a journal of his thoughts and explorations of her book. He knows he will not be able to suppress his personal feelings, and he writes, "only my restraint... if I don't overcome it, and a certain tact, will limit the frankness of the work - an analysis or, who knows, just a memoir - from which an elegiac note

will certainly not be missing."

Júlia Marquezim Enone, we learn, "structured The Queen of The Prisons of Greece around an uninterrupted chain of events centering of Maria de França, a moneyless mulatto heroine lost in the stairways, corridors and halls of the social welfare bureaucracy, where she struggles to obtain a certain benefit."

Simple enough, and we sit alongside the narrator as he begins his at first hesitant, tentative study of a book we, the reader, have never seen and never will see. Ane because Lins' book has the same title as Júlia Enone's, obviously one has subsumed the other, an inversion has occurred, and the study is now the novel, and the novel is now the study. Already, the ground is going soft under our feet in this sort of Borges-meets-deconstructionism which pulls us in deeper and deeper as, again, perched beside the narrator, we marvel as Lins explores the possibilities of the modern novel.

Our journalist, as in journal-writer, tells us that The Queen has crafty constructions, and examines the novel "as double, built in layers and purporting to be its own analysis. For example, as if there were no Júlia Marquezim Enone or The Queen of the Prisons of Greece, as if the present piece of writing were actually the novel by that name and I myself were a fiction."

It seems that the subject of this book is the book as subject: "Could questions be the only means of knowledge really granted to us?" Also, "Every work of art fashions its own theory." And the narrator asks whether "the concept of literary work simply evolves, refines itself..."

The Queen of the Prisons of Greece, "conceived as an absurd radio monologue" disrupted by "sequences of madness" more and more resembles "walking through a festive neighborhood in which strains of music come at us from the shops and the side streets: the book resonates."

By the time the narrator completes the first one hundred pages of his journal we're already finding ourselves "in the tenuous frontier where reason, fascinated, surrenders to the absurd." In her novel, which certainly does a Kafka-like joust with the Brazilian social services system, Júlia Enone blurs the historical Olinda and the modern Recife (cities in the Northeast, on the bulge that projects into the Atlantic), juxtaposing landmarks where in reality they aren't to be found. We're given accounts of the Dutch invasion of this area in 1630, and of course we not only wonder how we got here, but wonder if the narrator is beginning to see patterns and pull things out of the text that may or may not have deliberately been put there.

Accurately, he assesses Júlia Enone's book as a "novel of permutations, where everything invades everything," where both text and meaning are malleable; and he realizes "that I'm weaving the web and weaving myself simultaneously."

It takes a great deal of faith on Lins' behalf to assume that we'll stick with him. "I know and you knew," his narrator thinks, addressing Júlia, "that works of art are as unlimited as our grasp is limited."

True works of art are larger than we are, and, like a black hole absorbing both matter and light, in we go, awash in a maelstrom of possibility. Slowly, our narrator, our guide, all but disintegrates into pure text, his words and ideas scattering and dispersing the way a sand castle returns to the fabric of the beach it has momentarily risen above and defied. And we speculate, perhaps, if it is purely a self-destruction or some kind of astonishing

embracing and integration with Júlia Marquezim Enone's text? Has the narrator somehow rejoined his lost beloved by all but literally sinking beneath the waves of her prose?

Osman Lins leaves us with plenty of food for thought, and to help in our digesting of it we turn to The Review of contemporary Fiction. In his essay, "The World Without Quotation Marks: A Gloss of the Gloss," Jos‚ Paulo Paes says of The Queen of the Prisons of Greece that it is "an illustration and a defense of the art of the novel, as well as a satire on certain pretensions of criticism or literary hermeneutics." And he goes on to call it "a deceptive play of contiguous mirrors: it is not an essay telling a novel but a novel that tells itself in the form of an essay..."

Raúl Antelo's "The Prison-House of Language according to Osman Lins" is a more theoretical and analytic essay than the one by Paes, which is quite lucid and far easier to grasp.

Actually, the pages (155-222) devoted to Lins commence with Adria Frizzi's sharply etched overview of the author and his context in the Latin American `boom' of the 1960s. She briefly assesses the last two completed novels and the narratives, Nine, Novena (for which she wrote a penetrating introduction that appears in the Sun & Moon edition).

This is followed by Edla Van Steen's stitched-together interview, responses compiled from many sources since Lins himself was too ill to complete it for her. It's a must-read which, together with Lins' own essay, "Of Idealism and Glory," coming on the heels of the interview, gives us a thoughtful look at Lins reflecting upon his life and his craft.

There is a sizeable fragment extant of a novel `forever tentatively' entitled The Head Carried in Triumph, which Lins did not live to complete. His widow, the writer and university professor Julieta de Godoy Ladeira, has selected a couple of passages for us, which Ms. Frizzi has translated. One is intrigued, of course, but there is simply not enough of it to know how the novel would have evolved.

Julieta de Godoy Ladeira then recounts how she and Osman Lins looked for foreign publishers and, perhaps more important, able translators. Lins' work has appeared in most of the major languages (even Polish and Hungarian), and most of the author-translator partnerships, his widow recalls, were productive.

It's nice to see Moacyr Scliar back in print. He pays a brief, apt tribute to Lins, whom he'd met in Porto Alegre in 1977. Scliar - whom I interviewed for News from Brazil in New York's Time Square in 1991 - has had several of his own novels and short story collections translated into English, including The Centaur in the Garden.

Next, there's "Narration in Many Voices," an obtuse and academic look at Nine, Novena by Benedito Nunes. Somewhat more enjoyable is "Nine, Novena's Novelty," in which Ana Lu¡za Andrade writes that "Nine, Novena's novelty consists in its being boldly playful and carefully systematic at the same time." Also, she says, "Nine, Novena, as with most of Lins' works, ultimately questions the role of the artist in a consumer society." It's a consideration that brings to mind The Other Voice, by Octavio Paz.

As for Avalovara, The Review of Contemporary Fiction reprints the review/paean

that critic and novelist Paul West wrote when the work first appeared in English. One can find it in Sheer Fiction, published by McPherson & Company, a superb collection of essays and reviews about some of the worldwide and world class writers of our time.

Last but not least, of course, is Nine, Novena itself, which leads off with an introduction by the translator, Adria Frizzi, itself a solid and sorely-needed orientation to Lins' unusual poetics.

It was Lins' intent, Frizzi says, "to return us to the mythic through the discourses of culture and the human arts." Also, she adds, "The art of stained glass windows - direct, synthetic and conscious of its limitations in the face of an overwhelming commitment to spirituality - is for Osman Lins the paradigm of what he aims at in his writing."

Frizzi compares these nine tales to retables, "frames often used as altar pieces enclosing a series of painted panels." Because some of the stories are a bit mystifying, it is more than a courtesy extended from publisher to reader that Frizzi's introduction gets us started down the right path.

There is, for example, "Hahn's Pentagon," in which several points of view seem to hover around an elephant that has come to town with the circus (one may be reminded of the parable of the blind men touching the various parts of an elephant, with each one likening it to something completely different). Like the cast of a Fellini film, the rotating characters - each represented by a symbol (or hieroglyph) - are a bit on the quirky side. Hahn, of course, is more emblem (and epicenter) than elephant, and is vested with a great deal of symbolic meaning and more than a geometric touch.

"Retable of Saint Joana Carolina" has the kind of prose that glides over the page, and it reminds this writer of the fluid, rhythmic styles found in The Autumn of the Patriarch by Gabriel Garc¡a M rquez, or The Gospel According to Jesus Christ by Jos‚ Saramago.

"Baroque Tale or Tripartite Unity" resembles a game with different paths to choose from, in which the reader is more than simply an observer. The various possible combinations recall the mechanics behind Julio Cort zar's Hopscotch.

"Lost and Found" contains the surge and ebb of many viewpoints, in which a child is lost at the beach and feared drowned. The narrative is interleaved with matter-of-fact accounts of prehistoric sea life (instilling the whole with a kind of literary cubism), to which is added other voices, about other searches, and on one level the story may be about those things we know, have known, but have now seen slip away to the point where they cannot be recovered.

The stories in Nine, Novena, as mentioned earlier, have the feel of a testing ground for Avalovara, but while the reader's response to the individual pieces may vary widely, from puzzlement to fascination, there seems to be a focused and deliberate approach that unifies the collection. As adria Frizzi writes in her introduction, "Nine, Novena represents a turning point in Lins' work, the relinquishment of a traditional approach to literature in favor of experimentation, and one of the most inventive moments in modern Brazilian literature."

Nine, Novena is published by Sun & Moon Press ($12.95 paperback, 276 pp.) at 6026 Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90036. Phone: (213) 857-1115; fax (213)

857-1115.

The Queen of the Prisons of Greece is published by Dalkey Archive Press ($12.95 paperback, 187 pp.) at Illinois State University, Campus Box 4241, Normal, IL 61790-4241. Phone (309) 438-7555; fax (309) 438-7422.

Avalovara is published by the University of Texas Press ($14.95 paperback, approx. 330 pp.) at PO Box 7819, Austin, TX 78713-7819. Phone (800) 252-3206.

The Review of Contemporary Fiction, Fall 1995 ($8 paperback, 269 pp.) can be acquired at the same address, phone and fax numbers as Dalkey Archive Press.

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Author: Mello, Rodney Article Title: recado Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.8; N.124 Publication Date: 04-30-96 Page: p. 5

recado.

Proportionally, Brazil has as many doctors as England with close to 1.5 professionals for 1,000 people. But the country is having a hard time dealing with Third World diseases at the same that it has to face First World ailments. A deficient healthcare system has to fight yellow fever, malaria and schistosomiases while at same time treating patients with arteriosclerosis and cancer.

Brazil devotes a mere 4.2% of fits Gross National Product to healthcare. Tiny Paraguay is even worse (2.8%), but Brazil loses even to poorer countries like India (6%) and El Salvador (5.9%). And lack of money is just part of the problem. The injustice of the system coupled with greed and corruption guarantees that 30% of the little money spent in healthcare ends up being looted.

All of this happens during an Administration that chose healthcare as one of its two priorities - the other one is education - and appointed a renowned and above-any-suspicion doctor to head the Health Ministry. The fact that minister Adib Jatene isn't being also to make any serious inroad in order to solve the healthcare crisis, is an indication according to some of the need for much deeper reforms than the ones tried until now.

If Brazil really wants to be admitted into the very private club of industrialized nations, it will need to cure more than its financial endemic troubles and it will need to pay more than just lip service to the health of its people.

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Author: Nascimento, Elma Lia Article Title: Sick and tired Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.8; N.124 Publication Date: 04-30-96 Page: p. 8

Sick and tired.

In 1995 the Brazilian Health Ministry received $15.8 billion to pay its bills. Thanks to this, the Sistema Unico de Saúde (Unified Health System) (SUS) was able to conduct one million doctor cnsultations a day, perform 4,120 heart surgeries, maintain 508.7 thousand hospital beds, and hospitalize 11,350 cancer patients. In 1989 Brazil became the first Latin America country to eradicate polio, and measles has been nearly eliminated with only around 1,500 new cases in 1995. And, Instituto Butanta, a leading research institution, has just announced that in a few months it will start producing a vaccine for hepatits B, helping the country rid itself of this preventable disease. From the early 50s to today life expectancy has increased from 46 to 65 years. Brazil has 6,500 hospitals and proportionally, as many doctors as England (1.46 professionals for 1,000 people). Quite impressive, huh?

All of this puts Brazil just a cut above Paraguay in resources devoted to healthcare and behind countries like India and EI Salvador. From the almost $16 billion spent in 95, $2.7 billion were used to pay staff, and another $2.9 billion went to cover old loans. While the US allocates 12.7% of its GNP to health, Brazil reserves only 4.2% for this purpose. Compare this with France (8.9%), India (6%), EI Salvador (5.9%) and Paraguay (2.8%). This means that less than $80 per capita was allocated to healthcare in BRazil last year whereas in neighboring Argentina this number was $300 and in the US, $2,300. That's what was being spent in the sector in 1987. The situation hit bottom in 1992 when a mere $45.7 per capita from federal funds was used for healthcare. While in 1950 the number of hospital beds offered by the state was roughly the same as her private sector, the participation of the public sector has decreased to 29% of all beds available.

An analysis of the SIAFI's (sistema Integrado de Administraçao Financeira do Tesouro National - National Treasure's Integrated System of Financial Administration) 1995 report shows that President Cardoso gave more money to healthcare when he was Finance Minister in 1994. The government invested 28.29% less in healthcare than in the previous year. This means a shortfall of $172 million, enough to triple the Pronaica, the largest health program of the federal government which assits children. It's not even a case of cuts across the board. The total amount of federal investments from `94 to `95 fell only 1.33%.

Lack of money made 1995 a particularly hard year for the Health Ministry. Preventive medicine had several cuts when compared to the previous year. Sanitary work received less than 1/4 of what had been promised. The National Health Foundation had a cut of 50% in their vaccination program. From 1986 to 1993, the percentage of the Gross Domestic Product applied in the social has grown from 8.7% to 12.6%. That means an increase from $43,986 million to $54,938 million. The health sector, which had received $12,736 million in 1989 had this amount reduced to $9,347 million in 1993.

Women have a toughter time. Mortality for mothers in Brazil is 150 every

100,000 births. In Japan, for example, this number if 50 times smaller, with 3 deaths for every 100,000 births. Around 5,000 women die every year due to pregnancy or postpartum complications. Experts say that 98% of these deaths could be avoided if some basic precautions were taken. Unicef (United Nations Children's Fund) estimates that between 9,000 and 15,000 children annually become orphans due to these deaths. High blood pressure is the main killer, followed by hemorrhages, infections and abortions, but cesareans also contribute to these deaths. And Brazil is the world champion of cesarean deliveries, accounting for 1/3 of all deliveries in the country. There is no recent data about infant mortality, but it is estimated that there are 5,000 deaths for every 100,000 live births. (In the US there are 828.8 deaths for 100,000). The Health Department has an one of its goals to reduce this number by half, by 1998.

Every 24 minutes there is a new case of breast cancer. Since there is very little preventive medicine, 60% of the women discover the disease when it is already advanced. Tests like the Pap smear used for detecting cervical cancer that could save many lives are reduced to five weekly exams in some public clinics due to the bureaucracy involved in the proceeding.

Before taking office, President Fernando Henrique Cardoso had presented his vision for the healthcare in his platform book Maos ... Obra, Brasil (Set to Work, Brazil). He wrote: "The crisis in the health sector is undeniable. Its visible face - scrapped hospitals, professionals on strike, patients thrown on cots in the corridors, lack of material and medicine - hides the failure of a model mainly interested in the cure and treatment of diseases."

Soon after being inaugurated, Cardoso established as priority goals for the health sector to reduce child mortality and to vigorously fight dengue and malaria. The President will be satisifed if he can cut in half the mortality rate that is now 45.3 deaths for every 1,000 born children. Symptomatically enough twice in the past Brazil had announced the elimination of Aedes aegypti, the mosquito that transmits yellow fever and dengue. Close to 1,000 municipalities in 20 states now have Aedes aegypti. Dengue had disappeared at the beginning of the century, but in 1994 the number of dengue cases was 56,200, and it jumped to 96,100 cases just in the first eight months of 1995. As for malaria, spread by the Anopheles mosquito, Brazil hasn't been able to lower the incidence of the disease from an average of 540,000 cases a year in the last decade.

Other Third World diseases such as barber bug fever and schistosomiases spread by contaminated water are rampant. At least 1,069 municipalities have schistosomiases. While 90% of the population get water and sewage service in urban areas, this number falls to a mere 17% in the rural regions. Brazil is also having to deal with cholera which entered the country from Peru in 1991. In 1994 the disease attacked 51,344 people and killed 542. The year before, the number of cases was 60,340 and there were 670 deaths. As the older population increases, Brazil must also increasingly deal with First World ailments like heart disease and cancer.

Tuberculosis is another disease which is making a comeback. The disease was being fought successfully with a 2% decrease in cases annually. This trend, however, has switched direction again with the increases of AIDS cases. AIDS victims who also have tuberculosis offer a higher resistance to medication and facilitate the transmission of this infectious disease. In 1992, there were 74,000 new tuberculosis cases in the country, in 1993 it went up to 91,000 but it is believed that this number has now exceeded 100,000. Even old biblical

scourges like leprosy are on the increase. While in the early `80s there were 12 cases of leprosy for every 100,000 people, in the `90s this number has jumped to 20 cases.

Brazil is going through a period that experts call epidemiological transition. The country has to deal simultaneously with underdeveloped country diseases, and ailments such as cancer and arteriosclerosis more prevalent in industrialized nations. Sophisticated treatments in São Paulo, including heart surgeries, hemodialists and organs transplants, consume 40% of all the resources destined to health while benefiting only 3% of the popupation. For lack of money ($3 billion would be necessary) 1,750 new hospitals were started but were never finished.

Brazil has 160,000 dentists and every year 8,000 new ones enter the market from 90 odontological schools. But it doesn't help that the Brazilian dentist is considered one of the best - only American and Sweden dentists have more prestige - among its peers around the world. It is estimated that Brazil has 1.5 billion cavities. In a country where the loss of teeth seems to be considered as natural as the loss of hair more than 70% of the over-50 population have lost all its teeth. That means a nation with 25 million toothless mouths. The best Brazilian dentists are visited by clients from Europe and the US, but only 5% of the Brazilian population has access to private clinics in which this first-class treatment is available. The fluoridation of water has existed for 30 years in Brazil, however, only 30% of the population has benefited from it.

Despite being the eighth largest economy in the world, Brazil is number 74 in expenses in healthcare. The government is also infamous for late and underpayments. Since 1987, 150 million Brazilians, through the Sistema Unico de Saúde, are entitled to have their health problems taken care of by the state, even though there are still 10 million others left without assistance. Before `87, only those workers paying the extinct INPS (National Institute of Social Welfare) had the right to healthcare. At that time, close to 50 million Brazilians depended on charity when they got sick. Since then, the number of people who spend at least a night in the hospital during a year has increased from 10 million to 15 million. This explains why some health centers don't have enough beds and sometimes not even material for bandaging a wound.

For sanitarian Eduardo Levcovitz, who works as an aide for the Health Ministry, the new situation means that "health has improved 100% for 40 million people who were excluded from the system and has worsened a lot for the millions who were getting assistance." The situation is naturally better for those 32 million Brazilians who can afford a private health plan. The government indirectly subsidizes these prviate plans by allowing the taxpayer to deduct 100% of its medical expenses. That means $2 billion a year that the federal government doesn't collect. Private hospitals also get a tax exemption for importing sophisticated medical equipment. That can mean up to $20 billion a year. Since these machines are never used for the SUS clients, the government is studying a way to make them utilized at least 20% of the time to care for the poor population. For the rest of the population things should get better as soon as some measures, like transferring to the municipalities the responsibility of managing all health resources, are fully implemented. The idea is to do away with the state health departments or at least make them just a normative office.

The example of Natal, capital of Rio Grande do Norte, has shown that the new

system, being experimented with in 53 cities, can work. Since Natal became responsible for managing the money the federal, monthly bill to pay for hospitals has fallen from $1.7 million to $1 million. The economy allowed Natal to increase by 50% its outpatient assistance. Visits to doctors and dentists also grew by 23% and 28% respectively. Recife, capital of Pernambuco, also has a success story to tell. Their newly equipped and staffed ambulance crews are able to answer a call in ten minutes or less, thereby helping to relieve hospitals for more complex procedures. Recife's favelados (shanty town dwellers) now don't need to take a bus and go downtown for their lab tests. Every morning a minivan visits the six health districts and takes all the material for tests.

Many private hospitals, even some with non-profit status, are refusing to take SUS patients. The situtation is so chaotic and often so unbelievable that it borders on the absurd. Despite a 190% average increase in the fees the government pays for healthcare in 1995, a doctor receives $2 for a consultation roughly the price of a shoeshine - and the hospital receives not more than $130 for each normal childbrith. The Associaçao M‚dica Brasileira's (Brazilian Medical Association) own price list determines that the consultation should cost $20. Doctors get paid an average of $400 a month by the federal government. But this amount can be $100 in some Northeastern states.

When Health Minister Adib Jatene himself operated on his fellow minister Paulo Renato of Education the procedure cost the Union $2,145. A little more than 20% ($463.61) went to the team led by Jatene. That meant that when the money was distributed, the country's most prestigious heart surgeon was left with $92.70, for five hours of work.

The situation is more than an invitation to fraud, and in recent years Brazilians have been finding how widespread deception is. According to an audit by the Health Ministry last June, 30% of all the money allocated to healthcare by the federal government ends up financing items as varied as sophisticated imported medical devices which are never used, parties, pleasure trips and reinforcing the domestic budget of all kinds of people. Fraud is a $2-billion business, representing 30% of all money used in the health sector.

Computerization of all hospitals didn't work to stop fraud. Some even believe that the new system contributes to it. Proliferation of specialized agencies to input hospitals' information coincided with an increase in the average cost of hospitalization. In some cases these bureaus' owners are former managers at the Health Ministry who know very well the department's mechanics and frailties.

The average cost of hospitalization had fallen from $179 to $156 between 1991 and 1992. In `93 it grew to $165 and then jumped to $213 in `94, coinciding with the time the consulting firms started to help. In some cases the inspectors and auditors chosen to verify the bill presented the government are themselves on the audited institution's payroll.

Despite the problems there are many who defend Heath Minister Adib Jatene' idea of instituting the

CMF (Contribuiçao sobre Movimentaçao Financeira), a .25% tax levied over every check written in the country, which would be siphoned into his department. Jatene believes that such a fee - $5.6 billion a year - would almost double his budget, giving him close do $20 billion to spend on health. "That would

allow us to spend $200 a year with every Brazilian," he says, adding: "Even then our situation would continue precarious." The minister says he would use the money for a 40% increase in the fees paid to doctors and hospitals, for preventive medicine and campaigns to decrease child mortality.

One who agrees with the minister is Crescencio Antunes from São Paulo's Hospital dos Servidores. "This is a socially fair tax," he says. "The poor don't pay it because they don't use checks. It's time to end this cruel pact in which the government pretends to pay and the doctor pretends to work." Naturally, there is also a group in the House of representatives who think like Jatene. They are the so-called bancada da Saúde, a group of 70 legislators very much interested in health matters and their own pockets. They are hospital owners and doctors.

After months of avoiding to tackle the issue, the legislators don't seem enthusiastic about approving such a tax. One thing many legislators are asking of Jatene is a plan to fight fraud. "If you don't change the managerial model for admissions and consultation," said former Rio's Health Secretary and current representative S‚rgio Arouca, "the CMF can triplicate the health sector's resources and the money still won't be enough."

Michel Temer, the leader of PMDB (Party of the Brazilian Democratic Movement) in the House, has offered an alternative to the tax proposed by Jatene. Temer wants to see part of the Lottery and Bingo money going to help the health sector. Even the leaders of the parties friendly to the government don't think the Minister is doing a good enough cleaning-up job.

A 1995 report by the Tribunal de Contas da Uniao (Federal Audit Office) - TUC - revealed that there was excessive admissions of outpatients. The money spent ($1.177 billion) on people who didn't need hospitalization, corresponded according to the report, to the whole Brazilian population being assisted seven times in the period from December `93 to December `94. There was fraud which was very easy to detect, like women having phimosis operations and men giving birth. There was health money being used to promote festive parties or to help political parties. The audit resulted in the recall of close of 1.5 million hospitalization payments countrywide, after being discovered that 24.12% of the diagnoses for hospitalization were fake.

Among the disclosures: Piau¡'s state Health Secretary had embezzled $500,000 using $65,000 to buy beer and mineral water, and $9,600 to get clothes and shoes for his workers. In the state of Maranhao, around 20% of the health resources ended up in private bank accounts.

Since taking charge of the Health Ministry, Jatene has adopted measures to control fraud. The municipality of Campo Grande do Sul in the state of Parana, for example, was able to hospitalize in one year 60% of its population establishing a record in the country. One such move was to limit hospitalization to 9% of the population of a city. Since noboy has complained about being left without a hospital bed when needed it's assumed that many of the hospitalizations were fake or unnecessary. Such a reduction in just São Paulo, where hospitalizations fell from 281,000 a month to 240,000 represented an economy of $112 million in a six-month period. Jatene has also been able to reduce to 25 days the time between a bill is presented and it's paid by the federal government.

Private institutions now get the lion's share of the SUS's finances. In the state of Paran , for example, the private sector owns 91% of the hospital

beds. Throughout the country only 30% of hospital capacity belongs to the state, although the Brazilian constitution states that the private health institution should be only "complementary" to the public health network. Jatene doesn't intend to change this situation. Says he, "It doesn't matter of us who owns the hospital, but now the patients are cared for." As for medical consultation the public institutions are already talking care of 61% of the demand.

Patients haven't being as accepting of medical errors as in the past. In São Paulo, for example, the number of malpractice cases being analyzed by the Conselho Regional de Medicina (Regional Board of Medicine) has jumped from 200 to 1200. Every month there are 200 new cases presented to CRM. In Rio, there are 1,000 lawsuits being reviewed and close to 100 new complaints being made every month.

In Brasilla, their is at least complaints a day. Part of the problem has to do with doctors being ill prepared in a country where 8,000 new physicians graduate every year from 80 medical schools. Around 65% of these new doctors don't have a chance to train in a residence program and go directly from school to hospitals. Condemnations against doctors are rare and malpractice suits can drag for four years or more. Since 1948 São Paulo's CRM has prohibited only 14 doctor from practicing medicine.

There are some bright spots in all this chaos. One such shining example is the agentes comunit rios (community agents). Created in 1991, this program tries to deal with the lack of doctors in the poorest areas. The program started with 20,000 agents, but it has increased now to more than 50,000 helpers in close to 600 cities. They receive a minimum salary a month ($100) to visit the poorest families in their community bringing sanitary and health advice as well as some over-the-counter medication.

The work has been a success mainly due to the missionary spirit of the agents whose main reward has been saving lives. The program that costs 16 million could be easily doubled if there were more money.

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Author: O'Toole, Kathleen Article Title: The professor is back Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.8; N.124 Publication Date: 04-30-96 Page: p. 16

The professor is back.

During a recent brief stop in San Francisco on his way to a visit to Japan, Brazilian President Fernando Henrique Cardoso announced the endowment of a chair in Brazilian studies. The announcement was made to a standing room only audience at Stanford's Dinkelspiel Auditorium on March 11.

The chair, which will allow Stanford to bring a distinguished scholar of Brazil to campus each year, is funded by a $1 million gift from the New York branch of Safra National Bank of Brazil. It has been in the planning stages since Brazilian officials came here in the summer of 1994 to watch the Brazilian soccer team play in World Cup competition. Stanford's connections to Brazil go back to its second president, John Casper Branner, and include the most extensive US research library collection on Brazil.

Cardoso, 64, who was a visiting professor of political science at Standard in 1977 when Brazil was run by a military dictatorship, used his brief visit to the campus to "praise the art of politics" and defend elected politicians at a time when, he said, the public seems to hold them in low regard. The lecture fund provides the Institute for International Studies with support for an annual public address by a prominent scholar or practicing professional in the field of international relations.

Today's politicians face a greater demand for accountability than their predecessors because of the breakdown of integrated political parties or lasting coalitions, Cardoso said during his lecture. Voters, he said, no longer can be neatly defined as holding views on the right or the left, and so demand more accountability from politicians than they did when political ideology was a more unifying force.

Successful politicians also must work harder today to build a consensus and to "create space" for grassroots groups that are not formally represented by political parties, said the veteran senator who was elected president last year. Saying he was "proud to be a politician," the man who has forged two political parties in the past spoke of modern political leadership as approximating Octavio Paz's definition of history - a daily invention, a continual creation; a hypothesis, a risky game, a wager against the unforeseeable. Not a science, but rather knowledge, not a technical skill, but rather an art."

Restoration of democracy in Brazil, Cardoso said, has been "nothing but a first step, one that is necessary, but in and of itself insufficient if we are to correct the serious social imbalances of our society." The problems, he said, are not confined to Brazil. "Representative democracy has shown a need for renewal in every country where it has been adopted," he said. "Democratic system face problems such as the citizenry's growing lack of interest in politics, low voter turnout during elections and, even more seriously, a growing degree of hostility on the part of voters with regard to politicians."

National legislatures, he said, "are the natural locus for the continual consensus-building which is the requirement if we are to move forward while simultaneously safeguarding the values most dear to our sense of nationality, the values without which no nation can recognize itself."

Cardoso must negotiate with 18 political parties in an effort to broaden consensus in Brazil. "Furthermore, it is essential that the public realm be enlarged so as to increasingly encompass those who are voiceless today," he said. While the church and other institutions have played this role in the past, he said, it is no longer enough. An effective leader "has to symbolize somethings beyond what is being debated at the time by normal political organizations."

The pace of government action, he said, is unfairly characterized as "gridlock and inefficiency, whereas the truth is that the congress's schedule is overloaded with highly complex issues." Politicians are struggling with the reality that countries have become more diverse economically and politically, he said, and can no longer divide their constituents into two main classes - the bourgeoisie and the proletariat.

"Individuals and groups are no longer defined by the roles they play in social relations of production, but primarily by their regional, racial, cultural or religious identities," he said. As a result, politicians are held accountable to more groups with more narrow social demands.

"In sum, we are experiencing the fragmentation of society into groups or ghettos. This has led to a simplification in a way, since only the market or mass culture is left to unite citizens in forging a national identity. Both the values that formed the glue that held national societies together and the values that guided the relations within them are fading away."

Cardoso said improving the political system requires attention to the role of the media, but that "representative democracy depends on solid and strong institutions, whose pace is of necessity slower than the flow of information."

"I acknowledge the important role played by the press in fighting authoritarianism in Latin America," he said, "but the press needs to move beyond an `adversarial' attitude to play a constructive role as well."

As Cardoso left Dinkelspiel Auditorium, a protester with a bullhorn criticized his support for building highways in the Amazon rainforest.

The Stanford connection - In his introduction of Cardoso, President Gerhard Casper said that Stanford's connection with Brazil began before the university was founded in 1891. John Casper Branner, who became Stanford's first professor of geology and its second president, was a Cornell University student in 1874 when he met Emperor Dom Pedro II in Brazil. Together they founded the Geological Commission of the Brazilian Empire. Branner stayed in Brazil until 1880 and returned five times.

During the Spanish-American War, Branner briefly was detained on suspicion of being a spy for the US government. Later, apologetic Brazilian authorities decreed to him the right to stop any train any time he wished to investigate plants or geology. (When Casper teasingly suggested that Cardoso grant him the same privilege, Cardoso reminded him that he was a president, not an emperor.)

Branner established the basis for Stanford's library collection on Brazil, Casper said, Major research libraries in the United States hold a combined 32,600 volumes on Brazil, and Stanford's collection is 60 percent of the total.

Cardoso and his wife, Ruth, were jointly awarded the Tinker Visiting Professorship in Latin American Studies in 1992, but they were unable to accept when he was named foreign minister of Brazil.

The new chair in Brazilian studies will be connected to the Center for Latin American Studies, within the Institute for International Studies. Under the direction of political science Professor Terry Karl, the center recently expanded its teaching and research on Brazil to include a faculty/graduate student working group that was launched by Jos‚ Serra, Brazil's minister of planning and budget, during a visit in 1995. A Brazilian Writer in Residence Program also has been established, along with new courses, and the Graduate Schools of Business recently added to study trip to Brazil.

The new chair will be named for Joaquim Nabuco, an 18th-century Brazilian crusader against slavery who became the Brazilian republic's first ambassador to the United States, where he was a staunch supporter of Pan-Americanism.

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Author: Barreto, Carlos E.F. Article Title: The ides of March Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.8; N.124 Publication Date: 04-30-96 Page: p. 19

The ides of March.

The government of President Fernando Henrique Cardoso (FHC) experienced serious setbacks in March. After 14 months of victories, he couldn't have approved in Congress a proposal to amend the Constitution which would reform the social welfare system. This was a long needed piece of legislation that among other things, would substitute the period of work for the period of contribution in the country's unjust retiremetn plan: 30 years for males and 25 years for females. It would have great impact on teachers and other special retirees. A congressman, for example, now can retire after two terms - eight years - and get a full salary for the rest of his/her life.

The regulation of such an intolerable benefit is crucial to trim excessive government bills. Furthermore, a Parliamentary Commission Inquiry (CPI) has been formed to investigate the recent spate to bank bankrupticies affilicting the country. These two factors could work against the efforts put forth by the FHC government to keep Congress focused on important reforms. The constitutional reforms are vital tot he survival of the 20-month economic stabilization Real Plan.

Decreasing government expenditure is critical to balance the budget. A country's budget has two important factors: the tax revenue and the government expenditure. The tax burden on the Brazilian population is already high enough even though few pay their contributions. Thus, tax is not a wise tool play with when trying to balance the Brazilian budget. Moreover, previous governments have turned blind eyes on government spending and corrected the deficit through tax increases which proved to be ineffective, recessionary and inflationary.

Cutting government spending is the right way to go to consolidate the Real Plan. This means restructuring tech welfare system, privatizating state-owned enterprises, creating a celling on government salaries, and trimming government payroll. Cardoso stated that "without the constitutional reforms, inflation could reach levesl of 40 % rather than the current monthly rate of 0.4%."

Cardoso's statement referred back to the mid 1980s when Brazil returned to democracy under Jos‚ Sarney and inflation was 40% per month. In 1986, Brazil had its worst economic situation with the public deficit at 44.9% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). In 1995, on the other hand, inflation had a 22% annual rate and the deficit was 28.3% of total GDP.

Today, Sarney heads the Senate and he is the key figure behind congressional voting on reform bills. The senate leader's congressional him the ability to control which pieces of legislation may pass and which may not. Some political analysts believe that Sarney is playing a political game hoping that FHC fails, in this way increasing his own chances to once again become president in the 1998 elections.

Eduardo Azeredo, the governor of Minas Gerais and an important political ally to FHC, stated that "it is impossible to believe that people still exist who only make decisions based on thinking about votes". This is very sad! Brazil is changing and the population is becoming more aware of politicians that ar too nice but not concerned about the future of the country."

Moreover, Azeredo completed: "It is not possible that such an important reform has been voted on under the inspiration of self interest. We are talking about subjects that concern the future of Brazil and it should be viewed like that." The welfare amendment needed 318 votes to pass out only received 294. It is interesting to see that by 1998. 18 congressmen will benefit from their special retirement plan which otherwise would have been extinct.

The legislators celebrated the victory against the agreement reached between the federal government and the CUT (workers' union). The Social Welfare Minister, Reinhold Stephanes, in an interview with Reuters said that "unfortunately, the people had a lot to gain from the bill, but the elite defeated the people once again." FHC plans to try the original welfare bill in Congress but it is a more austere bill with little chance of passing. President Cardoso refuses to give up decisive constitutional reforms.

Another major defeat for the FHC government was the commission set up to conduct a wide-ranging probe into the nation's banking sector, a move that could further slow passages of other constitutional reforms. The CPI requires 29 senators' signatures to install it, but not surprisingly, 11 senators were from Sarney's personal coalition.

The banking system in Brazil is going through a restructing process to end a logn period of cover-up losses. Since Gustavo Loyola was appointed to preside over the Brazilian Central Bank, four major institutions have suffered federal intervention after charges of missmanagement of its funds.

The latest scandal was a $4.75 billion coverup by failed Banco National which dated back to 1985. It is strange that the blame falls on the government that brings these corruption scandals up to the surface and not on the ones that contributed to cover these up. The CPI should not be limited to federal interventions in 1995. It would be proper to trace the connections of failed banks back to their state or federal governments to the very beginning - i.e.; Banco Econ"mico and the governor of Bahia, Antonio Carlos Magalhaes; Banerj and the governor of Rio de Janeiro, Leonel Brizola; Banespa and São Paulo's government under Orestes Qu‚rcia and Antonio Fleury; and Banco National when Sarney was the Brazilian President and had intimate relationships with Minas Gerais governor and Nacional's owner Magalhaes Pinto.

President Cardoso is still holding out hopes that he could block installation of the commission by persuading the parties not to nominate members to the 13-member panel. He could expose several politicians if connections were uncovered, but the FHC government has a 92% popular support rating and such a CPI would only hurt the population. This six month investigative panel would only divert attention from the reforms.

The two setbacks contributed to bad performances of both Brazilian stockmarkets: São Paulo fell 4.41% and Rio de Janeiro 5.25%. Furthermore, the interest rate in the futures market went up for April contracts from 2.14% to 2.17% and May contracts from 2.10% to 2.13%. These are clear indications of market disapproval for the congressional carnaval created around important reforms. Politicians in Brazil should start to look at reforms as being

crucial to their own survival because the electorate is looking carefully. Society does not want Congress to throw away what has been accomplished in the past 20 months.

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Author: Manhaes Marins, Marcos Article Title: Reborn on the Web Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.8; N.124 Publication Date: 04-30-96 Page: p. 20

Reborn on the Web.

This year Brazil is celebrating the centenary of their love for cinema at first sight. Brazilians' romance with motion pictures had its debut in July 1896. In Rua do ouvidor, a traditional street in Rio de Janeiro, where the first screenings were shown. Just a few months earlier the Lumiere brothers had made their first presentation at the Grand Cafede paris in December 1895. And Brazil is also celebrating another even dealing with motion pictures. It will be toasting the first anniversary of Brazilian cinema's getting on the Interest's World Wide Web, a place so chockfull of fast changes that a month seems more like years, and a year more like decades.

Anybody who has access to a WEB browser (software which locates WEB pages according to an electronic address (URL) or some keywords) may find, from anywhere in the world, many sites related to the cinema of Brazil. Using search tools like Altavista and Yahoo, you have just to enter "brazil" and "cinema" to get a list of sites dealing with the subject.

The most complete and busiest site on the lists is Cinemabrazil whose internet address is http:// www.ibase.org.br/~cinemabrazil. From this homepage, as these sites are frequently called, you can access a plethora of other sites which are spreading Brazilian culture abroad. Cinemabrazil has been on line at the Ibase/Alternex server since September `95 and it pitched its homepage on the WEB on October 18, 1995.

Just a few months after the international cinema community had made its presentation at the WEB Cafe, Brazilian Cinema caught up with the movement. The pioneer in this movement was the non-profit Internet Movie Data BAse from Cardiff, UK - http://www.em.cf.ac.uk/movies. The first commercial WEB site was Hollywood On Lime - http://www.hollywood.com - which existed in test-only since 1993, but didn't debut on the World Wide Web until early 1995.

Does all of this matter? It seems it does. When USA Today online started a poll for Internet users to vote on their choices of Oscar 96 nominees, many Brazilian sites included a link to the vote page, and the result was that Brazilian O Qu4trilho, nominated for best foreign picture received 7,470 votes, much more than the favorite for Best Picture Apollo 13 which got 4,638 nods. Almost as many votes as the favorite best actors Anthony Hopkins (4,523) and Susan Sarandon (4,642) together! It was like a fever after the campaign was started by an E-mail message from Sergio Charlab, a sort of guru for many Brazilian net users.

It was just an innocent poll but a national USA newspaper survey always moves public opinion, which, in turn, might move Oscar voters' opinion, and perhaps, awards destiny. It was worth a try. Independently of any result it was very gratifying to find out the strength of Brazilians united on line.

In September 1995, Internet World (IW) magazine, in its premiere edition, published an A to Z guide with about 200 Brazilian homepages. By then, Brazil

was just starting to discover the WEB. In February `96, the same guide had already grown to 1,500 Brazilian sites. Since the number increases around 20% a month, and some homepage owners don't submit their URL to be listed, one had better estimate another thousand homepages not listed yet, which will produce a figure of 2,500 Brazilian homepages in April 1996.

At just the Ibase/Alternex server (the first WEB server in Brazil) there are 150 sites. And this is just one among 100 webservers, a number which also increases each month. Today Brazil has a potential Internet market of 14 million peole who have telephone lines. There are already 4 million computers installed. Too few for a population of 160 million people, but more than enough not to be ignored. In the broadcast market, with just 30 million TV sets, more than 90% of the population is covered.

The Internet turns out to be the right place for recovering the BRazilian movie industry, which in the `80s was producting about 100 films a year. The thousands of today will become million tomorrow, all looking at photos and clips of Brazilian motion pictures, getting to know its needs, its projects, its promising future.

Take the Cinemabrazil site, for example. It was creted to announce a documentary on Brazilian media mogul Assis Chateaubriand, a cultural movie project, and at some time to bring together all the cultural movie projects that were also raising funds by publicly selling shares at the Stock Exchange. From that humble beginning that site became the most complete database for Brazilian movies, now listing 400 titles selected from the 3,000 quality long films that the Brazilian industry has created so far.

Brazilian movies are barely known abroad. The Internet Movie Data Base, for example, the most complete one, with 50,000 titles, in February `96 had around 100 Brazilian titles registered, including shorts and TV programs. And the listings are full of smaller and bigger mistakes. CineMania 95, the CD-ROM, listed only 15 Brazilian movies and had just 7 filmmakers' biographies.

Vagner Ferreira de Almeida, one of the partners at Fibra Cien Video, the company behind Cinemabrazil, says: "We are giving absolute priority to get the most on these 400 available long movies. Then, as a second step, the catalog will include the short movies and TV programs, but always within the criteria of selecting the ones that were highlights, either for high ticket revenue or for rave reviews by critics. We hear now and then that Brazilian movies are too erotic, but this is not the whole story. There are true master-pieces in our Cinematheques, hundreds of movies which received prizes in International Film Festivals or were a box office hit. For the time being, we are strictly concerned about listing our best cultural products. A virtual distributor is also part of our plans, but we will need sponsors in order to guarantee free service to visitors." A very interesting page in the Cinemabrazil site is the Comprehensive Summary of Laws for Filming in Brazil. Two other places deserving a visit are the First Catalog of Brazilian Movies and the Catalog of Films still raising funds, in which you can get all the basic information in case you with to invest in a Brazilian movie. Photos, clips and a virtual tour can be found there. That site was presented to the Ministry of Culture in January `96 to receive authorization to offer income tax discounts to investors who keep any business in Brazil, such as Hollywood's film distributors and multinational companies.

Leilany Fernandes, filmmaker and president of the Brazilian Movie Industry Workers' Union (STIC), is entirely in favor of such an intiativies: "I believe

we don't have to wait to see either the Ministry of Culture or RioFilme, for example, getting their own site in the Internet. It's time to realize that private intiatives like Cinemabrazil are much more efficient and authentic than a bigger and official scheme. Government has to give support to this spontaneous movement. This is the State's role."

Carol Peiffer, an American who visited Brazil about ten years ago, wrote to Cinema-brazil: "I love cows, I write about them in a quarterly newsletter Cinema for me is just entertainment, but I love Brazilian writer Jorge Amado and I would like you to find videotapes with Brazilian movies based on his novels. The Dona Flor and Her Two Husbands tape has already got here." The site provided some cluses on how to get the tapes for Jubiab , Capitaes de Areia, Tenda dos Milagres, Gabriela, all movies based on Amado's novels and informed her that Tieta (with actress S"nia Braga) is just being finished. Peiffer decided to invest in the movie specially presented by the site and then ended u being investor number one on the Individual Sponsor's Page.

Cinemabrazil is presently working hard to include in its WEB pages more clips from successful Brazilian movies and form interviews with renowned Brazilian filmmakers, such as N‚lson Pereira dos Santos, Carlos Diegues. Arnaldo Jabor, among many alive, and those from archives (Gl uber Rocha - Cannes Golden Palm 1968, Alberto Cavalcanti, Humberto Mauro, among many). It also wants to add more clips with actors and actresses easily recognized aboard as S"nia Braga for Dona Flor and Her Two Husbands and The Kiss of the Spider Woman, not to mention Milagro by Robert Redford and Fernanda Torres (Cannes' Golden Palm-1988), among others.

In 1996 the Cinema of Brazil will change the Brazil of the Cinema. Since 1962 Brazil had not been nominated for an Oscar award. At that time, the movie O Pagador de Promessas (The Given Word) directed by Anselmo Duarte, did not get the Academy statuette, but it took home the Golden Pam from Cannes.

This year, out of the 100 cultural movie projects waiting for investors, at least 10 or 20 will succeed in raising funds, and the world will get to know that Brazil is not just a couple of beautiful beaches surrounded by violence. Brazil will show its traditions, its great personalities, those who have built this country. It will show its popular culture, its art and its goods, so that cultural and commercial interchange can be increased for all countries and all of them can benefit from it.

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Author: Shukla, Divya Article Title: Bookworm's Eden Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.8; N.124 Publication Date: 04-30-96 Page: p. 22

Bookworm's Eden.

Brazil and the world are getting ready for the 14th Bienal Internacional do Livro de São Paulo (São Paulo's Internacional Book Fair), in which publishers introduce their readers and distributors to new editions. The book festival, the largest of Latin America, usually is held at Parque Ibirapuera's Bienal Pavilion, but this time it will take place in the Expo Center Norte from August 13 to 25.

The move was prompted by the need to accommodate larger audiences and provide them with better facilities and parking accommodations, this according to Altair Brasil, president of CBL, the company that will promote the event. The book festival's purpose remains unchanged, to serve as meeting grounds between publishers and the public. The focus has never been on actual book sales but on the promotion of books, very similar to fashion shows.

The book industry continues to be lucrative in Brazil. Altair Brazil, president of Cƒmara Brasileira do Livro (Brazilian Chamber of Books) projected a 35% increase in profit in 1995 over 1994. The projected profit surpasses the increase in the number of actual publications. There was an increase of 24% in publications in '95 over '94 compared with 4.3% over the previous year.

Nevertheless, Paulo Rocco (of Rocco publishers) doesn't believe in the projections, he says that this increase in only in the number of editions and it is not a proportional increase in the demand.

Brazilian publishers expect 1996 to be a good year for book sales. This optimism is mainly due to the economic stability provided by President Cardoso's Plano Real which helped control runaway inflation to manageable one digit figures in '95.

Publisher Atica will focus on travel guides in competition with Folha de São Paulo's division called Publifolha. Atica, in partnership with British publishers Dorling Kindersley, published two travel guides (New York and Paris) in the past, and this year they will release travel guides for those planing to visit Roma and London.

Publifolha's director, Ricardo Gandour, says that his company's travel guides are popular because they also contain beautiful images. The same applies to Atica's children's book division, which represents 10% of total revenues for that company. Atica will also be investing in "instant books" as it did in 1995 with titles like A NOva Guerra do Vietna (The New Vietnam War) by Jayme Spitzcovsky and Racismo Cordial (Cordial Racism). Both were originally special news stories for Folha.

Very popular with Brazilian readers are the reference-type books. Many of these works will be available in CD-ROM and videos this year. During Frankfurt's Book Fair, which took place October of 1995, there was an overwhelming demand for dictionaries, illustrated works, manuals and guides.

Will CD-ROM eventually make books extinct in Brazil? No, says Atica's editor Jos‚ Bantim Duarte. He believes that works available in the electronic media format modifies the content of written material similar to translation into a different language.

Therefore, it is not a replacement but merely an expansion to the variety of material available to the reader.

Even though publishers are branching out and releasing a variety of topics and formats, publishers believe that the Brazilian book buyer will continue to purchase best sellers, books on mysticism and biographies. Therefore publishing houses will continue to devote the majority of their resources to books belonging to these subjects.

But there are exception to this like publisher Record which is aiming to please its alternative readers with its Contraluz (Against the Light) series which publishes books focusing on homosexuality. The company, however, doesn't intend to abandon the publication of best-sellers, its biggest source of revenue.

Brazilian readers' preferences have historically leaned towards biographies and reference books, but this year there is an overwhelming volume of translations from classic and philosophical works. Some essays have been waiting for translation for decades.

Brazilians will finally be able to read in Portuguese Elzbieta Ettinger's biography on German philosopher Martin Heidegger (1889-1976, who is well-known for his initial adherence to the Nazi movement). Ettinger caused a scandal when her book was released in the '95 Frankfurt Book Fair because of its intimate intellectual and sexual content, which discusses the relationship between Ettinger and the Jewish philosopher Hannah Arendt.

Jean-Paul Sartre's (1905-1980) Being and Nothingness will also be translated. Another classic to be available is Monsieur Teste from French poet Paul Val‚ry (1871-1945) in which the author composes an autobiography under an assumed identity.

Brazilian author, S‚rgio Buarque de Holanda, whose books have been out of circulation for a while, will release several new editions this year. And post-modernism will have a chance of gaining popularity though releases from authors Fredric Jameson, Paul Virilio and Peter Sloterduk. Sloterduk, in his book, theorizes about the long term effects of the European Unification and its effects on the politics of the continent.

American author Gore Vidal tells of his friendship with Jacie and John Kennedy in Palimpsest. Another American, author Norman Mailer, details Lee Oswald's life prior to JOhn Kennedy's assassination in A Hist¢ria de Lee Oswald.

Many illustrated works will also be released. Peter Kindersley, chairman of DK Publishers, in interview to newspaper Folha de São Paulo said that the concept of illustration isn't new in Brazil, but that the demand for such works is. Words and pictures are complementary and very much recognized especially after the invasion of multimedia in Brazil. In fact, there are those who believe that because of Internet and electronic mail, printed-on-paper material will have to put a tough fight to survive in the country.

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Author: Moy, William Article Title: I survived Brazil Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.8; N.124 Publication Date: 04-30-96 Page: p. 24

I survived Brazil.

Scam artists....a chipped tooth....a dead body....a near riot....a shattered window. Scenes from a soap opera? Headlines from a sensational newscast? No, just a few of the unusual, unsettling incidents that occurred on my recent trip to Brazil. The trip was not all bad news, but this was definitely the strangest vacation I have ever had.

My college buddy and I were both making our maiden voyage to South America. The idea of temporarily trading the Chicago coolness for the tropical spring of Brazil sounded good to us. Our first destination was Rio de Janeiro, a city with a two-sided reputation: glamorous and exciting, yet dangerous and intimidating. The air-conditioned bus ride from the airport served as a nice preview of Rio, as it passed through Centro (downtown) - deserted on a Saturday morning - Gl¢ria, Flamengo, Botafogo, Copacabana.

Our route, most of which was alongside Guanabara Bay, was lined with majestic palm trees. Unfortunately, the bus zoomed several blocks past our intended dropoff. We did not know how to ask the bus driver to stop in Portuguese, though it seemed obvious to everyone else on the bus that we wanted to disebark. We soon noticed that all the red octagonal signs stated "PARE", so we advise other novices like ourselves to say that if you want to capture the attention of your local Brazilian driver.

Our home base in Rio was the Hotel Martinique, whose main amenity is its proximity to the famed Copacabana beach. The first night was a bit of a drag, for we were stuck with two separate single bedrooms instead of getting one room with two beds. This would not have been so bad except for the fact that the single rooms were minuscule, with the bathroom occupying half the floor space. (When I say the shower is in the room, I mean the shower is in the room!). The 6-foot-by-8-foot living space featured a radio with two stations and an air conditioner, which I turned on at night in order to drown out the rowdy teenagers next door. After that and a little complaint we got lucky and the management moved us into a bigger, better, quieter two bedroom for the rest of our stay there.

Our first day was literally a washout, with periodic tropical downpours limiting our activities. My initial encounter with the criminal element of Rio occurred about two blocks from the hotel. A teenage boy made a futile swipe for my wallet. Either he was a lousy pickpocket or just an annoying prankster aiming to scare a visitor. This incident forced me to be even more careful with my valuables (cash, passport, camera) and to be extremely conscious of my immediate surroundings.

The next morning was sunny, so we boarded a ferry to Niter¢i in order to view the scenic coastline of Rio. The buildings in the foreground contrasted with the lumpy green and brown hills in the background, the most famous ones being Sugar Loaf and Corcovado. My friend noticed that we were probably the only two "tourists" on the entire ferry, which serves as a means of transportation

for the Cariocas (a nickname for the locals of Rio) across Guanabara Bay. The Cariocas were all dressed casually, and most of the males sported soccer jersey replicas. The public buildings in Niteroi were festival painted with an assortment of pastel colors, passionate pinks and lime greens and cool blues.

Our pure enjoyment of Rio took an abrupt turn on a quiet street in Ipanema, away from the beach immortalized by that "Girl from Ipanema" song. A young woman, playing the role of goodwill ambassador, came up to us and declared that our clothing has just been soiled. Then she pointed upwards at a palm tree, implying that a bird had relieved itself upon us. She was so friendly, whipping out a napkin to help clean our mess.

Our cheerful hostess was soon joined by four of five of her male colleagues, all eager to undo the damage of the airborne creature. Now two's company, three's a crowd, four or five means scam! Our clothes were squirted with some mysterious substance by one of these schemers. They were attempting to swipe our valuables by utilizing this shifty tactic, which was prominently mentioned in several guide-books I had read before the trip. We backed away from these vultures, and I am proud to say that nothing was lost. I did have to wash my garments in the sink that evening, but the sweet-smelling (bird poop? no way!) stains rinsed out with minimal effort.

We dodged one bullet, but my friend was nailed point-blank later that same day. I joked with him about this teenage girl, with a cast on one arm, who was performing a new scam by asking us to unwrap a piece of gum for her. The levity of this moment soon dissipated once we boarded a city bus. First, I must describe the configuration of the typical local bus in Rio, which is not to be confused with the air-conditioned airport bus. The passenger must board at the back door, where a "cashier" accepts fares and doles out change when necessary. The passenger then proceeds past a waist-high turnstile to reach the seating area, and exits at the front door adjacent to the driver.

After boarding behind me, my friend flashed a five-real note, the equivalent of a five-dollar bill. While I grabbed two seats, the cashier gave him insufficient change. At least five minutes elapsed before my friend was properly reimbursed. When we were about to exit at our stop, my friend noticed that his cancas bag seemed rather light. He could not believe it' his expensive camera and zoom lens were missing! This was a stunning development, for both of us ae seasoned world travelers who have never lost any valuables before.

My friend theorized that while he was haggling with the cashier about the change, someone brushed past him at the turnstile and lifted the goods. He even suggested that the cashier worked in tandem with the thief by acting as a diversion to my friend, and I am actually inclined to believe this scenario. He went to the nearby "tourist police station" to report the crime, but it was a foregone conclusion that he had seen the last of his camera equipment.

Too depressed to do any sightseeing without his camera, my friend decided to hang out at the beach the next day. I ventured out towards Sugar Loaf mountain, but it was now my turn to take a fall. I was walking uphill on a sidewalk when I stepped on a manhole cover. Instead of staying in place like a proper manhole cover, it suddenly tipped, sending me crashing face first onto the pavement. My collision with concrete resulted in a chipped tooth and an assortment of scrapes and bruises, though nothing more serious. I was dazed, cursing at the defective infrastructure.

At this point, I realized that this was my personal nadir of this (or any previous) vacation, that there was nowhere to go but up. I staggered uphill towards the first doorway I could find, which happened to be a dental clinic just a block from my accident. Little English was spoken here, with the exception being this orthodontist who had recently trained in Chicago for a few months. She explained that it was not necessary to extract my damaged tooth, but it did have to undergo a bonding process.

I spent two hours having my tooth bonded by the lovely and talented Paula, a young dentist who wore earrings that said "STOP" (why not "PARE"?). I felt like the new arrival at the zoo, as the other dentists scrutinized Paula's skillful treatment of her hapless patient. The folks at the dental clinic were so nice to me that I was almost able to forget about my miserable predicament.

The next day, I was actually successful in reaching Sugar Loaf mountain (Pao de Açúcar) without injuring anyself or getting robbed. A handful of rugged souls are known to climb up the sides of Sugar Loaf, but most people reach its peak by riding a set of two smooth-running cable cars. The views from the peak are truly spectacular, and it was fun to spot various buildings and landmarks in the distance. The lofty Christ the Redeemer statue stands atop Corcovado mountain, with arms outstretched to embrace all of Rio, for richer or for poorer. The favelas, giant hodgepodges of shacks jammed into the hillsides, form part of the colorful and complex mosaic that is Rio. As I observed the grand panorama around me, comfortably basking in the morning sun, I finally felt relaxed for the first time in Rio.

Our merry romp through Rio continued in Centro, now bustling with Cariocas on a typical weekday. My friend was interested in taking a few photos of this classical building. The sculptures atop the building were all curiously wrapped with light-colored fabric, vaguely reminiscent of Christo's Reichstag project which my friend had intently observed in Berlin. The massive building itself was not wrapped, reveling its Corinthian columns.

We were intrigued by a political rally taking place in front of the building. Facing the heavily guarded edifice, the main speaker lectured forcefully to a crowd of supporters. The atmosphere within the plaza seemed a bit tense. While watching a newscast that night, we saw shocking footage of the rally which degenerated into a near-riot. There were bloodied officers, smashed vehicles, screaming protesters being hauled away by the authorities. Rats, we were this close to witnessing mayhem and violence that was unrelated to a soccer match!

We departed Rio with bittersweet feelings, my friend's being mostly bitter. We hopped on a bus for a four-hour ride to Parati. A small colonial town along the Atlantic coastline, Parati was a good place to relax between Rio and São Paulo. Parati's six-block historical area features cobblestone streets and quaint eighteenth-century buildings. I am not quite sure why we spent two days here, howere. One would have sufficed. After our intense stay in Rio, I suppose both of us wanted to lay low for awhile.

Our place of residence featured a pleasant courtyard and an agile gecko (the house pet?). At first I mistook it for a toy on the wall, but then it started to move about in search of food. This creature must have been the Michael Jordan of geckos, as we cheered each time it sucked down a pesky mosquito and gasped after the rare misses. This spectator sport was nearly as entertaining

as watching a televised soccer game between two top Brazilian clubs in the "family room" of the inn. The spirited reaction of the proprietors and their friends after a fabulous goal captured the essence of Brazil's passion for futebol.

After our mellow stay in Parati, it was time for a scenic six-hour bus ride to São Paulo. A sprawling gray metropolis with over ten percent of Brazil's population, São Paulo is the most populated city in South America and is the third most populated metropolitan area in the world (behind only Tokyo and New York). Interestingly enough, the population density in São Paulo is less than that in Rio. We stayed in Liberdade, which is the home of the largest Japanese population outside of Japan at nearly one million. Quite a number, but it is a mere fraction of São Paulo's 16.4 million inhabitants. When we dined in a local Japanese restaurant, I was unsure of which "thank you" to utter: obrigado (Portuguese) or arigato (Japanese).

We happened upon a pulsating rock concert in a plaza near the Teatro Municipal. I actually recognized one of the band's songs (must be a smash hit in Brazil), through I did not know the name of the group. The acoustics of this outdoor concert were surprisingly good, thought not good enough to prevent one druggie from bouncing about the inside of a police wagon. The officers were certainly focused on the druggie, for another fellow relieved himself next to the wagon (how nice!). Our evening was capped off by a dead body across the way from the main cathedral. From our vantage point there were no obvious signs of bodily harm; how did he die? The lonely corpse attracted quite a curious crowd: police officers, local passersby, plainly attired prostitutes....and two visitors from Chicago. Gee, was this a new scam, the "corpse on the sidewalk" trick? My friend and I left the scene, but the deceased was still waiting to be carried away.

On our last day in São Paulo (and in Brazil), we visited the Memorial da Am‚Rica Latina, a captivating campus of curvilinear concrete buildings designed by Oscar Niemeyer, Brazil's most notable architect. The centerpiece of the Memorial is a large "bleeding" concrete hand, with a red image of South America superimposed in its palm to reflect the concept of Latin American unity. In my own mind, the bleeding hand symbolized my freak fall in Rio. We then ventured to Ibirapuera Park, considered to be São Paulo's equivalent to New York's Central Park. An older grouping of Niemeyer's structures from the 1950's dominates the park, which was quite popular with the rollerblading crowd. The park also features a Japanese pavilion, museums, sculptures and a planetarium. While in the park, a wasp jabbed its stinger into my neck. Just my rotten luck, my first wasp sting ever. At least I did not seem to suffer an allergic reaction, though the back of my neck was rather sore for about an hour.

Our last meal in Brazil was the feijoada, a stew which is the meal of choice for Brazilians on Saturdays. Just about everyone in this particular diner was enjoying this rich concoction of fatty meats and black beans, accompanied by rice and greens/. We drowned our daily sorrows with refreshing sucos, beverages made from Brazil's cornucopia of fruits. How about Iaranja (orange), morango (strawberry), abacaxi (pineapple) or acerola (vaguely cherry flavored)?

The escape from Brazil started on the jam-packed metro. We were informed that our metro ticket was not usable for the airport bus, though we were led to believe otherwise. Oh well, the additional fare was not much, not a big deal.

Unlike in Rio, the passenger boards the typical São Paulo bus at the front. One then pays a cashier sitting near the driver, passes through the omnipresent turnstile and exits at the rear door. The bus ride was uneventful....until we drove through one of the favelas, and a marble-sized stone crashed through a bus window. Luckily, no one was injured, though I mentally questioned the judgment of the driver for stopping the bus in the middle of this shantytown in order to view the damage from the exterior. What was he thinking?

After the unscheduled curbside inspection, we proceeded towards the airport as if nothing had ever happened. Soon, my friend and I both spotted a sign which appeared to indicate the terminal for our flight, so we hurriedly followed a man off the bus at this junction. We were puzzled to see the man walking off into the distance; were we to follow him? Dumbstruck, we then realized that this was not the terminal at all, but merely a minor stop along the highway for specialized airport employees.

The sign which lured us off the bus was actually an advertisement for a certain fast food restaurant, which proudly proclaimed its location at that particular terminal! We were marooned at this kiosk for only a few minutes, as another bus saved the day for us. Naturally, the cashier refused to accept either of our previous ticket stubs, so we paid a third fare in order to reach the airport. As an appropriate epilogue, the announced movie on our flight home ("Apollo 13") was canceled due to technical difficulties.

We will definitely be laughing about this surrealistic journey for years to come. Our slic of Brazil had its charms: spectacular natural landscapes, tropical weather, miles of beaches, delicious food and drink, beautiful women, exciting modern architecture. However, the level of crime and poverty in the big cities cannot be ignored. I have never encountered so many distractions, scams, incidents, all concentrated in an eight-day span. I became rather tentative on this trip, cautious, reacting instead of acting.

The vacation metamorphosed into a Brazilian obstacle course, and neither of us survived unscathed. Despite the mind-boggling series of events, I would welcome a return trip to Brazil someday. Not soon, but someday. Now, I must send a thank-you note to Paula.

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Author: Gilman, Bruce Article Title: Biting head Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.8; N.124 Publication Date: 04-30-96 Page: p. 39

Biting head.

After clobbering brainless blondes, idly-rich playboy heirs, and even the president, Gabriel O Pensador is back in the ring pounding at the portals of our perception with his second recording Ainda  S¢ o Começo (Still It Is Only the Beginning). Tall and slim, with the beard of an adolescent and long curly hair that frames his angled features, O Pensador (The Thinker) appears older than his twenty-one years.

But there is something even more puzzling about Gabriel. Maybe it is the contradiction between his inoffensive, straightforward appearance and the tremendous thunder of the lyrics he composes. Maybe it is a combination of the naivete of his appearance with the blitz of success that has come to him so early. Whatever it is, there is nothing perplexing about his message. I've just finished listening again to Gabriel's new disc and to three tracks in particular that have dramatically etched themselves into my memory: Estudo Errado (False Study), Mentiras do Brasil (Lies From Brazil), and Filho Da P tria Iludido (Deceived Son of the Homeland) - the poetic connotation being filho da puta (son-of-a bitch). Rap is the label for this rhythm and this poetry that is scorching my nerve endings and making me restless, and it's great!

In general, rappers do not play instruments but are expert manipulators of pre-recorded material. They create sound collages in what many consider a "supposed-art." Since its origin, rap has been connected to a type of indignant language discourse. Singing has always been an insignificant component of rap. What is important, are the words themselves, the lyrics, the message. Sometimes the words are too strong. Gangsta rap, for instance, talks about weapons, bitches (women), and the murder of oppressors. The lyrics in most Gangsta rap have, for many, reached their tired perimeter.

Like it or not, rap today is universal. It is well known in North America, all over Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan. In the United States rapping over the same monochord tune has too often limited itself to addressing only a narrow sector of social problems, and is only now moving incrementally into new territory.

Even in Brazil's fledging rap scene, the group from Rio Ryo Radikal Repz sings "foda-se a pol¡cia" (the police fuck themselves) in a tune that exploded like a homemade bomb on the TV program Por Acaso (By Chance). On the other hand, some less obvious mixes by groups like Chico Science & Nacao Zumbi that have mixed the diction of rap with the style of the Northeastern repente, are remarkably innovative. In the Northeast of Brazil, poetic song duels called desafios, are occasions where two repentistas (singers in the desafio) improvise insulting or funny verses (repentes) in a strict form, attempting to break the other singer's conncentration.

In Rio funk is more common than rap. But what is called funk in Rio is really a form of rap that came from Miami. It's perfect for dancing and has lyrics

that usually contain a humorous double meaning but really not much of a message. This Rio funk is common at parties where people tend to drink a little too much and get into fights.

of funk. In fact, O Pensador has participated in public declarations against violence and writes lyrics that often contain criticism of the practice, lyricas that strive to lessen the violence at Brazilian dances. Def Yuri, one of O Pensador's rapping collaborators on Ainda  S¢ o Começo, explained also that although they don't write gangsta rap, they do believe in a guerrilla army but in a way that is very different from those encountered in the 60s and 70s.

As people involved in Brazilian rap know, the genre still is very much off to the side, not a musical forerunner. It was fortunate for the artist who got to the top first and at the right time. After Gabriel broke ground, those who followed (mainly in São Paulo) received the recognition they warranted. Gabriel definitely helped to expand the market.

O Pensador dfeels that some rap music is opportunist and address only fleeting concerns and temporary distractions that will not be discussed tomorrow, yet some concepts like racial and social prejudice persist and always have. O Pensador is a natural within the rap medium, a trail blazer who has had the wherewithal to make Ainda  S¢ o Começo, excel by diversifying textures and ideas within the strict meter of rap.

When the Carioca rapper blew up in the music parades all over Brazil with his condemnation of conservative middle class conventions, people thought that when the summer was over the whirlwind around the man who declared death to the president would have calmed down. But with the surprising sales of 320 thousand copies of his first recording, Gabriel O Pensador proved the opposite. Two years later he launched his latest recording, Ainda  S¢ o Começo, which will further provoke those who did not believe in his artistic longvity. For Gabriel it is too soon to rest. He still has lots more to say.

Even without the bombshell T" Feliz - Matei o Presidente (I'm Happy - I killed the President), Gabriel's first release has made the strongest impact on Brazilian rap in the 90s thus far. L"raburra (Domb Blond), Retrato de um Playboy (Portrait of a Playboy), 175 Nada Especial (175 Nothing Special) were greeted as the best mainfestations of intelligence from the almost invisible Brazilian rap scene. In T" Feliz - Matei o PResidente, Gabriel assassinates Fernando Collor, the president for whom his mother, Belisa Ribeiro, worked as a journalist.

The situation was explosive. While mother was working for the president, son was screaming out his hatred for Collor's regime. When Matei o Presidente was released, manyh journalists envied Gabriel's mother and tried to explore her position on the subject, as myriad rumors were spreading about her.

Gabriel is not ashmed that his mother worked for Collor. He doesn't feel that there was any crime in that. In fact, a short time before Matei o Presidente started being aired on the radio his mother fought publicly with Collor. She later left Brazil to live in the United States but has since returned to Brazil and is now living with Gabriel. Today the son of the famous journalist is more famous than his mother.

Gabriel has been writing since he was 16 years old. He started rapping when he was 17 or 18, at the time he recorded the music T" Feliz, Matei o

Presidente with a drum machine in eight channels. He took the finished tape to the RPC FM station in Rio. They liked it and asked to have exclusive access to the tape. The station played it for five days before it was censored. Gabriel started being interviewed and was offered contracts with two independent labels which he refused.

T" Feliz was his biggest step in coming out from the unknown. He was very much an amateur at that time and had performed his first shows without contracts but signed him. In September Sony launched his first disc. Gabriel had no idea what was going to happen, but luckily the worst part was by then already over.

Gabriel's themes speak about violence, the church, and men who beat they wives and children. His work criticizes behavioural concepts that have become accepted patterns of adult behaviour. For example, the playboy sons of upper middle-class Brazilian families who depend on their parents' money, probe for sex, and make no attempt to achieve anything on their own; and the "dumb blondes" - attractive men or women who get through life simply by banking their appearance but who refuse to think critically about their behaviour. Much of his work expresses ideas that people with integrity accept the axioms. Those who don't, many times are subconsciously attached to following these very patterns.

Most of the criticism O Pensador receives has little foundation. Even when it is couched in the objective of being constructive, it strives only to create controversy. Gabriel has a consciousness about his work; this stance has not changed. His work is internationally aggressive and intend to trigger criticism, since that will make people become involved with the ideas. He cannot believe, for example, that the Catholic church is still condemning condoms. He is totally in favor of them and feels that condoms should be distributed for free to poor young people in Brazil who don't often use condoms because they don't have the money to buy them. And sex is one diversion the poor layers of society can enjoy chiefly because it its usually free.

While corruption exists and is easily identifiable, there will be no lack of subject matter for this torrential composer. In his previous work Gabriel opened fire criticizing racism, obligatory military service, and didn't stop to spare the impossible life-style of Brazil's homeless kids and the young girls who become prostitutes. This time the corrosive lyrics have transformed themselves into a detonating philosophical bomb.

His new targets are the Americanized youngsters of Brazil, Evangelical ministers, and the government's institutional system of education. Ainda  S¢ Começo powerfully criticizes, the police, politicians, abusive husbands, and religious fanatics. In Filho da P tria Iludido he challenges a Brazilian who is so mentally crippled that he goes out on the streets of Rio wearing a shirt that looks like the flag of the United States. O Pensador knows that every story has more than one side, but with Ainda  S¢ o Começo he has chosen only the side that hits the hardest. Rhythm and poetry are again Gabriel's demolishing weapons in scrutinizing the truth.

The new recording employs samples (textures and pharases extracted from other songs) from the music of Bob Marley, Rita Lee, Gilberto Gil, Legiao Urbana, Soundgarden, Azymuth, and Tom Tom Club to enrich the non-stop thrashing of the disc's themes. In Mentiras do Brasil (Lies from Brazil) Gabriel makes an insightful use of music from the opera O Guarani by Carlos Gomes integrated

with the dazzling pandeiro work of Marcos Suzano. In keeping with the same voracious creativity that distinguished Gabriel's first project, Ainda  S¢ o Começo, harbors the same incisive style of writing.

Some of the raps were created through improvisation. FDP, for example, was born one afternoon when Yuri was at Gabriel's house. They were just improvising with a few ideas and started singing the refrain "Filho da puta/Filho da puta/ Filho da puta" (Son of a Bitch/Son of a Bitch/Son of a Bitch) over a bass line. Other lyrics were created while Gabriel was driving his car or taking a shower. Notwithstanding, Ainda  S¢ o Começo is a prodigious work, especially when compared to the generation of rappers whose vocabulary is limited to anything that rhymes. The development of characters and unusual situations is one of the disc's strongest merits. The teacher calling roll in Estudo Errado transports the listener with an archetypal childhood memory.

With this second release, Sony has projected sales in the area of 500 thousand units. Production of the new disc was painstakingly through. It is a work of superior quality. An affinity between the technology and quality of material, that listeners find missing at times with other rap projects, forcefully comes through. However, Ainda  S¢ o Começo, did face some extra difficulties before entering the market. There were some serious problems with a few of the samples Gabriel wanted to use. Producer F bio Fonseca assumed that everything was ready when they were prevented from using samples of Money by Pink Floyd, Smells Like Teen Spirit by Nirvana, and the theme song from the cartoon show The Jetsons. As a result, the arrangements that were using parts of this music were modified at the last minute. And unfortunately, the video Sony wanted to include with the first prssing didn't materialize due to time restraints.

Gabriel is comfortable and says that he is happy and secure about his work, that he only wants people to become more aware, more conscious. He is congnizant that young people are not informed, that they seldom read the papers,, and in many cases are completely alienated. The lyrics in rap music many times are their only way of knowing about politics. But Gabriel is not only concerned with politics. What he wants is for people to think with their own heads, to pay attention to the concepts that were implanted early on in their behaviour, and trust their intuition.

What captured Gabriel's attention and opened his eyes were the children who know and love his lyrics. When he realized that kids listen to his music, pay attention, and understand what they can, he was challenged, started weighing everything that was happening, and sensed that his work could be something very positive or these young people. This insight is reflected on the disc's cover photo which shows a happy baby wearing headphones - presumably listening to what's inside.

O Pensador makes many criticisms of the police but lives and works around several types of policeman and pays attention to the differences that exist. He feels that everyone has to be careful and avoid making judgments, know how to express criticism, and have the perception to not exaggerate. These are concerns that Gabriel analyzes closely. For O Pensador, it is not a question of thinking lightly about criticism - to criticize lightly is pointless - but to think twice before condemning. After all, empty headed people may also be victims. He wants people to wake up to reality. Although his work is aggressive, he is cognizant that his criticisms are necessary and that his work will stimulate ideas.

Sculptor Auguste Rodin's private vision of the trials and torments of human existence, The Gates of Hell, is a panoramic statement of his own belief that hell is suffered not only by the dead, but by the living; that it is a bleak realm of false goals, lost dreams and unrealized passions. Man with his pride and hopes, strives for fulfillment only to meet his certain fate - disillusionment and ultimate destruction. Brooding over the Gates is Rodin's famous paradox, The Thinker. Representing man's ability to reaosn and to create, The Thinker sits as if in judgment of his fellow men - and himself. On the back cover of Ainda  S¢ Começo, Gabriel dares you to take up the headphones, while brooding like a guardian angel over his right shoulder is an illustration of Rodin's The Thinker sporting the rappers' backward baseball cap - a metaphor not lost to the listener.

The idea of O Pensador, the rapper, is a little controversial. He is always asked how he can rap and still be from the middle class. The fact is that Gabriel has never paid much attention to social class. He has always had both rich and poor friends and always invites the most humbel people to this parties. When he was living in São Conrado he knew many people from the Rocinha favela. On his fourteenth birthday, a group of friends from Rocinha came to his party, through intimidation almost turned them away at the door. Gabriel has also known people who have lived in posh condominiusm, but most of his friends are from the poor areas of Rio.

The 21 year old philospher says he recognizes who his friends are. They are those who like rap, those who like funk, those who like pagode, the people on the beach, the people in the slums, the people from Rio's South Zone, and the people from the North Zone. He feels that Rio is very mixed up and that it doesn't matter what area, north or south, people come from. O Pensador is aware that is impossible to establish social divisions in Rio, a tropical Babel that brings together the rich and the poor. To Gabriel it all depends on the uniting element. When everyone was cheering for Brazil in the World Cup they all had the same agenda. When listening to music it is the same.

People per se don't irritate Gabriel by being themselves. What irritates him are the pretentious people who intervene in others' lives and those people who need to show off. What he criticizes in his music are empty, futile people. He perceives that many people have little respect for the experience of older people, and he is against anything that alienates and leaves a person dependent, tied up. He believes that the church and TV can be considered drugs.

It is very easy for Gabriel to express his values and to pass on his message. He composes rapidly. He lives and breaths his poetry. Once the basic music tracks are recorded, he can come back the following day with the lyrics. His poetry is not in any way sentimental. On the contrary, it is aggressive, annihilating, and always has a conscientious message that brings a social or political awareness to the listener. The message functions as an escape valve for those who are oppressed by social conventions. His lyrics are extremely long chronicles of a young man who wants a different world. They do not offer help to endure the pressure of today's world like the books by Paulo Coelho; they often words to be screamed by a crowd.

He approaches themes that reach many people. It is very easy for listeners no identify with his music. Gabriel suspects that music was what gave him his personality, principally the music of Bob Marley. Today he is nourished by rap. The more he leans on the vehicle of rap music, the more he gets from it

and the more motivated he gets. He feels that he is still opening his first doors of perception.

He prefers that people not assume he is a singer. On the track Como um V¡cio (Like a Vice) from the new disc, Gabriel yells, "I don't sing well. I'm not a singer. I'm a composer." Once at a show in Salvador where Julian Maryley (Son of Bob Marley) was also performing Gabriel decided to show reverence and sing "No Woman No Cry." It was so scary that he musicians, embarrassed by his singing, tried to hid behind their instruments. Gabriel said that it was hilarious.

In the future O Pensador would like to write for a different medium, but not for the papers, something more free, may be a book. He doesn't know. He finds that now he is limited by the meter of rap. He has always wanted to write but is now confined by a style of writing that must fit a rigid meter. He notes that before he writes for a different medium he will need to read a lot more and hasn't had much time to read.

O Pensador did enjoy reading Nelson Rodrigues, the sports writer, author, playwright, journalist, and innovator of a type of theater in which different scenes of action take place on various raised platforms at the same time. Rodrigues was also responsible for creating a scandal in the 60s with some themes he wrote about in O Beijo no Asfalto (A Kiss on the Asphalt). The play wa son the surface about a man who had an accident on the street and survived by receiving artificial respiration. The underground theme, however, was homosexuality. O Beijo no Asfalto created a tremendous controversy at the time.

In another line from Como um V¡cio Gabriel says, "Pay attention to what I say. Keep that Hip hop enters through your ears and goes to your head." Gabriel confesses in the tune that he is involved to his bones. He cannot go out. He is already addicted, passionatley in love, and dependent on the thoughts that feed his mind and that push him further every day, and asks himself where he would be if it were not this way.

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Author: Adams, Scott Article Title: Brazilian Notas Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.8; N.124 Publication Date: 04-30-96 Page: p. 45

Brazilian Notas.

Now that we're past the fever of Carnaval, I'd though we'd take a break from the CDs, albums and tapes of our Brazilian favorites to showcase those who showcase the music for us, each week in cities throughout the country.

These radio DHs work with a true love of Brazilian music to entertain, educate and enlighten us with their own individual personality and programming style. So whether your favorite Brazilian music is samba, forr¢, choro, MPB (Brazilian Popular Music), bossa nova or smooth Brazilian jazz, feel free to use this guide to find the station nearest you, and make sure to tell your friends in other parts of the country to tune in too! "The Sounds of Brazil!" with Scott Adams Saturday Midnight WNUA FM 95.5, Chicago, IL Saturday 10 pm KCJZ FM 106.7 San Antonio, TX Sunday 10 am KXDC FM 101.7 Monterey/Salinas, CA Sunday 10 am WOTB FM 103.1 Providence, RI Sunday Noon KIFM FM 98.1 San Diego, CA Sunday 8 pm KSSJ FM 101.9 Sacramento, CA Sunday 10 pm KAJZ FM 93.3 FM Austin, TX Sunday Midnight WNWV FM 107.3 Cleveland, OH "Agora Brasileiro" with Eric Taller, Elvira Cola Saturday 2 pm KPFA Berkeley, CA "Coração Brasileiro" with Dennis Miller Sunday Noon-2 pm WMBR FM 88.1 Boston, MA "Brasil com `S'" with Judith King Saturday 9 pm-mid. WGBO FM 88.3, Newark, NJ "Brasilian Tropicale" with Alvon Griffin Wednesday 1-2 pm WMNF FM 88.5, Tampa, FL "Brazilians Love Jazz" with Gina Martell Sunday 6-9 pm WLVE FM 93.9, Miami, FL "A Taste of Brazil" with Dick Conte Sunday 10-11 pm KKSF FM 103.7, San Francisco, CA "Canta Brasil" with John Ii, David Heymann, Maria Jos‚ Sunday 6-8 pm KKUP FM 91.5 Cupertino, CA "Sounds of Brasil" with Sergio Mielniczenko Thursday 9:30-11:00 am KPFK FM 90.7, Los Angeles, CA "One Occean" with Lilia Albuquerque Sunday 3-5 pm KZYX FM 90.7, Philo, CA "Jazz Tropicale" with Marshall Vente Sunday 10 pm-Mid. WDCB FM 90.9 Glen Ellyn, IL "Horizontes" with Michael Crocket Friday 2-3 pm KUT FM 90.5, Austin, TX "Raices" with Samia Panni, Brian Lottis, Nilsa Lessa Saturday 2-4 pm KBCS FM 91.3 Bellview, WA "The Brazilian Fantasy" with Cenir Arruda, Sunday 4-6 pm KUVO FM 89.3 Denver, CO "Island Dreams/Waves" with Clay Yager Friday 7 pm WUMR FM 91.7, Memphis, TN

If you know of other Brazilian radio programs not included in this list, please feel free to call me at (847) 486-0031 so that I can include them in a future column. And if you're not fortunate enough to have a Brazilian radio program in your area, call the Program Director at your local jazz or community radio station and tell them of your desire. Who knows? Maybe your name could be added to this list someday! And here's a list of other useful services: The Brazilian Minute:

The Brazilian Minute is a weekly syndicated feature that covers the cultural and historical wealth of Brazil. The radio broadcast is made available without charge to Brazilian radio programs by The Montage Communications Group and is under-written by The Office of Brazilian Consulates General. Many of the above radio programs carry this entertaining and informative program as part of their regular programming. If the Brazilian program in your area

doesn't carry The Brazilian Minute, call the program host and ask him to include it. A-VID International

(800) 750-1941 Brazilian Carnaval Video Tapes Brazil CDs:

(617) 666-3747 Brazilian Music (Mail Order) Musicrama:

(718) 389-7818 Brazilian Music (Mail Order) Tower Music:

(800) 648-4844 Brazilian Music (Mail Order)

And don't forgest: You can receive a free subscription to The Brazilian Music Review by simply calling The Brazilian Music review Listener Line at (847) 292-4545. It's America's only publication that covers Brazilian music releases available in this country. The Listener Line also allows you to sample selected new Brazilian albums before you buy. Check it out! Next month we'll return with review of the hottest new Brazilian music. Ate logo!

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Author: Ravelo, Carlos Article Title: COVER: Where summer never ends, water and food are scarce salaries evaporate and corruption thrives Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.97 Publication Date: 01-31-94 Page: p. 7

COVER: Where summer never ends, water and food are scarce salaries. evaporate and corruption thrives

The sun rises from the East early, very early. By high noon, temperatures have easily reached the 100 degree mark, distorting the landscape and virtually blinding the naked eye under the piercing radiance and blazing heat of an unrelenting tropical sun. Livestock dies by the hundreds. Once mighty rivers - still lines in blue on the maps - are now merely trickles, puddles of polluted water holes where men and animal alike compete for a drop of its putrid waters. Trees shrivel-up under the overbearing heat of cyclical dry spell that time around is going into its fourth year.

It has been the Sertão's sixth major drought this century, and the second within the last ten. Hell? Not quite! Just another hellish summer day in the backwoods. However, if ever there was a place on earth that somehow were to resemble the physical attributes of hell, it would most probably be the Sertão Nordestino, Brazil's northeasternmost region, covering nine states and bordered by the Amazon on the west, the Atlantic to the east, and the Planalto, Espirito Santo and Minas Gerais states to the south and southeast.

VICTIMS TWICE OVER - Encompassing an area of over 227 thousand square kilometers, Barzil's northeastern triangle covers a surface area equal to the combined areas of Portugal, Belgium, Holland and Switzerland. It's an area subjected to prolonged periods of drought and of only occasional rains; an area which nature - and man - have slowly been converting into a virtual desert. But the Brazilian Sertão's 27 million inhabitants are not the exclusive victims of an inhospitable climate alone; indeed, they have also been victimized by their fellow man, victimized twofold.

Corruption, mismanagement, negligence, greed and profit motives of the rich and the political elite, have been their other downfall. To finally top it off, runaway inflation - a staple in the rest of Brazil - has hit the Sertão in full swing. The combined curses of man and nature, "as pragas" (the plagues), as many nordestinos call them, have combined to make 1993 a year of infamy in the hearts, minds - and stomachs - of the majority of the sertanejos.

EAT NOW, PAY ... LATER - Maria das Dores da Mota, a grocery store owner in Mandacai, a town in the interior of Bahia state, finishes nothing down the number of kilograms of feijão, farinha e arroz (bean, manioc flour and rice) that she has just provided to one of her clients. She, like many hundreds of other store owners in countless towns and hamlets in the Sertão, is engaging in an ancient ritual - expected and accepted - called vender fiado (to sell on trust-credit).

"If I don't sell on credit, the people will die and so will I. That's why we don't note down the prices but rather the merchandise, so as not to cause (them) greater damage" says Maria. The fiado ritual, in fact, is the only

functional financial arrangement that works in the Sertão. In the nearby town of Cajueiro, Francilda Domingas de Souza, an itinerant produce seller, sees the day go by without making a single sale. The reason: she only sells her products in cash.

In an area where most of the populace lives far away from the larger urban centers and financial institutions, such things as checks, stable jobs or savings are virtually unheard of. Inflation was also something almost unknown... until now.

MANIPULATING NATURE - Every year in which a dry spell has struck the Brazilian countryside, the Federal Government has stepped in to somehow try to appease the suffering of the average sertanejo. Since the beginning of this century, the Government has implemented programs such as Frentes Produtivas de Trabalho (Productive Work Task-Force Programs), providing funds to put hungry unemployed nordestinos to work. In a complicated procedure, the money theoretically trickles down through the hands of national, regional and local agencies and commissions, finally reaching the prefeituras (city halls), that then decide what projects are worthy to be carried out... and who will ultimately benefit from them.

People who are either employed or receiving a pension can- theoretically - qualify for work in "community" projects, receiving a daily salary equivalent to half the national minimum wage. However, in practice, the salary hardly ever meets that standard and worse yet, it can take anywhere from several days to several weeks before it reaches the hands of the laborers. Wore yet, even if an individual meets the required criteria, he or she can still be left out of the program, if he happens to belong to the wrong political party.

Projects are varied: communal water retainers, maintenance of cemeteries or repaving of streets and roads. Nevertheless, an investigation that was recently carried out by the ComisSão Pastoral da Terra (Pastoral Committee on the Land) in Bahia state, uncovered irregularities in 126 of 210 municipalities that they surveyed. Those irregularities varied from over-invoicing of tasks and materials, to misuse of the projects by building them for use by private individuals or entities.

The results of these misguided policies are felt within the homes of the purported beneficiaries of the projects, policies that have been in force ever since the early 1900's. These policies - and their consequences - are what nordestinos have come to call politica da seca, the drought policy. A policy that is not only dictated by the law of nature, but also through a policy of malice, greed and profit-motive shrewdly manipulated by heartless men against their poorer brethren.

MONEY THAT BURNS - Trying to propup a region that has traditionally been known as Brazil's most impoverished subsistence farming area, has always been something extremely difficult. Both the state and federal governments have tried every available approach: emergency funds, loans, subsidies and grants.

In 1909 the Inspetoria de Obras Contra a Seca (Ant-Drought Public Works Bureau) was formed, the forefather of the DNOCS (National Department of Anti-Drought Public Works). Today, the monies are channeled into the region through three main sources: SUDENE (Superintendence of the Northeastearn Development), DNOCS and the Banco do Nordeste.

In fact, last year the nordestino region received funds that reached 10.7

billion cruzeiros, more than the combined total for the northern, southeastern and west-central regions of Brazil put together. The funds were to cover health, education, public works and sanitation projects. But even these large amounts of outlays have not been a guarantee for regional prosperity; rather, what it has ultimately done is expose a long and circun voluted trail of greed and corruption, currently under investigation by the Brazilian Federal Government's Budget Investigative Committee.

A recent investigation by the National Court of Accounts (Tribunal de Contas da União) or TCU, revealed that local corruption has cost public coffers more than $302 million in the overpricing of both goods and services, mostly within the DNOCS. The worst offenders are in the states of Paraiba, Rio Grande do Norte and Ceara. The TCU recommended that Luis Gonzaga Nogueira-Marques, - the DNCOS director - be fired. Nogueira-Marquez openly employed relatives and friends, and favored firms that were politically or financially linked to several other friends of his.

But nepotism and favoritism are only part of the story. Dozens of projects funded through the various agencies have since been only partially completed or abandoned altogether. The Sertão is, in true sense, a virtual public works cemetery. Lack of planning, and shoddy or outright negligent execution of them have left more than 50 irrigation projects in complete abandon.

HELL AND HEAVEN TOGETHER - The lack of completion of those projects is not simply an inconvenience for the government; in a region such as the Sertão, where people sometimes have to walk several miles to fetch a couple of pails of drinking water, accessibility can suddenly become a life-and-death issue. Why? Uncompleted water reservoirs are of little use, since there is nowhere to hold the water when the rains do come.

"I don't know if I'll be alive to see it all," says 68 year-old farmer Jose Correia dos Santos. He walks an average of two miles every day just to obtain two pails of drinking water that weigh close to 80 pounds. The delays have created pockets of poverty and sidelined populations, such as in Itaparica (Pernambuco), where over 30,000 people are awaiting to be relocated. They were dislodged to make way for an artificial lake.

Meanwhile, none of the promised made to them has been fulfilled. And not far away, another similar project in Oroco, costing more than $30 million, stands abandoned. Hundreds or rusted pipes and scores of wild goats stand around, mute witnesses to a ghost community irrigation project that never was.

FIRST WORLD MEETS THE FOURTH WORLD - Barely a few miles separate the first world from the fourth world, in the Nordeste. In the very same municipality of Santa Maria de Boa Vista (PE), a highly sophisticated local entrepreneur exports high quality grapes to the European Common Market while just a couple of miles down the very same road in which his trailers haul the produce, average citizens have to resort to foul-smelling water sources to cover their most precarious needs.

In Santa Maria's first world image, the Fazenda Milano winery produces six varieties of high-quality wines. One of them, Botticelli Chemin Blanc, is considered to be amongst the finest produced in Brazil. Advanced first-world irrigating techniques have definitely helped propel the owner's success.

"This shows that the region can succeed," says Fazenda Milano's owner Jose G. de Freitas-Almeida, who also just happens to be the city's Mayor.

Nevertheless, the Nordeste's fourth world image can also be seen not very far away from Fazenda Milano. Exactly where Jose Correia dos Santos goes to pick-up his pails of semi-putrid water. In fact, two of Jose's eleven born children have died of malnutrition, and he indicates that diarrhea and parasites are a common-day occurrence amongst the populace.

Nevertheless, water is so difficult to get only because he has barely any money. He cannot buy a couple of dozen feet of simple 1.2-inch PVC pipes to tap the main water line. And the few times that Santos has ever been able to taste the high-grade quality grapes of Fazenda Milano's harvest were when a few of them fell from the trucks that pass in front of his squalid Sertanejo shack.

MONEY TALKS, POVERTY WALKS - With over 3,000 employees on its payroll, the DNOCS commands a powerful presence in the Sertão. Commissioned to oversee the construction of irrigation dams, reservoirs and the drilling of water holes in a water-starved semidesert, DNOCS officials have power, and flaunt it. They also have helped to shape and coin the well-known phrase industria da seca, (the drought industry) in all of Brazil.

"When I first arrived in Brasilia, I thought that the term industria da seca was just an invention made up by the sulistas (inhabitants of the south)," says Roberto Magalhaes, Deputy (House Representative) for Pernambuco and ex-governor of that state. "However, each passing day there is more and more evidence to prove that it does exist," he adds.

Funded by the Federal government, the DNOCS basically has dedicated itself to transfer resources obtained from taxpayers monies, funneling them into the hands of private entities and individuals. The people they patronize are powerful, rich, and politically connected. For example, on the average they charge $560 for dispatching their well-drilling machine. The machine has the ability to drill 150 feet into the ground. Private companies that perform the same task charge some six to seven times more, up to $3,300.

And although almost 10 millionnordestinos are directly affected by the seca, DNOCS' general director is not one of then. Luis Gonzaga Nogueira Marques gets enough water through DNOCS resources as to have his own private swimming pool full of water all the time. This in an area in which the drought has affected each and every one of the 118 municipalities of the state of Piaui. In 1992, the drought became so severe that three state capitals - Recife, Teresina and Fortaleza - had to resort to water rationing. Food staples became so scarce, that there were looting of supermarkets and school-food warehouses. And although the agency has to give priority to public well-drillings, more than 225 private wells were dug in Sergipe state versus four for the general public.

In fact, of the former, one was done for the state's Governor João Alves Filho, another for congressman Messias Gois. The situation was similar in adjoining states as well: in Rio Grande do Norte 7 public and 93 private wells were drilled; in Piaui 24 to 140, respectively. And in Pernambuco, the taxpayer's money helped to finance a well that provides water to wash motorcycles at a motorbike dealership in Olinda and another one in Recife.

WHERE'S THE LAW? - An investigation discovered that many water reservoirs are built with public funds, but used for private enterprises. Most of the beneficiaries being politicians and the nordestino elites. In certain cases in which agreements are reached legally, the state allows that - if and when

the private individual agrees - half the water at his disposal be accessed by the populace in case of severe need. In practice, however, this is almost never carried out. Recently, several individuals have been cited before the Courts for refusing to do so.

Who are they? A state Congressman, the family members of an ex-governor, a city mayor, and even a colonel in the Military Police. Last June, they and others involved lost their appeal before the Courts; however, not all wished to comply. Displeased and angered, Paraiba governor Ronaldo Cunha Lima took drastic measures. After having been informed that mote than 186 wells and reservoirs had been built with public funds in large private farms and that the owners built tall fences so that poor people could not have access to them, he ordered them immediately destroyed.

"I just want to comply with the law," said Cunha Lima. DNOCS will also do periodic blitzes to make sure the law is being carried out. Meanwhile, many who are tired of placing their hopes on politicians and coroneis have chosen to place their faith somewhere else. The city of Juazeiro do Norte, for example, is witness to the thousands who stampede into the town for romarias dedicated to Padre Cicero, a local saint. Many pray for health, others for riches. But these days almost everybody is praying for some rain. They have learned not to trust the powers from down here.

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Author: Praxedes, Antonio Article Title: INTERVIEW: Listening to president Lula Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.97 Publication Date: 01-31-94 Page: p. 13

INTERVIEW: Listening to president Lula.

Last time around he was a runner-up. But a little less than a year before the elections, Luis Inacio Lula da Silva, seems unbeatable in the race for the Brazilian presidency. He is about 20 points ahead of ex-president Jose Sarney, the second place in the polls.

The former steel worker, son of peasants, born in Pernambuco, one of the poorest Brazilian states, is ready to give a socialist slant to the most developed Latin American economy. Former union leader and founder of the leftist-leaning Partido dos Trabalhadores (Workers' Party), Lula talks in this interview about Cuba, Polish leader Lech Walesa, private property, foreign investment, the environment, inflation and governmental corruption.

Lula says that he intends to create a new model of socialism for Brazil, even though he hasn't yet defined this system. "I would like to have a socialism that would have on one side the dignity of the Cuban people and on the other the per capita income of a Denmark."

How do you interpret the recent political movements led by Alberto Fujimori in Peru, Boris Yeltsin in Russia, and commander Raul Cedras in Haiti?

I'm against the three coups because, first, Fujimori cannot be above good and evil. I think we have to raise the consciousness level of the people so they'll choose better representatives. The president cannot have the luxury of closing the Congress because he doesn't like it or because it is conservative or not conservative. In the same way I don't agree with Fujimori, I disagree with Yeltsin. How can you accept shelling Congress just because it's in conflict with the President? The Occident is the biggest hypocrite for approving such a thing. I also disagree with Haiti's coup. I believe these are three stories, three coups, and in my opinion, three hypocrisies of the so-called Developed World that determines UN's political decisions.

What do you think about the military intervention of organizations such as the U.N. and the O.A.S. in Iraq, Somalia and Bosnia?

I'm convinced that we are going to end this century and start another with a new discussion about not only a new economic order but also about the performance of international institutions such as the U.N. and the O.A.S.

First of all we need to end the right to veto, that is, all are equal, apart from size, all have a vote. It is not the GNP or the population that determines the right to veto. If it were, China alone would veto what 20 other countries would decide. We need equality and respect to decisions. It's not possible to approve an economic blockade without considering that thousands of children die without being able to complain; they die in Iraq, in Cuba, they can die in Haiti. This has to be changed.

Brazil has always had an ambiguous position concerning Cuba. How would your government deal with that country?

There's a certain hypocrisy, not only from Brazil, but from the whole world in relation to Cuba. All the countries support self-determination, but they want to meddle in Cuba's affairs. Europe and the capitalist countries don't help Cuba due to American pressure, the same way as Brazil, whose leaders show friendliness and kindness in speeches but don't do a thing to change the situation.

Recently, Brazil wasn't able to sell six Bandeirante planes to Cuba because the U.S. would not provide a part that is manufactured there. It's unpleasant that a country big as Brazil subjects itself to this kind of whim. I think Brazil is a sovereign country. It has to have a policy towards Cuba the same way it has with other countries, without meddling with Cuba's internal affairs. First of all, we have to look at the Brazilian interests, and second, the cultural and commercial interests that Brazil might have with Cuba.

A former worker and ex-victim of political repression, Lech Walesa is leading a conservative government after Poland's long experience with Communism. Are there any other common traits between you two?

One of the problems with Walesa is that he has become a symbol of anti-communism. He left Poland and went to see Japan, Italy, Germany, where there are highly advanced capitalist system, with a per capita income from $15,000 to $22,000, and that made Walesa think that the whole world could be like that.

It would have been better if he had also visited Brazil, Africa, Ethiopia, Somalia, Bolivia, to see that capitalism is not only what he saw in Europe; capitalism has another side.

In a country like Brazil with such disparity in income distribution, do you think the State should impose social limits as to the preservation of private property in the country and in the cities?

I'm the biggest champion of private property. For everybody, however. The problem with private property is when it becomes accessible only to a minority. I believe that property, mainly in the rural areas, has to be better studied in Brazil. It's not possible to allow somebody to have one million hectares of land. It's not possible either that a company would have two million hectares of land. The land has to be distributed according to the production interests of the country. It's not just the idea of taking away the land of those who have too much. It has to do with utilizing, socially and in a just way, the capacity the land has to produce riches, food. There are few Brazilian cities with a green belt to plant the so-called subsistence crops. What we see is land for speculation. I've recently heard that the state of Rio Grande do Norte produces only 20% of the food it consumes, and that the city of Natal (the capital of the state) only produces coriander. This is mystifying.

In France, the socialist experience provoked, at the beginning, some misgiving on the part of foreign investors. Would these investments be welcomed in a Brazil governed by a socialist?

France didn't have any socialist experience, by the way. The socialists have

lost the elections because they didn't apply in practice anything they had promised during the campaign. Now, the right is promising much more than the socialists: the reduction of work to 32 hours a week, a proposal that not even Mitterrand and Rocard dared to make. It wasn't because the government was socialist, and it wasn't, that foreign investment decreased. It was because the economic feasibility of other markets revealed itself to be more attractive.

Being the second favorite place for Sweden to invest, with 1,000 German companies in a 30 kilometer radius, and scores of American and Japanese companies, it's obvious that we will work to draw foreign capital.

Does your government intend to pay back foreign money borrowed and used improperly?

I question our foreign debt much more for the way the resources were utilized than for the way the money was obtained. The money came and it wasn't applied properly. The Transamazonica (a road cutting through the Amazon forest started during the military regime) is still unfinished. The construction of nuclear plants was unfathomable and unnecessary because, if there is a country that hasn't to think about nuclear energy, it is Brazil. Our capacity for producing hydroelectric energy is fantastic. This can only be justified by the military megalomania to build an atomic bomb or nuclear weapons.

During the 1989 presidential campaign, I stated that it was necessary to suspend the foreign debt payment and create a development fund controlled by society to support education, research, and industrial development. I still think, today, that this is the best solution. Of course, this cannot be rhetoric, or just bravado from a president. You have to build the political force to implement such ideas. The first step is to try to transform the foreign debt into a political and not economic question.

The second step is to talk directly with the governments involved instead of sending representatives to the International Monetary Fund. Governments have political and social sensitivity, something bankers don't have. We only can do this through a lot of talk over a long time, maybe years.

It's unthinkable for Latin America to keep sending liquid capital overseas as is happening now. In nine years Brazil has sent $132 billion, receiving only $17 billion... Brazil would do better keeping the 132 and sending the 17 abroad. These are theoretic comments because it is necessary to effectively build political mechanisms in order to reach an understanding. I believe that we should open the discussion about a world economic order.

What would be the fate of the privatization programs in your government?

We have two problems that we are trying to solve by debating with businessmen. First, the question of the public company is not a question of principles but of the strategic needs of a nation in formation, in a phase of growth. We would not adopt the policy of giving away the public patrimony, something that the conservative sectors would like to do now. We wouldn't do what Argentina and Mexico have done.

We are a country with an industrial calling. We have a Petrobras (that monopolizes the exploration of petroleum) that is one of the most modern and capable companies in the world and that, for Brazil, is strategic. Who guarantees that the private sector would be interested in investing in

prospecting and research in Brazil, and wouldn't adopt a policy of simply importing oil?

Research and prospecting are interests of the State. As petroleum is a source that can survive for 50 years more, it should be considered as a strategic product. And proof of that is that the seven richest countries in the world didn't hesitate about spending $30 billion to invade Iraq in defense of its international reserves in Kuwait.

That's why we want to preserve Petrobras as well as the communication sector. And, here, we have an international war. On one side, there is the European model, in which the State has maintained the control liberating the production of equipment and the rendering of some services; and the American model with total liberalization. I'm more for the European style.

How do you intend to promote the balance between industrial development and preservation of the environment?

There is no problem. First because I don't dream about converting the Amazon in a sanctuary for Humankind. About 17 million people are living there and they have the right to a dignified life. What's the role of the State? To be the organizer, in order to obtain the necessary investments in the Amazon without the deterioration of the environment. We have to study adequately the proper soil for an agrarian reform; for cattle raising, etc.

What is not acceptable is that a person from São Paulo or Rio de Janeiro buys 30,000 hectares of land in the Amazon and starts big fires without any regulation. The State has to be the big inspector, participating in technical studies for the viability of projects. There is a new source of resources in the Amazon that Brazil hasn't yet found out how to utilize, and this is biodiversity.

Foreign tourists have changed their travel plans, preferring countries in which they would feel more secure. Do you have anything in mind to revert this situation?

Urban violence is the result of the economic violence to which the country was subjected in recent years. In a country with 32 million indigent people, 70 million with an income below the poverty line, with a deficit of 12 million housing units, with 13 million suffering from some mental disease, millions of unemployed, violence is etched in every face, it inhabits every corner and, obviously, is revealed in places with a bigger concentration of poverty.

Violence is due basically to an absence of a social policy. In Rio de Janeiro or São Paulo, for instance, a child who lives in a shack goes to the streets because to them this means the conquest of freedom. A child who lives in a 40 square foot room, together with his father, mother, six siblings, besides the dog, when he gets to the street he discovers the real meaning of freedom. The street smells better. So, the only solution is to create an investment policy of a social nature, with the creation of short or medium term jobs.

What about the stubborn Brazilian inflation that is more than 1,000% a year?

Brazil's inflation is due to the subordination of the country, on one side, to the oligopolies, and on another, to the financial system. While in the world the financial system doesn't have a participation in the GNP of more than 4.5%, in Brazil this participation is 13% and has already been 24%. In Japan,

it is 4.5%; in the U.S., 2.5%; in Germany, 4.7%.

Our problem is not even the public debt that is only 33% of the GNP. To put this in perspective, Japan's public debt is 70% of the GNP; Italy's, 100%. Our problem is the rolling of the debt that implies interest payments that can be biweekly, monthly, quarterly, etc. In other countries the debts can be paid in 15 or 20 years because there is trust in the governments.

What we need is to regain this confidence, to stretch the term of our debt, to start a dialogue with the so called organized sectors to establish prices and salaries, etc. This is a start to control inflation.

How will your government deal with the Catholic church concerning birth control, abortion and gambling?

I'm in favor of legalizing gambling because I consider hypocritical what happens now. We are already a country with unbridled gambling where every citizen wakes up in the morning worried about whether he is going to play Sena, Loto, Raspadinha (scratching game), Loteria Esportiva or Loteria Federal. And, in this context, jogo do bicho (numbers game) is prohibited, precisely the one that better distributes income.

I'm also in favor or family planning. The middle class has already adopted its own mechanism for family planning due to its education. Where do we have the biggest birth rates? Among the poor, among those who didn't get education, orientation, who cannot use birth control and who have not learned that you can have sex without procreating. This is the role of the State, that should start with the child in school, utilizing TV to educate these people.

I'm in favor of family planning, but without believing that this will solve the problem. The birth rate is already falling in Brazil. Anyway, we should convince the church that it is not acceptable for a citizen earning minimum wage to have 10 children. I am against sterilization and State birth control. I'm particularly against abortion because it harms women. The practice of abortion is a violence against the human body. I understand, however, that nobody does this for pleasure but only when it is impossible to continue the pregnancy.

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Author: Espinoza, Rodolfo Article Title: O NORTE Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.97 Publication Date: 01-31-94 Page: p. 16

O Norte.

America! The land of the free, the home of the brave, and a terra dos dolares for many a Brasileiro desperate to emmigrate. The recent deportation of 66 Brazilians has highlighted an increasing problem: illegal Brazilians seeking entry into the United States. Although illegal entries through the Mexican border are by far the greatest in number and frequency, the number of Brazilians seeking an alternative in the north to hyperinflation and unemployment is steadily increasing.

However, there seems to be some hope on the horizon for the potential immigrant: Green Card Lotto! The U.S. government is planning to carry out a green card lottery to grant permanent residence to chosen citizens in certain chosen countries. And regardless of how remote this possibility seems, many are hoping that they just might get lucky and hit the jackpot.

Are Brazilians welcome? The U.S. Consulate in Rio has advised that there are no guarantees that Brazil will be included in the list of potential countries that will be on the lottery list. The information indicating that Brazilians would be eligible to participate in the visa lottery was forwarded by a Los Angeles-based attorney; however, the American Consulate in Rio categoricaly denied that information through a letter sent to Manchete magazine, the Brazilian equivalent of Life.

In their letter, the consulate stated that the lottery did not guarantee anyone a Green Card, but rather, the opportunity for those chosen to be able to participate in the visa process, but without exemption from any pre-established requirements. In fact, last June a special drawing was held, covering more than 20 countries. However, Brazil was not among the countries chosen to participate. That in and of itself, might be an indication that Brazilians are not welcome to the "land of the free."

Suddenly, once open doors have been shut. The loopholes that previously allowed immigration - both legal and illegal - are now being closed. Nevertheless, during the recent past, success stories have also abounded, and persistent would-beturistas have reached American shores and remained here for good. People have tried every method or means imaginable in their quest to try to reach the U.S.. However, it appears that some people have a certain jeitinho (special way) that others seem to lack.

In Mexico, the most persistent immigrants seem to be the Sinaloenses (inhabitants of the western Mexican State of Sinaloa); in the Caribbean they are the Dominicans; and in Brazil they are the Mineiros (of Minas Gerais State), specifically, the Mineiros from the city of Governador Valadares - called Valadarenses - a city located 310 kilometers from the State capital of Belo Horizonte. This town of some 220 thousands people has lost more than 20% of its population since 1984, when the mineiro immigration "boom" first took off.

Julio Avelar, a journalist for Diario do Rio Doce, a magazine edited in Governador Valadares with a supplement distributed in the U.S., comments:

"Whenever they capture ten (illegal immigrants), it means that fifty (mineiros) have gotten through." In fact, the city has such a high number of its citizens living overseas - particularly in the Massachussetts area - that the U.S. dollar is now common currency on the streets of Governador Valadares. There is even a local joke that states that in the city there are actually two types of citizens: Valadarenses, those who lie and work within the local economy, and Valadolarenses. The latter are those locals who make their living off the dollars sent to them by immigrant relatives living and working overseas.

One example of a persistent would-be immigrant is Jose Carlos Ferreira. Married and with two small children, Ferreira has been able to reach the U.S. three times so far. He has been deported every time, but insists on returning back. Ferreira feels that his salary in Brazil is "miserable" and vows that he will try to return again. It might not be very easy either. Before, leaving Governador Valadares was as simple as getting a visa stamped in your passport at the U.S. Consulate in Rio. But the Consulate has upgraded its control over visa issuance. To further complicate things, people traveling overseas now are thoroughly scrutinized on all outgoing international flights from Rio and São Paulo. Mineiro immigrants - always on top of things - seek out alternate routes. For example, the 66 Brazilians that were deported had taken a flight from Asuncion (Paraguay) direct to Miami. And the demand for visas - legal or otherwise - is so hug, that a gang specializing in fraudulent visas has been detected in the city. In fact, disdain for Mineiros at the American Consulate is so big that many Mineiros choose to cover-up their true regional origin, and obtain documents to transform themselves into Cariocas, Paulistas or Gauchos. Says Francisco Teixeira, a representative of the Brazilian Association of Travel Agents (ABAV): "Those set-ups are carried out somewhere else, in Rio or in southern Bahia (state). And in spite of the fact that many Mineiros are going through some tough times in the States, they still insist on leaving Brazil." Ever since the early 60's, when the first wave of Valaderenses left to make fortune in the North, it continues to be a permanent dream in the minds and hearts of the majority of Mineiros, particularly among the youth. In fact, the Federal Police states that passport issuance averages about 160 per month. And more than 30 travel agencies service the city, mostly selling tickets to overseas destinations, but also serving as distribution points for all those dollars sent back home by relatives working in the U.S.. And those on the receiving end still hope that one day in the not-too distant further, they will be sending dollars to Minas, too.

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Author: Espinoza, Rodolfo Article Title: EL SUD Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.97 Publication Date: 01-31-94 Page: p. 17

El Sud.

Every day, thousand of Brasileiros wait in the unending lines at American Consulate in Rio, São Paulo, Porto Alegre and Brasilia, hoping for the best (a tourist visa) but also ready for the worst (not getting it). Nevertheless, a new wave of pioneiros has chosen to take the opposite route to earn some "green-backs".

That is, instead of "headin' north" to the United States, these Brasileiros have chosen to head... south! South as in Argentina that is. This new El Dorado for Brazilians lies barely 36 hours by bus from São Paulo's Tiete Terminal, and is even closer yet to Brazil's southernmost states.

Due to Brazil's spiraling hyperinflation, legions of tradesmen and professional, unable to obtain visas to go north, have chosen to take a back door to prosperity, working for dollars in Tangoland. Commanding much better salaries than either in São Paulo or Rio, and with the added peace of mind that their salaries will not be eaten-up by runaway inflation, scores of taxi-drivers, waiters and jacks-of-all-trades are swiftly settling down south.

Even as late as January of this year, there were barely 70,000 or so Brazilians living in Argentina. The numbers have increased progressively since then. In fact, in 1992 only 129 Brazilians requested to arrange their status with the Argentinean Immigration Department. However, between January and July of this year, more than 1,500 have filed their paperwork, a 1,100% increase. Arturo Rodriguez Oneto, National Director of the Argentine Immigration Department states, "We have never before seen so many Brazilians around here." And although they numerically pale in comparison to the number of Brazilians migrating to Japan, the U.S. or Portugal, they have already become much notices. Furthermore, almost 2.5 million Bolivians, Paraguayans and Chileans are also living in Argentina as well.

Face to face - Although numerically minute, Brazilians in Argentina have become quite visible; diplomatic confrontations have already clouded somewhat the relations between these two mostly friendly neighbors. Recently, Luis Prol, a cabinet member in President Carlos Menem's government, accused immigrants - among them Brazilians - as being the major cause of most social ills presently befalling Argentina. In fact, it almost seems a mirror-image of the very same arguments currently being raised in the U.S. against other foreigners.

Accusations have been leveled, and problems such as insufficient housing and depressed salaries within the construction industry are being blamed upon foreigners. Argentines, earning an average of about $600 per month, are indignant that local construction firms are offering Brazilian workers salaries that average between $300 and $400 per month. The Brazilian Embassy in Argentina has issued a statement, however, in which they state that Argentinean contentions are unfounded, since Argentina is not by any means in a state of economic expansion, and in any case, the number of Brazilians

within the country - in comparison to other nationalities - is really insignificant.

Brazilians living in Argentina can be classified into one of two categories: the first one is composed of tradesmen hired by local construction firms building in Buenos Aires. Their salaries are roughly 40% better than in Brazil, but lower than the average salary paid to an Argentine worker. The second group, the so-called "sharp-shooters" is mostly made up of illegal immigrants who are in for the short haul. Their goals? To work and save up enough money to return to Brazil and start over again there.

A case at hand is Cristiane Caracoci. She quit her job as a sore manager in Buzios, Rio de Janeiro, and left for Buenos Aires with barely $400 in her pocket; she even had to borrow $100 more from the two Argentine girlfriends she was living with to make ends meet. After working as a baby-sitter, she finally landed herself a job as a waitress in a bar in downtown Buenos Aires, earning a salary of about $600 a month.

"As soon as I can save $5,000, I'll return to Brazil" she insists.

Luciano Ferreira, a Mineiro (from Minas Gerais), works as a foreman for a construction firm. He has saved more than $3,000 in less than four months. "In Brazil, I was earning about three minimum salaries (about $210); that money barely covered my expenses," stated Ferreira.

Piece of cake - Contrary to finding work in the U.S., it is relatively easy for Brazilians to find jobs in Argentina. Due in part to bi-lateral agreements between the two countries, and also to the economic consolidation through Mercosul (South American Common Market), Borders can now be crossed without any major hurdles. Argentine immigration officials routinely issue Brazilians a three month permit to enter their country.

And even after that period has elapse, it is quite improbable that a foreigner will have any sort of problems with the local authorities. In fact, recent law has also granted amnesty to almost every foreigner who entered the country prior to December of 1991. Few have been rejected. In spite of it all, this paradise for unemployed Brazilians still seems to be in an economic limo for the average Argentinean.

Dollarizing the economy - a plan implemented by President Menem and also being contemplated by Brazil - has produced optimal economic indicators for the country in general, but has failed to improve, however, the quality of life for the average Argentine citizen.

Unemployment has tripled, and it is estimated that these economic reforms have actually only benefited about 10% of the people. Overall prices are how higher: a kilo of rice costs about $1.25, 50% more expensive than in Brazil. Eggs and other staples are likewise as high.

Lambda x Tango - In spite of the many success stories, some Brazilians have also failed in their attempts to make their fortunes in the south. And every month, an average of Bout 50 paisanos swallow their pride and hustle down to the Brazilian consulate to request a return ticket home, most of them on the verge of total indigence. As recently as late 1992, the number of requests for return tickets to Brazil was barely about an average of five per month. Meanwhile, the grind continues.

Some Brazilians, however, have made it in Argentina, and made it "big-time". Take Gilson Damasco Teodoro for example. An avowed Adventist, Gilson - until 1991 - never smoked, never danced, never drank nor had girlfriend. Until he discovered Lambada. After a short vacation in Itapema (Santa Catarina), he found out the dance proibida, renounced his religion, packed his bags, grabbed his dance-partner, who was aminor at the time, and left for Buenos Aires with barely $400 in his pocket. In a knee-jerk, he was able to get a spot on the Valeria Lynch show, and on the Xou de Xuxa.

The rest is history. Today, the couple pulls in an average of $4,000 per month; at an average of $150 for a three-song Lambada show, they also have 66 dance pupils who pay $15 per hour to be trained in Lambada steps. In barely 18 months, they have purchased a Monza automobile, rented a three bedroom apartment for which they pay $900 a month, and are co-partners in a newly opened bar locate in the swank Palermo sector of Buenos Aires. And although the Lambada has been exhausted elsewhere - Brazil included - it still is highly successful in Argentina, where Kaoma, the band that introduced Lambada to the world, is still the latest rave. Claudio Moretti, owner of Maluco Beleza, a Brazilian-style bar in Buenos Aires says, "Argentineans simply adore Brazilians."

In spite of some difficulties that less than well-to-do Brazilians find in Argentina, not many are complaining about the way they are received by their southern neighbors. They are certainly treated much better there than by the Portuguese in Lisbon. Argentines are enchanted by the charm of Brazilian beaches in Santa Catarina and Bahia states, and by the way they are treated by Brazilians in general whenever they go up north, particularly during summer vacation. And they do not hesitate to show their heart-felt sympathy and solidarity with Brazilians living in Argentina. Another novelty has been the number of black Brazilians that are seen in Buenos Aires; until the recent past, blacks were hardly ever seen by most Argentines. Now, they have become a hit, particularly with young Argentine women.

And if the current trend is any indication, it well could be that the future for many a Brazilian might just well not be towards the North but rather... towards the South!

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Author: Nascimento, Elma Lia Article Title: ECONOMY: Romancing the dollar Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.97 Publication Date: 01-31-94 Page: p. 19

ECONOMY: Romancing the dollar.

For decades now Brazilians have been trying to get rid of a nagging and desperation-inducing inflation, that right now is running at a pace of 36% a month. No reason to worry, says Finance minister Fernando Henrique Cardoso. After months of plenty of talk and no action, Cardoso has announced a plan that he promises will defeat inflation in five short months. There's no secret in the formula, says the minister.

According to him, inflation will fall because the public deficit will stop increasing with a series of planned cuts in the budget. "Government will not need to issue new bonds to roll the public debt," he says. Cardoso guarantees this will eliminate the main cause for the Brazilian inflation.

The long-awaited package includes four basic measures: a 5% increase in federal taxes, a 15% cut in the money that the union gives states and municipalities, on overhauling of the 1994 budget with the excision of $15 billion in expenses, and - most innovative of all - the creation of a new inflation index linked to the dollar. This index called UVR (Real Value Unit), after being used to establish pay raises and price increases for an unspecified number of months, would become the new Brazilian currency.

It's an upstream race, however. Even before the plan had been announced, representative Roberto Freire, the leader of the government in the House and the man who by office should defend the plan, was attacking it. Opposition came also from various state and municipal chief executives, complaining about the 15% cut included in the pack, this less than one year before general elections.

Another big hurdle is the fact that the plan must be approved by Congress. Congress, these days, is much more worried about its own clean-up effort to find out and maybe punish those of its members who participated in the so-called budget scandal.

Many people also distrust the new UVR that has been described by Cardoso as unable to "remember previous inflation", in contrast with the current practice of raising prices according to cost of living indexes from previous months. The new mechanism should ensure an inflation very close to the variation in the exchange rates for the dollar.

Once again, the minister said that Brazil is not dollarizing its economy a la Argentine. "You can call it anything you want, "rebuts political analyst Amaury de Souza, "but this is a dollarization."

To complement the four points, government should also implement an old suggestion of their economists: improve the enforcement teeth of the tax collecting machine. Today, two thirds of federal taxes are lost to fraud and embezzlement.

Cardoso assures that all the cuts and austerity will not affect the growth of the economy, which after a decline of almost 1% last year, has recuperated and now is growing at a pace of 4%.

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Author: Luis, Emerson Article Title: ECOLOGY: Banking on the jungle Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.97 Publication Date: 01-31-94 Page: p. 21

ECOLOGY: Banking on the jungle.

"We love the white man. But we don't want you to write that the Indians are sick and starving. This is not true. We have a everything here." This was the message of cacique (chief) Kunai talking recently to a visiting reporter while pointing to the forest around him.

Kunai is the leader of the Aramira village, in the state of Ampa, whose Indians belong to the Waiapi tribe. The Waiapis are descendants of the Tupi-Guarani Indians and they were contacted for the first time by Funai (Indian National Foundation) only in 1992.

In contrast with other tribes that have been invaded and even massacred by garimpeiros (gold seeker) the Waiapis have been protected from this plague. The 388 Indians, spread among six tribes, occupy an area of 573,000 hectares where gold has been found.

It happens, however, that they are close to an IEA (Institute of Amazonic and Environmental Studies) project that many believe might be an answer to preserve nature in the Amazon without depriving the more than 1 million people who depend on the forest for their survival.

The green movement all over the world and greens of all stripes have been clamoring about the need to save the Amazon. But only those who live in and from the forest know about the real dangers of the jungle. There's still a lot of forest left, and the people who ravage it are not the natives (Indians and caboclos) but chainsaw men who own big boats and spread wholesale devastation.

The Indian and the caboclo live from the forest, its fish, its fruit, its medicinal herb. They are, however, in a position of extreme weakness when confronted with crews of loggers, garimpeiros or other outsiders.

TV is also bringing changes, making the caboclo teen covet the tennis shoes he sees on the little screen and gladly swap his cupuacu juice for a Coca-Cola. The natives are selling their nuts and other products to these exploiters, for close to nothing.

"People living in the Maraca Valley," says Mario Menezes, from the IEA, "give away a acaizeiro (palm tree) for $7 to the middle man. They could make 70 times more money if they kept the three and sold the fruit (the acai)." Menezes is an agronomist and he has been working in the Amazon for the Agriculture Ministry for the last 20 years.

This chain of exploration is now being broken more and more, thank to the work of the NGOs (Non-Governmental Organizations). One of these programs is the Konrad Adenauer Foundation, which invested $400,000 in a four-year project that plans to teach the population from Marzagão, in Amapa, how to make the forest work for them, and in the process, attain financial autonomy. That's

the Maraca project, neighbor to the Waiapis.

Edmundo Alcantara Rosa, president of the Association of the Maraca Valley Extractivist Workers, is one who believes that without this program, the population from the area wouldn't be there today.

The IEA has several projects being developed right now not only in Amapa but also in Acre, Mato Grosso and Rondonia. The have created the Chonk, an energy bar made of nuts and crystalized fruit. The products is made by a food company that buys nuts produced in Xapuri, in the state of Acre.

Among other projects, one of them, the Mamiraua (the name means baby cow-fish) charmed Prince Charles who visited it in 1992 during the Earth Summit in Rio. Installed in the Amazon state, the 200,000 hectare project involves various communities that are already producing what they need to be self sufficient in food. The basic diet there consists of fish, game and manioc. Fifteen scientists are developing biological and human research in order to preserve the best the region has to offer.

Not everybody is happy with the Mamiraua program, but the discontent ones are mostly people who have just arrived in the area and there is already a movement to force them to leave.

Doroteia Martins, 24, seems to be echoing the sentiment of other locals when she says, "Since 1987 when the first biologist arrived, the variety of fish has been growing all the time. Now I can show my children some species that I thought were already extinct."

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Author: Mahon, Tania; Sant'Ana, Cezar Article Title: It's Rio! Or is it Miami? Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.97 Publication Date: 01-31-94 Page: p. 25

It's Rio! Or is it Miami?.

It's 11:00 pm on Saturday night and we haven't decided yet where to go. Should we go to a pagode house, eat a churrasco (barbecue) and watch a Brazilian show? Or eat a feijoada and listen to some bossa nova oldies? Or simply go for a stroll on the beach? The night is only beginning, or as we say in Brazil, the night is only a child. It sounds like we are in Brazil, right? It just sounds. We're in Miami and sometimes I forget it.

After living in the West Coast for 10 years I moved to Florida and discovered Miami, a Brazilian state of mind. Portuguese is spoken everywhere here. No big surprise, since there are approximately 100,000 Brazilians living in Miami alone.

Places for entertainment are open almost all night and at 3 o'clock in the morning we can actually choose where to go for a late dinner or an early breakfast. The heat and humidity sometimes are stronger than in Rio de Janeiro and the beaches are crowded with Brazilians on their natural habitat.

We didn't want to miss on anything so we went to eat churrasco at Ipanema Bar & Grill in Coral Gables while enjoying a fine Brazilian dance show. The pagode show at the Brazilian Delight was next. The restaurant is located in downtown Miami with outside tables on a square-like environment. Soon I was to forget again that I wasn't in Brazil.

Coming back to the South Beach we stopped at Mango's Tropical Cafe located in the hot and trendy Art Deco District. Right by the door, beside the palm trees, I've found a nice handicraft booth owned by Vera Ferreira, 32, Brazilian. While browsing through the earrings and bracelets, we had a little chat. "Why Miami?," I asked. "Beach, warm weather, people, relaxing why of living and dressing, like Rio, but better," she answers. "Look around," she continues.

Mango's is located by the beach and the street is crowded with people of all ages. All the bars and nightclubs are open and no one seems to realize it's 2 o'clock in the morning already. It feels like a mix of Baixo Lelon, Ipanema (both in Rio) and Venice Beach (in California).

I thought we were going home, now. My mistake. "Going home? NO way. Let's park our car here and go for a walk," my friend told me. "We want to see more of the Art Deco District."

Having had enough for one night I proposed my friends to sit down for a beer, so they could tell me more about this very peculiar area.

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Author: Wyszpolski, Bondo Article Title: BOOKS: An Interview with Gregory Rabassa Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.97 Publication Date: 01-31-94 Page: p. 31

BOOKS: An Interview with Gregory Rabassa.

The most invigorating literature of the past quarter-century derives from Latin America. Spreading across continents near and far during the latter 1960s, the `Boom' elevated such names as Julio Cortazar, Mario Vargas Llosa, Clarice Lispector, Jose Donoso, plus the Nobel Prize laureates Miguel Angel Asturias and Gabriel Garcia Marquez. Without their influence, the world of books would be a darker, more rigid place.

It's easy enough to drop titles - The Lost Steps, The Kiss of the Spider Woman, Infante's Inferno - while forgetting one important point: to make an impact in the United States, these works had to be adequately translated from Spanish or Portuguese. And, undeniably, one of the most notable translators of recent Latin American literature has been Gregory Rabassa. In fact, Dr. Rabassa has rendered into English at least one novel from each of the writers mentioned above. His latest translations include Taratuta and Still Life With Pipe, by the Chilean novelist Jose Donose, and The War of the Saints, by Brazilian Jorge Amado.

From his home in New York City, Gregory Rabassa recently spoke with News from Brazil about his work as a translator, his friendship with writers like Nelida Pinon, Jorge Amado's newest opus, and his own thoughts about the state of foreign literature in this country.

News from Brazil: "Dr. Rabassa, the obvious first question; who or what led you down the path to becoming a professional translator?"

Gregory Rabassa: "It was serendipity. I was an editor of Odyssey, a magazine of translations that we put out at Columbia University in the early sixties. My job was scouting Latin America. But we were always short to translations, and I did quite a few. When Pantheon decided to publish Julio Cortazar's Hopscotch in translation they asked me if I was interested, which I was. I did a sample and they liked it, Julio liked it, I won a National Book Award, and I've been at it ever since."

NfB: "Can you simply leap into a translation? Or do you need a certain warm-up period?"

GR: "I almost always leap in. Sometimes, as with Hopscotch, I don't even read it first, but read it as I go along, like any other reader. Other times, as with One Hundred Years of Solitude, I had read the novel before I was asked to translate it.

"I usually do a rough draft for meaning and then rework it for style. I don't waste too much time pondering the first time, saving that for the second time through."

NfB: "Do you confer with the authors?"

GR: "This depends on the writers. Some are available, some are not. Julio and I had a close working relationship by mail and would come together every so often in person. We got to be close friends and could sense each other's feelings rather well. Garcia Marquez gave me carte blanche and was usually pleased with what I did... I worked a little with Clarice Lispector when I was in Brazil. Jorge Amado, like Garcia Marquez, is a man of good faith and there is always a Bahian around to give me help when needed."

NfB: Afterwards, when the translations are finished, do you stay in touch with any of these writers?"

GR: "As I said, I became quite close to Julio Cortazar. Although I have only translated short pieces to hers, Nelida Pinon is a close friend of me and my wife, Clementine, and we see her quite often. I have known Nelida since my first trip to Brazil in 1962 when we were both getting started. Someday I would like to translate her first novel, Guia-Mapa de Gabriel Arcanjo, but it might be too far over people's heads and publishers would avoid it."

NfB: "In retrospect, are there any translations of yours that you're no longer pleased with?"

GR: "All of them. No translation is ever finished. The better alternatives always keep cropping up in hindsight. This is why I never to look beyond the dust jacket of something I have done. I don't have this feeling with something I have written myself. As far as expression is concerned, I'm almost always satisfied when I see it in print. Ideas may change over the years but never the way I put them."

NfB: "Is there a work, or an author, besides Nelida Pinon, that you've wanted to translate but have not yet been able to?"

GR: "There are quite a few. I have translated the novel O Meu Mundo Não E Deste Reino, by the Azorean writer João de Melo, but I have had a hard time finding a publisher. I also think the Spanish picaresque novel Lazarillo de Tormes needs a new translation because the one I am using in a course I teach is quite bad, but is the only one available."

NfB: "You certainly have a command of the written word. Are you a writer a s well?"

GR: "I have written quite a few articles, reviews, and some poetry. Maybe I'll do a novel someday if I can find a proper plot."

NfB: "What have been your experiences in translating Jorge Amado?"

GR: "With Jorge, as with all the writers I have done, I let him lead me and then the translation will follow right along. Since it's been a while since my last trip to Brazil and even more since Bahia, I'm a bit out of touch with the giria, although the Chamberlain/Harmon dictionary is most useful."

NfB: "Having already translated Showdown, was it necessarily easier to get a firm handle on The War of the Saints?"

GR: "I would say yes. The two novels were written close together and Jorge's style, one could say, is close in both - even though the plots are different. The spirit is quite often the same.

"I hope that The War of the Saints makes a bigger splash than Showdown; I can even see Sonia Braga in the double role of Saint Barbara/Yansan."

NfB: "How does Jorge Amado differ from or resemble his fictional creations?"

GR: "I don't know that Jorge resembles any of his characters. You can certainly see the tale-teller in him, the humorist. Also the bondade that you sense in his novels. I would say that Jorge himself is another character that he himself has invented. He belongs in the of his novels but I don't think I've really found him there."

NfB: "Are there authors you've translated who you think deserved better attention than they received? I'm thinking, for example, of Avalovara, by Osman Lins. Do you feel this novel received its fair share of attention?"

GR: "Osman Lins certainly needs more attention: Avalovara is a masterpiece, an exemplar of the present form of the new novel. The Spaniard Juan Benet, whom I have also translated, is another who deserves more attention. Unfortunately, they are both dead now. The Portuguese Antonio Lobo Antunes deserves better, In many ways I think he is deeper than Jose Saramango, who has caught on here."

NfB: "As for upcoming translations, what can we look forward to?"

GR: "There is a possibility that I will do some stories by the Chilean Jorge Edwards."

NfB: "Could you mention any works you've translated that you think will still be widely read, say, 100 years from now?"

GR: "One Hundred Years of Solitude must last 100 years in order to live up to its title and theme. My hope is that others, like Avalovara, will slowly become part of the Latin American canon. I have seen that happen to Hopscotch, which was slow in its early growth.

"The translation game has slowed down quite a bit over the last few years. Publishers are now mainly part of big conglomerates, which always look to the bottom and not to quality. With the exception of Roger Straus, there is no Alfred A. Knopf left to take an interest in good foreign literature.

"It is sad, but the business seems largely in the hands of the philistines right now and there is little we can do to right it. Authors will have to be satisfied with being published by smaller presses. This is quite different from Portugal and Brazil, where the best fiction makes the best seller lists. Other titles not mentioned above that Dr. Rabassa has translated into English include: Mulata, Strong Wind, The Green Pope, and The Eyes of the Interred, by Miguel Angel Asturias; The Green House and Conversation in the Cathedral, by Mario Vargas Llosa; Marks of Identity, by Juan Goytisolo; Paradiso, by Jose Lezama Lima; Seven Serpents and Seven Moons, by Demetrio Aguilera-Malta; Macho Camacho's Beat, by Luis Rafael Sanchez; Sea of Death and Captains of the Sands, by Jorge Amado; and The Lizard's Tail, by Luisa Valenzuela.

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Author: Wyszpolski, Bondo Article Title: Brazil 101 Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.97 Publication Date: 01-31-94 Page: p. 33

Brazil 101.

We've got a long book here, but consider this: Brazil has over 600 known varieties of palm trees, more than any other country, and if the publishers of Bloom's doorstopper really wanted to impress us they could have reproduced one tree per page and still have had a few left over.

Pamela Bloom apparently spent 11 months in the land of Order and Progress, and no one will doubt that she covered a lot of ground. Well, she had no choice. Brazil, one must remember, occupies 47 of South America. If Amazonia was a separate country, it would be larger than India.

Because Brazil 1993 is the work of one writer instead of a team of 10 or 12, it has an overview and a cohesion some readers may prefer. Bloom's approach is generally straightforward and matter-of-fact, and she's attentive to our curiosities and apprehensions. Women, especially, may choose this guide for the obvious reason that Bloom is naturally sensitive to their concerns. As for personality, the author includes some of her own adventures, which she italicizes so as not to mislead us into expecting identical encounters.

Bloom seems to cover the bases (or at least the basics), but is this guide really for you? I'd suggest thumbing through the table of contents and scanning the index. Rio gets 100 pages, but São Paulo just 25. There's roughly 65 for Minas Gerais, 25 for Rio Grande do Sul, 55 for Bahia, 60 for Amazonia, 70 for the Northeast, and so on. Naturally, a 600-page guide will not do very much good if the region to be visited is given only three or four pages.

The major tourist destinations are treated systematically. For each city, there are sections for hotels, restaurants, night-life, shopping and sightseeing, as well as more practical matters: Where to rent a car, exchange money, or acquire medical service. For example, under a heading entitled `Safety in Salvador,' we find a list of places to avoid or to visit with a degree of caution. Readers of Jorge Amado will recognize some of the names, which he often tends to romanticize - the Praca da Se, the Pelourinho, etc. - but of course Amado never puts warning labels on his books. Maybe that's what travel writers are for.

Bloom mentions Brazilian cuisine, and she does define the more exotic dishes or delicacies the first time around, but a glossary where all of them appear together might be useful. She does insert a four-page discography, the Sounds of Brazil, so to speak - but readers may want to check out the recent tour-of-Brazil-via-its-music by John Krich, called Why Is This Country Dancing? Bloom also supplies a list of non-fiction books, although a list of recommended novels would undoubtedly have added some flavor. For example, one might suggest João Ubaldo Ribeiro's An Invincible Memory for its Bahia and Itaparica setting, Antonio Torres' The Land for its gritty depiction of the Northeast, and Oswaldo Franca Junior's The Long Haul for its truck-cab view of Minas Gerais.

Early on, Bloom writes, "And incredible as it may seem, I personally inspected 99% of the hotels included in this book." My comment is, Incredible as it seems, no one proofread the galleys for typographical errors: the book is infested with them. But while a few misspelled words may be innocuous, what if there are address or phone numbers or prices that are misprinted? We may not discover the error until it's too late.

There are two other drawbacks to this book. Imagine, say, an intimate biography of Sonia Braga with absolutely no pictures. That's what it feels like reading Brazil 1993 because there is not one single map. And a book like this - it's only natural - should be full of them. Although Bloom has included some of her own black-and-white photographs, they are not overly inspiring. Her publisher, I think, should have gotten on - or off - his high horse and rounded some up. Or do I need to repeat the old adage about a picture being worth a thousand words?

However, since we do not want to dissuade anyone from a trip to Brazil, we'll let Porto Alegre author Moacyr Scliar have the last word. This is from his novel, The Strange Nation of Rafael Mendes, and in his passage Mendes is thinking about the immense land in which he lives: "In spite of everything, this country has vitality, energy; it's country of contrasts, an irritating country, yet a great country, no doubt about it."

With the proper guide-book, one can travel to Brazil and discover firsthand if Rafael Mendes is right.

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Author: Robbins, Harriet Article Title: CINEMA: Under the spell Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.97 Publication Date: 01-31-94 Page: p. 34

CINEMA: Under the spell.

Nigol Bezjian writer/producer/director of his first feature film Chickpeas was delighted to receive an invitation to present his film in the 17th São Paulo International Film Festival from Leon Cakoff, the festival director. The schedule was worked out so that one of his two prints would be sent directly to the festival from a prior fest in time for the event. The other print was circulating at other festivals as well as throughout the world.

Chickpeas is not only the first feature film for most everyone involved in it, it is also the first Armenian diaspora film, and perhaps the first independent American film completed in a former eastern bloc country. So far, the film has had several screenings in Europe and Los Angeles, and has been well received.

Nigol was looking forward to visiting Brazil. It had been an exciting and rewarding year for him with the successful launching of his film and his visits to the fests where the film was invited. Leaving Shanghai where he attended his first international film festival he was on his way to Brazil. In Shanghai he had met Hector Babenco who was on that festival's jury. They were to meet again in Brazil. So his adventure begins.

Nigol didn't encounter any difficulty to get to Brazil but the print that was to go to the festival was held up, due to the strike in France. The other print was going from fest to fest in the U.S.A. There were some difficulties but they were all worked out through the good graces of the São Paulo festival. Another problem arose when the film was held in customs as it had been overevaluated by the shipper. Again the São Paulo festival came to his rescue and the film was released, but not until the day that Nigol was to leave Brazil.

The film was in the theatre, Nigol introduced himself and then had to hurry off to the airport. It was a filmmaker's nightmare with a happy ending. Despite this mixup, Nigol said, "While I was trying to work out the logistics I decided to take advantage of my visit to Brazil and make the best of the situation." He was free to enjoy himself in São Paulo and he was able to meet with other filmmakers and participants at the festival.

He continued: "The people who run the São Paulo Film Festival are the most exquisite people you would ever want to meet. They are unbelievable in their warmth. I was there for ten days and they helped make my visit one I will never forget. Leon Cakoff and his staff, every single one of them, showered me with attention and care. I befriended a German director, Rudolph Thome, whose film Love at First Sight was at the festival. I met Todd Mccarthy who was there with his film Visions of Light and his lovely wife Sasha and I renewed my friendship with hector Babenco.

"We all got together many times and one special day we took a ride into the country to Leon's beach house. Upon arrival Leon said, `let's go visit Hector

who lives next door.' It was a fantastic day, it was paradise (except for 78 mosquito bites) it will be a day and night I will never forger. We ate, we talked, we walked, in this magnificent setting on the beach in Brazil.

"In the evening we all went to Hector's house where we were entertained with food and talk, then as night unfolded we all decided to take a walk on the beach. The moon was shining, I was overwhelmed by the beauty of it all. The waves were breaking white on the beach, the stars were luminous in the sky, it struck me, `Here we are, all of us talking about film.'

"It was like scene from a Fellini movie. There we were: surf, ocean, sky and sea, an unforgettable day and night. Upon our return the next morning we drove through the jungle and he mountains. Brazil is a magnificent country, the terrain, the food, the drink, the people are the best in the world. You can quote me."

Nigol also talked with enthusiasm about a theatre he was in where a portion was set aside with a glass panel through which people at tables who wanted to smoke and eat while watching the film could do so without disturbing the rest of the audience in the treatre. There were loud speakers set up so that they could hear and see the film.

The press coverage, he says, was very thorough and he had the opportunity to see much of the city of São Paulo and its environs. Nigol is back to the U.S. but he is not going to forget so soon it adventure through Brazilian lands where he and his Chickpeas (a bittersweet drama of transplanted roots) made their mark at the 17th Sap Paulo International Film Festival 93.

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Author: Dalevi, Alessandra Article Title: Old new Baianos Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.97 Publication Date: 01-31-94 Page: p. 36

Old new Baianos.

For close to 30 years now these Baianos have been serving the world Brazil with a Baiano flavor Culturally bountiful Bahia has had such long lasting musical talents as Dorival Caymmi and just-arrived success stories such as Daniela Mercury's, but these four have shown an uncanny capacity to innovate and at the same time, please popular as well as sophisticated tastes. Known by one name, Caetano, Gil, Bethania and Gal are once again with their recent new releases, leading record sales in Brazil. GAL

Gal Costa hasn't been this good in years. Her O Sorriso do Gato de Alice (The Smile of Alice's Cat) brings us songs from Jorge Ben Jor, Djavan, Gilberto Gil and Caetano Veloso with super skilled production by Arto Lindsay. The CD proves once again than less can be more, as in one of the high points of the recording, Erratica (Wandering Woman) by Veloso, in which the accompaniment is done by two first-class guitarists, Paulinho da Viola and Paulo Belinati.

In Eu Vou Lhe Avisar (I'm gonna warn you), it's the composer himself, Ben Jor, who plays the guitar. And Gil's Mae da Manha (Morning's Mother) is a music-box surprise with Gal's voice being multiplied in a choir where everybody has her pitch and virtuosity. The only songs we could do without are the two cuts in English, Gratitude and Serene. The surprises are many in this record that talks about music (Mae da Manha, Erratica, Bumbo da Mangueira), football (Vou Lhe Avisar) and Bahia (Caetano's Bahia Minha Preta - Bahia My Black Lady, Gil's Lavagem do Bonfim - Washing the Stair of Bonfirm's Church).

With a mouth red as a rainsprinkled rose, Gal, born in 1945 in Salvador, presents herself as the cat created by Lewis Carrol and later animated by Walt casionally wasted her talent with unbecoming interpretations of songs, has reached a maturity and artistry that makes her, according to many critics, the best Brazilian singer alive. "I like to leave my imprint in every interpretation, not only in the song, but also in the instruments that dialogue with me," she declared recently. It was her idea, for example, that during Djavan's Nuvem Negra (Black Cloud), a Flamenco guitar solo suddenly takes over the song. BETHANIA

From all the four Baianos, Bethania was the first one to win acclaim. She was only 18, when she recorded the protest song Carcara in 1965, becoming an instant his. Initially, she used to show up on stage barefooted, singing passionately and reciting poetry. Very individual, she didn't participate and reciting poetry. Very individual, she didn't participate in the Tropicalia movement launched by the other three Baianos. After having been more of a cult figure than a singer with a broad popular appeal, Bethania became a hit at the end of the 70s, selling close to one million copies of her yearly releases with romantic songs, dramatically interpreted. When the public opted for other female voices, she always kept a little crowd of hard-core fans who wouldn't buy more than 40,000 records.

With As Cancoes que Voce Fez pra Mim (The Songs You Made for Me), she is again at the top. Interestingly enough, in this record Bethania went back to sing Erasmo and Roberto Carlos's romantic ballads that had made her a big popular hit. Polygram was expecting to sell more than half a million copies of the record, which had been purchased by more than 200,000 people in little more than one month after being released. The fact that Fera Ferida (Hurt Beast), one of the cuts, is the title and the theme of Globo's latest novela (soap opera) is also helping a lot.

England and the United States were drafted to turn As Cancoes into a classy, sophisticated production. British Graham Preskett conducted the 42-string orchestra while American Jerry Hey - former arranger for Earth, Wind and Fire - was responsible for the brass. Both worked simultaneously without knowing what the other one was doing. Commenting on Bethania's latest venture, Veja magazine's music critic wrote: "When (Bethania) intones, with a raspy voice, the portentous banality Um grande amor não vai morrer assim/ Por isso de vez em quando voce vai lembrar de mim (A great love is not going to die like that/ That's why once in a while you will/Remember me) something mysterious happens. The mystery of memory, of lost love, beauty, and strength that only cheap songs, those that define the sensibility of a nation, are able to provide." CAETANO & GIL

The title is misleading. After all, Tropicalia 2 doesn't follow Tropicalia ou Panis et Circensis, the original record, as an Indiana Jones' adventure sequel is the consequence of the movie that came before. It doesn't prevent, however, tat this celebration of 25 years of an LP that gave the name to a musical movement, turned out to be one of the best releases of the Brazilian discography last year.

Very few people remember now that Veloso was intensely booed in 1967 while interpreting Alegria, Alegria music, with a contagious rock rhythm and fragmentary lyrics, enraged those who abhorred foreign influence. It said in part "Eu vou/ Por que não, por que não?/ Ela pensa em casamento / E eu nunca mais fui a escola / Sem lenco, sem documento, eu vou / Eu tomo uma Coca-Cola / Ela pensa em casamento." ("I go. / Why not, why not.. She thinks about marriage / And I've never been to school again/ Without a handkerchief, without document, I go / I drink a Coca-Coal / She thinks about marriage.")

In Sampa, a love song to São Paulo, also included in the original Tropicalia, Cae seemed to be answering his critics when he said, "Narciso acha feio / O que não e espelho / E a mente apavora / O que ainda não e mesmo velho" ("Narcissus thinks it's ugly/ what's not a mirror / And the mind fears / What's still not really old.")

São Paulo is back in Tropicalia 2, only now the subject is much more painful, when the city is cited in Haiti, a rap: "E quando ouvir o silencio sorridente de São Paulo / diante da chacina / 111 presos indefesos, mas presos São quase todos pretos / ou quase pretos, ou quase brancos quase pretos de tão pobres." (And when we listen to the smiling silence of São Paulo / facing the massacre / 111 defenseless inmates, but the inmates are almost all black / or almost black, or almost white almost black, so poor are they."

The release of Tropicalia 2 had all the mystery of a Woody Allen production. First, nobody had access to the taping of the songs. Then the stations in Brazil received Cinema Novo (New Cinema), one of the cuts in a single version, increasing even more he expectation. Finally, the leading song of the pack, Haiti, debuted on Globo TV's Fantastico, the noblest and most watched of the

prime-time programs.

Seven of the songs included in the album had never been released before. They show the extraordinary eclecticism of the Baiano duo. They go from a genuine rock (As Coisas -The Things and rap (Haiti) to traditional Brazilian rhythms such as samba (Desde que o Samba E Samba - Since Samba Is Samba) and baião (Baião Atemporal - Timeless Baião). Cinema Novo is a mixed bowl of bossanova and samba-enredo paying homage to another Baiano, filmmaker Glauber Rocha. The cut Rap Popcreto, a patchwork of musical styles, sounds more like a misfire. One out of 10, that's pretty good.

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Author: Dalla Dea, Ariane Article Title: TRAVEL: São Paulo, my love Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.97 Publication Date: 01-31-94 Page: p. 40

TRAVEL: São Paulo, my love.

São Paulo was founded by Padre Jose de Anchieta, on January 25, 1554, with the construction of the Church of Saint Paul of the Piratininga Plateau. In the beginning of the 17th century the church's locale had grown into a village, due to a high traffic of salve-trading colonists. Coming from the coast, the Bandeirantes (Brazilian counterpart to the Old West pioneers) had a last stop at the Vila de São Paulo before entering the unknown.

In 1711 the town of São Paulo was officially born. At that time the city was a vital market for sugar and gold. This commercial trait of the place would continue to develop, turning São Paulo into its present standing of most important trade place of South America. But São Paulo is not only work for its 10 million residents. Paulistanosknow how to enjoy life. Their city is a broad artistic, literary, gastronomic, and entertaining focus of South America. And the vast state of São Paulo offers a cornucopia of options to the traveler, be it a business or a pleasure trip.

To visit São Paulo is like traveling all around the world without leaving town. There you will find the Liberdade District, the largest Japanese community outside Japan; a well-defined Italian community in the districts of Bixiga, Bras and Mooca; the Germans and Americans living mainly in the Brooklin District; the Arab and Jewish communities living, working and doing business side by side, in the Jardins District and downtown. In these neighborhoods and all around town you will be able to experience the best cuisine representing the whole world. And, naturally, you will also find authentic Brazilian food, in what is the gastronomy center of Latin America.

Theater, music art, literature, museums, and fairs present the same diversity. Culture is serious business here. São Paulo is the entry door to universal cultures, a laboratory for new art techniques and innovations, and an inspiration to all kinds of artists. Tropicalia, the musical movement at the end of the 60s that would change Brazilian music for ever, started here. It was also here that writers, painters and musicians celebrated in 1922 the Modern Art Week, a movement that would open Brazil to the world culture.

On weekends you have more than twenty options to see a play and there are plenty of bars and nightclubs continuously featuring the most diverse rhythms and sounds, São Paulo also means night life, jazz, and it is the land of chorinhos, a rhythm predominant in the Southeastern region of Brazil. João Moura Street, in the Pinheiros district, hosts the Clube do Choro, with a relaxing atmosphere and plenty of chope (beer on tap); a perfect place to go after seeing a concert at the Municipal Theater.

The Museu de Arte de São Paulo (MASP) is Brazil's most prestigious art museum. Located on Avenida Paulista - the cultural and business center of São Paulo - the museum holds a permanent collection of 750 pieces, that include works by Renoir, Degas, Van Gogh, and Brazilians Portinari and Di Cavalcanti. The city has 16 museums of history, the most noteworthy being the Museu of Ipiranga,

and the Museu Padre Anchieta at the birth site of São Paulo, in downtown. And, while in downtown, visit the monumental churches and the Se Cathedral. Also visit the Technology and Science museums; you will find 14 museums dedicated to subjects ranging from anthropology to communications.

Now if you want to get away from the city and enjoy the coast, São Paulo offers wonderful places for a relaxing weekend. Take the Rodovia dos Imigrantes to Guaruja, Ubatuba, São Sebastião, Ilha Bela, Bertioga, or Cananeia. These beach towns feature many magnificent buildings form the 16th century, and possess and astonishing natural beauty.

Another option is to go to the interior, the country side of São Paulo, of the mountain range, where water therapy is a major characteristic. The city of Campos do Jordão (114 miles form the Capital), for example, has a European flavor, featuring a Winter Festival and tea houses. The charming town of Santo Antonio do Pinhal, nearby, offers a cozy and peaceful place to get away from it all. Atibaia, Socorro, Serra Negra, Lindoia, Aguas de Prata, Aguas de São Pedro, and Santa Barbara are all towns belonging to the water circuit. And if you like water, take a cruise in the Tiete and Parana rivers, going from São Paulo city to Foz de Iguacu, in the Parana state, and enjoy fishing for 1,000 miles. For a taste of local wine go to São Roque, just of 40 miles from São Paulo. And if you like nature mysteries, visit the Caverna do Diabo (Devil's Cave) in Registro.

If you prefer to stay in São Paulo, an excellent option for a day trip is to visit Embu, the city of arts. This historic little town is only 17 miles from downtown São Paulo, and it offers local arts and crafts, antiques, and excellent restaurants. Other choices for day trips are a visit to the Horto Florestal and Zoo, Botanic Garden, Parque da Aclimacão, Butanta Institute (our Institute Pasteur) at the University City, Parque da Luz, in downtown, and the Sundays Arts and Crafts Fair of Praca da Republica.

São Paulo, with its cycles, has been interpreted in many different ways, in many different mediums, and nobody has defined this city better than the singer Caetano Veloso in his song Sampa in which he characterizes São Paulo's growth and power by saying: "E quem vem de outro sonho feliz de cidade/Aprende depressa a chamar-te de realidade." ("And he who comes from other happy dream of city/He fast learns to call you reality.")

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Author: Ravelo, Carlos Article Title: COVER: Beware the tanks Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.98 Publication Date: 02-28-94 Page: p. 7

COVER: Beware the tanks.

Less than a decade after they abandoned control of Brazil's destiny by leaving it in the hands of civilian politicians, one of the Western Hemipshere's largest military establishment has again let its heavy sotaque (accent) be heard... this time loud and clear!

After pronouncements made earlier by Brazil's Finance Minister, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, that the military's 21 billion cruzeiros budget was to be cut by at least 40% the Armed Forces' top brass took a bold step forward - apparently with the implicit support of President Itamar Franco - and "de facto" placed Cardoso's austerity plans into a rapid about face.

ROMAN CURE - History has been shown to repeat itself. And Brazil would seem to be a rather awkward, if not outright inappropriate place to say the least, in which ancient Roman quotes might hold any sort of political sway. Nevertheless, when that quotation is uttered by somebody like the Brazilian Army's Chief-of-Staff, General Benedito Onofre Bezerra Leonel, politicians as well as the average folk, definitely stop and listen. Really listen!

"If we should have to leave our white-washed bones upon the sands of the deserts, so be it; but b eye aware of the choler of the Legions!" These words of warning have been historically attributed to Marcus Flavinius, a Centurion in the Imperial Roman Army, who surfaced out from oblivion into the forefront of the Roman power structure. And now those very same words are being repeated by Brazil's top centurion. The coincidence, of course is more than ominous.

Itamar Franco's support against any cutbacks in the Armed Forces' budget was, by default, a hard blow to Minister Cardoso's ego and political credibility. At a moment when the rest of the government train is reeling from a budgetary slash to the tune of $82 million, which also affects the average guy on the street, the sacred military cow seems to be untouchable. Three of its offsprings are just as sacred too: a nuclear submarine. Brazil's space program, and an interceptor plane project - the AMX - currently being researched co-jointly with the Italian government.

Navy Minister Ivan Serpa flexed his muscle quickly too. After being informed by Planning Minister Alexis Stepnenko about the proposed cuts, he emphatically stated: "No, I don't agree. How would you like to have your salary cut in half?" A close friend of President Franco, Serpa voice his discontent wide and loud, and spearheaded a veiled threat of mass resignations among Brazil's top military officers: Further compounding the problem, the complaints and concerns were conveyed by all military branches, and at each and every level of the chain-of-command. General Gilberto Serra, spokesperson for the Army, indicated that "the cutbacks will (effectively) shut-down the Army". And Brigadier Cherubin Rosa, Jr. of the Air Force stated: "The F.A.B. (Brazilian Air Force), has reached an operational rock-bottom; only emergency-type operations are feasible, but none of a military nature.

LOW PROFILE DEFENSE - As far as military expenses per capita are concerned, Brazil occupies the 73rd spot worldwide, in a total pool of about 140 countries. Brazil pays an average of $7 per citizen, to maintain a functional military structure. That compares to an average per capita expense of $10 by Mexico, $35 by Argentina, $55 by Chile, $395 by England and capped by an average of $902 dollars per soldier, by the United States.

Salaries of rank and file are also perilously low in Brazil. A Staff Sergeant in the Army earns a mere $300; however, a simple private only makes $30. But in spite of the heated debate on this issue, so far there has been no uttering of a coup a la 1964". The military does not have any power-taking plan like they had prior to 1964-says military analyst Roberto Lopes - although Brazilian society does not yet know what they want from their Armed Forces."

One exception, however, is Reserve Colonel Pedro Schirmer. From Rio de janeiro he publishes Ombro a Ombro (Shoulder to Shoulder), a radical magazine in which he actively supports and promotes "Hard and drastic measures against misguided democratic policies". During the last several months Schirmer has been actively in contact with other radical-minded South-American golpistas such as rabel officers Mohamed Ali Seineldin - currently serving a life sentence in Argentina - and General Francisco E. Visconti, of the Venezuelan Air Force, currently exiled in Peru after has failed coup attempt in his country. Both are actively collaborating with Schirmer, by writing articles for his journal.

Nevertheles, rejection of a coup at this time does not necessarily preclude using that option in the future. The criticism leveled by the military against Brazil's Federal Supreme Court on an issue relating to ex-President Collor de Mello's political rights, is but another subtle but unhidden threat. The military also perceives that they have the tacit support of President Itamar Franco. For instance, during the traditional end-of-year supper between the Chief of State and military commanders in Brasilia. Itamar implicitly underrated civilian authority vis-a-vis the role of the military. "I am procuring to guide the government towards new paths; however, I'am also confronting horrendous obstacles", said Franco. Many within the military understood that the President was referring to the selfishness and impunity in which politicians seem to thrive.

OLD BOYS NETWORK - The apparent mutual attraction between. Itamar Franco and the military is nothing new. During his tenure as Mayor of Juiz de Fora, in the state of Minas Gerais, during the 60's and 70's, Franco was in excellent terms with the military commanders of the 4th Army Division and the 4th Military Regional Headquarters, both seated in that city.

In fact, lately, President Franco has been leaving the isolation of his offices in the Palacio do Planalto, solely to appear at certain military ceremonies. Curiously enough, Franco was elected mayor as a candidate for the MDB, a party whose platform opposed the military regime. However, under counseling from his closest advisors, Franco refuses to engage in any controversy involving military-versus-civilian issues.

Almost 30 years after the 1964 coup, some of the military seem to long for their past role within Brazilian society. During the 20 years of military dictatorship their role was simple and forceful: to fight the "red menace", keep law and order, and - if at all possible - promote progress. To this day, however, they still believe that they're the "safekeepers of

institutionality", whatever that might mean. If Brazil's unending crisis were to place institutional stability at a risk, then they would, presumably, intervene.

And it is precisely the fear - and the dishonor - of having their budgets cut even further, that has prompted the top brass to voice their demands. Warns Deputy (Congressman) Jose Genoino (PT-SP), "Any displeased and mistreated military structure will end up creating political problems." Taking Brazil's past experience with the military and their saudade (longing) for the past into perspective, he may be very right.

MESSIANIC MISSION IMPOSSIBLE - Nineteen sixty four is seen by many as a turning point in Brazil's democratic (or pseudo-democratic) political history. This was the year of the golpe. Nevertheless, Brazil's experience with a case of "the reds" - as far as the military is concerned - dates back to 1935, when Gaucho general Getulio Vargas came into power. The forces that subsequently propelled and empowered President João Goulart in the 1960's, only helped to further exacerbate internal divisions within the armed forces.

Slowly, a messianic Vision was creeping into the minds of the top brass; the theory was that the military had to "clean up the house". Hard-liners then took control, after Marshall Castelo Branco's tenure. It was General Costa e Silva who in reality took control and exercised power in a heavy-handed and politically uncompromising manner. The 60's were also a time of global social turmoil; guerrilla movements were widespread on a world-wide scale.

Many ex-colonies such as Argelia, Angola, and Mozambique, would engage in ideological civil wars that would drag into the late 80's, reaching Central America. Che Guevara would incursion into Bolivia, one of Brazil's southern neighbors. The heat was on!

One group which the military mistakenly identified as the ideological wing for the leftist movements was the Catholic church, and its support of agrarian reform movements and policies. As early as 1961, after President Janio Quadros resigned, and after then Vice-President João Goulart's visit to Chairman Mao's China, suspicions by the military were suddenly aroused almost resulting in a military coup. Several high-ranking generals even intended to halt Goulart's presidential inauguration. Pay-back time arrived three years later, carried out by the same group that was unable to topple Goulart in 1961.

By the late sixties, many within the file and ranks began to quietly voice their dissatisfaction with the negative turn of events. The Armed Forces began to feel resentment against those few who were tarnishing their image in Brazil and abroad. The messianic-militaristic view-point was slowly changing into a corporative outlook, a more business-like approach of the military's social role.

The current approach and outlook of the military bunch can be measured by the attitude and words of one of its most out-spoken representatives: Federal Deputy Jair Bolsonaro. He also happens to be a Captain in the reserve, and was elected mostly through the support and votes of military men and their relatives. "They've desisted from trying to save the nation - he states - and are just trying to save themselves." His words have the ring of an undeniable truth. In any case, Brazil's military and its role has been and continues to be, - as Minister Cardoso quickly found out - a magician's hat and Pandora's box, all rolled into one.

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Author: Gonzalez, Amelia Article Title: INTERVIEW: Heaven has to wait! Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.98 Publication Date: 02-28-94 Page: p. 13

INTERVIEW: Heaven has to wait!.

What has changed in your campaign against hunger, since it started?

When we started there was no clear awareness that we were a country with 32 million indigents. So much so that I used to say, "Brazil is like the Titanic. Everybody is dancing and playing but somebody has already screamed and it's going to sink." The campaign is this scream, this indictment. During two, three months it was as if we had screamed, but there was still no echo. After passing through this phase, we started to notice very concrete signs. I can say that today there is a great campaign. It's not spectacular only because Brazil is too big and TV didn't respond as well as the written media did.

Why didn't TV join the bandwagon?

It lacked the will, the ability to understand that we don't have just another campaign lasting two or three months. This is a plan for five to 10 years that's starting here, but that will end only when we are able to engage the whole society and change the public, agrarian, and agricultural policies. The secret is that when you start to change something, the rest also changes. But what's the use for big structural changes, if we are not able to change the minimum: the minds, attitudes, and behavior of people? Now I feel that thousands are changing their practice.

Does this change have to do with your campaign?

This is a big sign that the campaign is working. For me, the bottom line of the campaign is the following: in '93 we opened an agenda of deep questions, that had to do with employment, land, and a redefinition of the economic model. In '94 we will see that our dreams that we believed possible will start to become a reality. We will be able to act with much more self-assurance. It's not only one, two, or three crazy people anymore who believe that.

The question if giving food is enough has been causing some polemic...

This a movement, a first gesture. We are changing the behavior of people. They will pay back much more attention. We've proposed a strategy of decentralization that is working. Without intermediaries in the distribution of food. The committees only help. There has been no evidence of corruption or fraud. And another thing: when I decide to give some food, I need to see the face of the person receiving it. I cannot imagine that people are headless mules. Hunger cannot destroy human individuality.

You have said that the second phase of the campaign will be one of job creation. How will this happen?

I am not thinking about industrial jobs requiring high technology and great sophistication. Naturally, I think these jobs are important too, but I know

this is part of a movement which requires an overhaul of the technology itself, to find a way to combine obsolete technology with advanced technology. In this first phase, I want to concentrate on emergency, temporary jobs. I really want $100-a-month jobs. Like public work. Squares, gardens not asphalting, but paving, street-sweeping, basic sanitation.

Do you think the big companies will help?

It's going to be hard. But we want proposals, solutions. It's possible to increase productivity, for example. It's possible to make workshops, work barns. City Hall provides the place, some businessmen donate the material and you establish there productive activities such as repair. Everybody goes around looking for somebody who can fix something at home. And you also can generate employment. It's a kind of river with several tributaries. For example, how many families would be able to hire a driver? In a campaign like this, If I had as much money as many people do, I would hire a drive. Firefighters need a uniform. Instead of buying it from shops why not create co-ops, with 30, 40, 50 seamstresses and order the uniforms from them?

You believe society has already done its part, answering the alarm sounded by you?

No, society has barely started its role. We have to learn to put pressure, to confront everybody. We don't change a situation of misery just by delivering a kilo of non perishable food at the theater's door. To give is just the first gesture. The pressure, the proposal, the creativity, the mobilization and even the election, all of this is expected from society.

And what do you expect from government?

In the federal level, the government has to make the transition from defining the economic policy priority to making the fight against misery and hunger an essential part of the economic policy, in all the Ministries. There is a distance between the intention of president Itamar Franco and the concrete achievement of this, something that has to end. I think Itamar has understood the campaign as a top priority.

Is there anyone who doesn't understand?

Several ministries didn't understand. Some have understood only partially. In the fight against misery, for example, agriculture is essential. But the Ministry of Agriculture hasn't effectively accepted this questions as its axis. The relation between economic policy and the fight against hunger has been running on parallel tracks. Minister Fernando Henrique Cardoso is in favor of combating hunger, but it is important that he shows that concretely by creating jobs.

Is the governor of state of Rio backing your campaign?

Through its secretaries, yes (Leonel) Brizola (Rio's governor), as everybody knows, is extremely concerned about education. In this way, he is cooperating with the solution for hunger and misery. I say that if he is really capable of placing all children in the CIEPs (Centro Integrado de Instrucão Publica), it's excellent.

Are you optimistic?

While I'm alive, I'll be optimistic. After my death, I will not be optimistic because I will not exist any more. I cannot be pessimistic with this campaign. But I'm worried because all these problems are complex, they are challenges. After all it took us hundreds of years to produce this disgrace. We need time to eradicate it.

In an interview on TV, comedian Renato Aragão said at the end that you were in the heart of all Brazilians. Is that the way you feel?

The obvious became revelation, and the common citizen became hero. One fantastic thing in this movement is that it grew from nothing, from the obvious, it surfaced on the wrong way of the street. Now, the "powers that be" are so discredited that the popular confidence and expectations of society have been focused on me for some reason. I am not very worried about that because I know things always end up being embodied by someone.

Don't you think it's disappointing that, even after so much attention paid by the media to misery and hunger, the nation's leaders continue with the status quo?

Every time I go to sleep in my bed and know that are so many people sleeping on the floor, it stings my conscience. Looking at the faces of hungry children, some days I feel this terrible fear of having access to the red button of the end of the world. Truly, the government has always been the reflection of this society. Then I am betting that by changing the society, we are going to be able to change the government. The day that society will not tolerate this type of government, then we will have another government. What happened in the past in that society has always produced these governments. As much e dominators as the dominated. The dominated are happy with crumbs and the dominators are happy with the authority. This is our history. Strategically, we have to start changing from the beginning, from the foundation. I think that it is the society that changes the State.

Is this movement of change evident to you?

I think there is a change, although it is still not predominant. As in a game: in the first half you lost 3 to 2. It's the second half, you're able to make the first goal, and now we are already rooting to win. We are getting e moment of a tie. The movement of change is going to bump into the situation that is there. My optimism comes from the fact that we are able to realize this turning point. And I'm happy to know that we are going on the right direction. During the dictatorship, there was nowhere we could turn.

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Author: Morton, Iara Article Title: MY TURN: The drop that saves Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.98 Publication Date: 02-28-94 Page: p. 16

MY TURN: The drop that saves.

I regret I never had the chance to read the coverage on "Spring-time in the Killing Fields of Hunger", in the November, '93 edition of News from Brazil. However, I could get a grasp of the subject through the letter of Marcos Andre Getchell, published in the January, '94 edition.

It made me glad to hear that compassion is perhaps coming to life in Brazil. I was there in June of '93 and heard about several mutiroes (self-help work collectives) and other initiatives that people were taking to help the underprivileged ones.

In a country plagued by a corrupt and ruthless government, where a severe disparity of classes exists, if the people themselves don't start doing something to help their fellow men, the chronic cycle of misery and violence will never end, jeopardizing the safety of every single Brazilian.

Speaking of compassion, I work for a travel agency here in California, where I arrange group packages for "short-term missionaries" throughout the whole year. The groups are usually composed of a minimum of 20 people from churches from all over the U.S., and they go to countries in Latin America, Africa and now, to eastern European countries, for a period of one to three weeks, taking medications, building churches, schools and medical centers as well as sharing with them a word of peace and hope. It's important to note that these people are all volunteers.

They all have normal jobs, yet they take time off (a scarce thing in the States), pay for their own tickets and work for a couple of weeks in a foreign land for no rewards... except that of personal satisfaction in showing compassion.

I find it shameful that the helping hand always seems to come from a foreign land, since the leaders of many of these poor nations are always too busy stealing for themselves instead of assisting their compatriots or extending aid to the needy. A good example of this is my own poor-rich country, Brazil, where scum are the only ones who "make it" in politics.

As a result, since the majority of the population is always struggling for survival, seeing abject poverty becomes commonplace and routine. Due to this constant assault of the senses, a feeling of apathy and hatred can easily take over, and people fall into a comatose state, taking no actions to help those who are absolutely destitute.

One of the reasons I am writing this is to attempt to awaken those who perhaps have fallen into this comatose state of inertia, indifference, and insensitivity towards the needs of others. I would like to make you aware of what's happening in some of our cities in Brazil, attempting to revive those feelings in you, which I am sure exist, although, they may be dormant.

In 1986, in the city where I come from, Belo Horizonte in the state of Minas Gerais, YWAM or JOCUM (Youth With a Mission / Jovens com uma MisSão) established a fast-growing project to aid street children. YWAM is responsible for taking many of those poor abused street children off the streets, and miraculously rehabilitating them.

Thousands of kids have received clothing, food and shelter, Several of them have kicked their drug habits, have learned how to read and write, and also received vocational training. Many of them today are involved in helping rescue other children, those stuck in the same situation they themselves used to be in.

Another amazing YWAM project, headed by Carla Van Der Kooij, a loving Dutch woman, is the House of Refuge. Carla was getting desperate, hopeless and distraught with the in-human conditions endured by Brazilian street children with AIDS.

Hundreds of kids were dying in the streets, victims of the disease. In the whole state of Minas Gerais, bigger than the country of France, there were just a few beds available for these kids. Well, after three years of feeding this dream, she was able to see it comes true.

Part of the street's child daily routine is robbery, glue-sniffing (supposedly it dulls their hunger), all sorts of violence and abuse, including severe beatings and rape.

For example, Edna, a 12-year old street girl, was raped by all members of her own gang. Afterwards, they set her on fire.

Moreover, many of the babies born to the street girls, similarly undergo beatings, sexual abuse and torture such as being burned by cigarettes. These events are ordinary amongst the ever-growing population of the forgotten ones.

My husband (who is a former "Ywamer" or "Jocumeiro") and I are among the supporters of these projects in Belo Horizonte and personal witnesses to the marvelous, humanitarian work these people do.

If you wish to support the JOCUM bases in Brazil, you may send a check in U.S. dollars to: YWAM-P.O. Box 4600 - Tyler, TX 75715-4600.

If you want, you can specify to which base you would like your support to go to (Rescue & Restore - Street Kids - Belo Horizonte / House of Refuge - Street Kids with Aids - Belo Horizonte / São Paulo base / Rio de Janeiro base or Recife base).

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Author: Espinoza, Rodolfo Article Title: ECONOMY: The black hole Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.98 Publication Date: 02-28-94 Page: p. 17

ECONOMY: The black hole.

With a foreign debt superior to $110 billion, Brazil is the champion of the Third World Big Debtors Club. This amount, accumulated during decades of impulse borrowing and free-sending-cum-money-disappearing acts, pales, however, in comparison to what corruption and embezzlement cost the country every year. According to estimates of the government itself, the country loses $80 billion a year due to the fraud of those who don't pay their federal taxes. When you add to this, losses due to waste and negligence that have happened in the recent few years, the bill raises easily, to an underestimated amount of $140 billion.

This explains why most of the people get poorer by the minute while a very small number gets richer with the public's money. And the bill would bee even bigger if we added all the money the country loses through smuggling and all the resources wasted on the local and state levels, besides the dollars sent overseas through illegal channels. The $60 billion figure is a very conservative number, since it's based in only 22 cases of corruption and waste uncovered since the beginning of the Collar years, which started in 1990. Ex-president Fernando Collor himself would be impeached and exposed as the leader of a gang.

The government chest was raided and depleted form all sides. Social Security, unemployment benefits, programs to assist children and fight hunger, resources destined for schools, funds to combat the drought in the North-east and to build roads, nothing escaped the greedy hands of an unscrupulous minority.

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Author: Luis, Emerson Article Title: ECOLOGY: Jungle lab Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.98 Publication Date: 02-28-94 Page: p. 19

ECOLOGY: Jungle lab.

It took only two days for Anthony Raw, a British scientist working from Universidade de Brasilia, to discover five new species of month in the Amazon forest. The most curious thing about this is that Raw was on a visit to a center of researching the middle of the jungle which at that time wasn't even open yet. Since October, the Estacão Cientifica Ferreira Penna has been inaugurated by president Itamar Franco, and there are dozens of scientists form all over the world in line, eager to have a chance to study up close a microcosm of the richest biological lab on the planet.

The $3.6 million project, mostly financed by the British government through the Overseas Development Administration, is a piece of cutting-edge technology embedded in a land where not even stone-age Indians have arrived. Eighteen hours by boat from Belem, in the state of Para, the station is situated on the border of the Curua igarape, a tributary of the Caxiuana river.

The installations, spread through several buildings, comprise accommodation for 100 people, a library, a restaurant, and places for the practice of sports. Food is prepared on location, but the provisions have to come from Belem by boat. Some satellite dishes guarantee their reception of TV and the comfort level is just the minimum, without any fancy luxury like air conditioning. The same cannot be said about the two tons of equipment installed. Besides a meteorological station, there are high tech labs covering the areas of Botany, Archaeology, Chemistry, Ecology, and Zoology. Thanks to a computer system, researchers will be able to have instant contact via satellite with data banks and scientific centers in Europe and the United States.

The locations of the scientific station on the National Forest of Caxiuana was chosen not only due to its inaccessibility but mainly because of its singular ecosystem. The area seems to contain a miniature of the whole Amazon region, with dry land, wet land, savanna, open field. "Here we will be able to work for 100 years before civilization arrives," beams Jose Gilherme Maia, director of the Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, the institution responsible for the management of the station.

From those willing to spend some time at the station playing their own way - the work has no subvention from the Brazilian government - an adventurous spirit is required. The post has just opened and there is already a series of adventuresome stories, involving boats sinking in the middle of an estuary that seems more like an ocean, scientists getting bitten by poisonous snakes in the middle of nowhere, and other suffering accidents and being transported for miles by their colleagues.

In a little sample of the riches in research discoveries that we should expect, Brazilian ecologist and agronomist Samuel Soares de Almeida catalogued 338 species of large trees in an area of 4 hectares (the equivalent to four football fields).

It's only natural that no region in the world draws so much attention from the worldwide scientific community. The Amazon is the largest equatorial forest in the world and occupies more than 40% of Brazil's area. Brazil ranks first in the world for its numbers of plants, amphibians and primates. Almost half of all live species inhabit the Amazon forest. The area has 20% of all the fresh water on the planet and the Amazon river and its tributaries possess 2,000 species of fish, 10 times more than all the rivers in Europe, for example, and eight times more than the Mississippi River Basin.

The Ferreira Penna Scientific Station is only the latest comer to a "science-gold rush" to the Amazon. For now the place is available only to scientists, but that could change anytime soon. There are plans to open the facility to small groups of tourists. At least 50 other foreign institutions maintain researchers in the area. For the most part these Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are not controlled by the Brazilian government.

Think about anything, and probably you will find an NGO studying it in the Brazilian jungle. There is the Indian NGO, the rubber gatherer NGO, the cow-fish NGO. "Catastrophe in the Amazon?.," says British climate expert John Roberts, who monitors the Amazon climate through six towers installed throughout the jungle. "This is pure fantasy from those who want to make money from this scenario. You need to take care of the forest but news is not as bad as we imagine."

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Author: Magalhaes, Felipe Article Title: PROFILE: Still the golden boy Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.98 Publication Date: 02-28-94 Page: p. 22

PROFILE: Still the golden boy.

Watching Roberto Rivelino play soccer at an exhibition game for the USA Soccer Blast - legends of the Past, a competition for veteran soccer players from all over the world held in San Francisco recently, you could notice immediately that he hasn't lost his magic. The deadly left foot, The unexpected passes, as well as his famous hard shot bomb (his trademark) are all still there. He hasn't changed his style off the field either, continuing to be a kind and humble person, having no second thoughts about signing an autograph and opening up in a natural smile when asked to be photographed with fans.

The player, born in January 1st, 1946, to an Italian father, Nicelino, himself a pretty good center full back, reminisced recently with News from Brazil about old times and his childhood when he used to play soccer in the streets. He also played futsal soccer, which is a Brazilian invention played on a basketball court with no off-side and five players on each side. This is a very popular game that has served as an introduction to the big time for many a great soccer player.

He considers himself very lucky. For him, the entry into the professional arena and fame came very early in life. "In 19621 I was 16 years old and I went to play for the Corinthians Club, a top first division team from São Paulo with the biggest number of fans as well. I was playing for the juniors' division when a new league was formed in 1964 for the so-called Campeonato do Aspirantes (Aspirants' Championship), a B team made of professionals. They needed players, so I moved up. I played well and one year later I was already on the A team."

He was so young that the fans gave him the nickname of "O Menino do Parque" (The Kid from the Park) in a reference to Parque São Jorge, the location of the Corinthians' team stadium. A little later he was chosen for the Brazilian National Team and became world-famous during the 1970 World Cup in Mexico. Rivelino was one of our best players on that Cup where for the last time Brazil came in first. Latter he played for the Fluminense, a Rio soccer team, afterwards moving overseas to play in Saudi Arabia, a place where he was treated like a king by the Saudi monarch himself.

Talking about soccer in the U.S., Rivelino says that he is enthusiastic about what he has seen here recently. "After watching all these kids playing soccer I have no doubts that one day America will be a power in soccer," he remarked. "It will take a few more years but they'll be there on the top, eventually. What happened was that the approach to soccer in the past wasn't the best. They brought Pele, Beckenbauer, Cruyff, among others and when they stopped playing a big gap was formed. It's likely bringing Michael Jordan to a different country to promote basketball and then he doesn't play anymore. Non what?"

The player was very impressed with the women's soccer teams. "In other countries, machismo wouldn't allow women to play or develop the game," he

commented. "No wonder the Americans are the current champions on the Women's Soccer World Championship."

Rivelino is not impressed, however, by the way soccer is being played in the world nowadays. According to him, the game seems to have reached a plateau. "There's not much talent out there," he says. "The game has become very physical. They've taken the grace and art our of it. Perhaps things will change with the new FIFA (International Federation of Football Association) rules. Who knows?"

Soccer is still a big part of Rivelino's life/ He is the current player coach for the Brazilian Master National Team, a team formed by over-35 ex-pros who play exhibition games and have their own world cup. Rivelino is also a sports commentator for Bandeirantes TV and will be here during the World Cup of Cover he Brazilian games. He is also the owner of Escolinha do Rivelino, a school for children serious about learning the art of soccer with master Rivelino.

The player is a true national treasure. Everywhere he goes in the world he is treated with respect and fondness. Rivelino says that he like the changes made to the Brazilian national team and believes that Brazil has a good chance to become the world champion for the fourth time. But he also feels that the team still needs a little change of attitude. "We sure can win if the players stop playing for the themselves and start thinking as a unit. And if they quit asking how much money they are going to get if they win, instead of winning first."

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Author: Mahos, Tania; Santana, Cezar Article Title: We're on the air Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.98 Publication Date: 02-28-94 Page: p. 25

We're on the air.

On our very first meeting with Ruy Pontes, BTN's director, we could feel the hospitality and kindness of somebody from Bahia. It was a bright Saturday afternoon and the TV's office, located in Downtown Miami, was especially opened to receive News from Brazil. Pontes talked about his experience with political marketing in São Paulo, interspersing facts of his own life with BTN's stories.

It was a surprise and very enlightening to see how a full TV operation is conducted from such a small space where a 12-person staff has to multiply the individual talents to fill all the needs of the TV station.

"The main goal of BTN," says Pontes, "is to help to integrate Brazilian communities in the U.S.A. as well as keeping Brazilian people updated with what is going on in Brazil, in Florida, in the rest of the country and in the world."

BTN has recently acquired new equipment and nowadays 50% of its programming time are filled with local production. The other half contains programs made in Brazil.

"California is on our plans of expansion," says BTN's director. "And we will be there for the 1994 World Cup. Also as part of the plans for the near future, BTN will add one hour to its daily programming with the inclusion of a Brazilian soap opera and the production and organization of events such as the First Carnaval Ball from Brazilian children. We were very encouraged by the success of the Independence Day Games, a series of sports events that we have promoted last September."

The Brazilian Television Network covers from South Kendall to North Miami. How many Brazilians is BTN reaching? "Difficult to say," answers Ruy. "It's difficult to have precise numbers due to the cable system and the lack of real data on the size and distribution of the Brazilian population."

BTN, which was the second Brazilian TV station established in Miami, intends to be taking its news and shows very soon on the road to eight other areas with big concentration of Brazilians throughout the United States.

Established in U.S.A. since 1988, Luqui TV is an affiliate and partner of TV Bandeirantes, the second largest South American network behind only Globo, also from Brazil. Luqui TV is currently reaching Brazilian communities in the states of Florida and Massachusetts. Their plan, however, is to create a national TV network to reach the estimated 1.5 million Brazilians living in the United States.

Luqui was created originally to produce the international news segment for Bandeirantes TV. But soon the company noticed that there was a market here in the United States for this kind of programming. Luqui started its American

incursion by purchasing two hours of time on the Spanish TV Channel Univision even though this time slot seemed aimed more to insomniacs: from 2 AM to 4 AM. It was the first time the powerful Spanish network opened space to an outside TV.

After one year of broadcasting Brazilian programming in the wee hours of the day, Luqui TV switched to cable. It was cheaper and more accessible. Nowadays, with a staff of nine TV professionals, Luqui TV is 70% produced in Brazil with the rest being done here in the States. Their main thrust seems to be providing the most recent news from Brazil thus establishing a link between Brazilians and the land they have left behind.

Luciano do Valle, Luqui's founder and president, after 30 years as an active newsman is a well-known sportscaster in Brazil. Thanks to him and his professionalism Luqui Corporation has earned an international reputation for excellency with the broadcast and coverage of such event as the Indy car racing, the Goodwill Games, and international soccer competitions.

Maria do Carmo Fulfaro, the vice-president and the head of the news department, gave us a tour of the premises and told us about the plans for the World Cup USA 94. Luqui TV will be producing a program called "Luqui na Copa" which will air interviews, locker room talk and a round table discussion with famous sports commentator Luciano do Valle and other guests.

Also this year, Fulfaro tells us, Luqui TV will start the production of Luqui Video, a tape containing the best of their programming. The tapes will be sold by mail order and subscribers will be able to request the portion of programming they want and they don't have to buy the entire broadcast.

"The potential is enormous," explains Fulfaro. "In the Greater Miami area alone, there are more than 70,000 Brazilians and more than 3,000 established Brazilian businesses. Besides that, there are 60 weekly flights to Brazil, four newspapers, two weekly radio programs and a whooping $ 2 billion trade between Florida and Brazil in 1992. We will not be rich 10 years from now, but we will be here for sure."

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Author: Hasson, Aron Article Title: IMMIGRATION: The Green Card Lotto Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.98 Publication Date: 02-28-94 Page: p. 27

IMMIGRATION: The Green Card Lotto.

The U.S. State Development published on December 29, 1993 the proposed rules for a very unusual type of lottery to take place in the coming weeks: for a Green Card. Those selected will win the opportunity to immigrate and live permanently in the United States. This time Brazilians will allowed to participate in this extraordinary program. The requirements of eligibility are fairly simile: an applicant needs to have a high school diploma or two years experience in a skilled profession.

Why Are They Doing This?

The United States Congress created this new program [called "DV-1"] in the Immigration Act of 1990 in order to allow more diversity in the immigrants coming to the United States. Congress decided that immigration to the U.S. was being overly utilized by immigrants from a small handful of countries. Therefore, the countries where there is normally normally a high number of people immigranting to the United States [such as China, India, Mexico and the Philippines] are not allowed to participate. The program allows for 55,000 people to be selected at random, and not more than 7% may be chosen from a single country.

Who Can Apply?

Any person may enter this lottery, whether they are in the U.S. or overseas. A person may apply even if they speak no English, and even if he or she has never been in the United States before. The person must be "admissible"as an immigrant, which means the applicant cannot have a serious criminal conviction, serious health problem, etc.

The high school diploma requirement is defined to mean "successful complement of 12 years of education" [courses of study] comparable to the diploma issued in completion of a U.S. education. The alternative requirement [for those who do not have a high school diploma] requires two years of experience in a skilled occupation. Skilled occupation refers to jobs which normally require two years of training or experience. This commonly includes mechanics and secretaries, but not housekeepers or waiters/waitresses. Also, the two years of experience must have been accomplished during the past 5 years.

What Are The Chances?

In the last similar immigration lottery [called "OP-1in 1989], there were only 20,000 available green cards. Based upon the number of people who applied meant the chances then were 1out of 160. Assuming there are the same number of applicants again trying for the larger number [55,000] of green cards means that the chances are increased to be 1 out of 58 [about 2%]. IF both a husband and wife apply [which is legally permissible], the couple's chances are 1 out of 29 [about 4%].

How And Where To Apply:

The U.S. Department of State, which is conducting the program, has not yet selected a date and place to mail the applications. The exact details will be revealed in the coming weeks. Applicants will be allowed to send in only one application and only by regular mail.

All interested persons may obtain the details from the Immigration Office in the United States or the U.S. Consuls abroad, although they are often very busy with other services and are therefore not always able to give answers on individual questions.

Interested people may also apply through attorneys.For many people this is a preferable way for several reasons. Although the application always follows a relatively simply format, there are technical requirements which are very often difficult to follow and thus disqualifies a huge number of applicants. For example, in the most recent lottery program 236,654 applications [over 20%!] were disqualified simply because the proper format and procedures were not followed.

Another reason for utilizing an attorney's office is that a client's privacy is protected, since the attorney uses the address of the law office. This is important particularly if the person is in the U.S. illegally, since the address is not given and therefore it avoids the possibility of the immigration Office learning of the whereabouts of the person.

What Are The Alternatives?

The lottery program is a much simpler route to immigrate in contrast to the "Labor Certification" process which requires a job offer from a prospective employer and that the alien proves that he or she would not take a job away from a U.S. worker. Besides the "Labor Certification" process, a person may immigrate if they have an immediate relative [spouse, parent, child]' who is a U.S. citizen petition for them.

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Author: Wyszpolski, Bondo Article Title: REVIEW: Love a la Brasileira Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.98 Publication Date: 02-28-94 Page: p. 31

REVIEW: Love ... la Brasileira.

It's an awful title, boastful, pretentious, and better suited for a Las Vegas floor show. Ah, But let's move on, at least to the first page.

Brazil, by John Updike, spans the years 1966 to 1988. The country itself, however, is mostly just a vast metaphor, as if chosen for the extremes it conveniently embraces.

Tristão is black, a petty criminal, a he lives in one of the favelas (slums) above Copacabana in Rio de Janeiro. Stepping out of the ocean one day, he espies Isabel, white and well-to-do, and he gives her a stolen ring. After some time on the beach together, Isabel leads Tristão to her uncle's apartment and invites him to make love to her. While all of this is borderline credible, there's a degree of solemnity nestling in the bed-sheets: It's Isabel's first time with a man, and Tristão proves as respectful as circumstances will allow.

Uncle Donaciano is soon trying to persuade Isabel that while she has a future, this infatuation of hers - meaning Tristão - does not Isabel responds by pilfering a few valuables from the apartment, and them retreating with Tristão to the favela. Her boy friend's extended family include a shebear for a mother, and a half-brother, Euclides-who talks like he's a reincarnation of his namesake.

We'll see a lot of this. Isabel, astonished by the number of people residing in the hovel, reflects on how they "had developed a tactful politics of space." One raises an eyebrow. A few pages later, when Tristão says to Isabel. "Until I saw you on the beach, I felt nothing profound for any female," we are moved by his candidness, but skeptical of his concise speech. De he steal that, too?

Tristão and Isabel head do São Paulo, where Tristão eventually finds another half-brother. Chiquinho invites the couple to his home. It's a set-up, a betrayal, and Isabel to her father's home, in Brasilia.

Two years pass. Isabel takes courses in art history and botany at the Universidade de Brasilia. Tristão spends his two years on the assembly line in an automobile factory. As soon as the moment is ripe, however, he sets off to find his beloved.

They flee Brasilia, going first to Goiania, then up to the Serra Dourado, and soon they've bought a claim in a mine in the Serra do Buraco. The four years that follow seem grueling, and Isabel resorts to selling sexual favors.

When Tristão uncovers a good nugget the size of a potato it would seem that their troubles are over. Not so; and again the are on the run, this time deep into Mato Grosso. After a numbing raid by Indians, Tristão and Isabel encounter a roving banderia, backland adventures who've stepped straight out

of colonial times. The result is yet another enslavement.

In an effort to reverse this downward trend, Isabel undertakes a long trek to a distant mesa, within sight of the Andes, and upon the shamanistic sequence that follows the story turns around and upside down. It's as if the tale is now doubling back on itself.

The descent into the heart of darkness/darkness of the heart seems evident, but Brazil goes beyond the surface explorations of interracial love. It also evades the differences in class, upbringing, and education, and unloads both barrels at the very core of human attachment and devotion.

The decisive twist in the storyline - which I won't revel - occurs after Isabel's visit to the shaman. Being the pivotal point of the novel, its success with the reader may determine one's response to the entire work.

Updike points out that Brazil is based on the often told chivalrous romance of Tristan and Iseult. Knowing about this infusion of the mythic may elicit a more tolerant overview of story than usual, and I say this as one who didn't find it credible that a young woman who'd studied art history and botany at a prestigious university would chuck it all out for the sake of being a poor miner's wife. If she'd had friends or family, then maybe, but there's little to stimulate her mind during those four years at the mining camp.

In Brazil, as elsewhere, Updike brings his "National Book-Award winning prose style to bear on the micromechanics of physical lovemaking," to quote Nicholson Baker in U and I. And while the descriptions have a carefree frankness that may serve Updike in other latitudes, some of it here seems impish and distracting, such as "...tears having started to her eyes, erupting as violently as semen." When a woman cries, do you equate it with ejaculation? It's the sort of imagery one might blink at, seeing it dash out of the page like a small rodent darting from its burrow.

As we've come to expect from such a fine craftsman, Updike employs an assured, rich and well-blended prose style that frequantly impresses, and his evocations of places and setting are often superb. On the other hand, there's no much of the humor, deftness, or music in the writing that one finds regularly in Rubem Fonseca or Jorge Amado. Updike's lengthy poetic descriptions actually preempt this from occurring, and even if his lines do make us ooh and aah they still don't have the tone and the rhythm of Brazil itself. The story feels grafted, recounted with an accent, which isn't necessarily true of all novels that are set in Brazil by north American authors. Karen Tei Yamashita's Brazil-Maru is proof of this.

Maybe, like his inauspicious and dead-weighted title, John Updike simply took on too much? Among themselves, Tristão and Isabel have an astounding capacity for regenerative love, but between the book and this reader there was no such combustion, only a few bright and intermittent flames.

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Author: Dalevi, Alessandra Article Title: The talk of the streets Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.98 Publication Date: 02-28-94 Page: p. 33

The talk of the streets.

I'd like to tell you something about Brazilian giria (slang). You dig me? The same as an American who gives away his age with such a piece of lingo, a Brazilian would reveal how long ago he had been through his formative years simply by using manjou, morou, sacou. These are all ways of saying `you dig it?' that had their heyday in the 50s, 60s and 70s, respectively. They are all more or less in disuse nowadays, even though by a slag life expectancy standard they've already had a pretty long life.

Armed only with only good will and an immense love of worlds, journalist and university professor João Bosco Serra e Gurgel six years ago started to collect these language nuggets from the mouths of the people and from magazines and newspapers, popular music lyrics, and television programs. His hobby has become the Dicionario de Giria, that released initially in 1985, has just gone into its second edition with 329 pages and 9,980 terms duly explained and then shown in a sentence. Both times, Serra e Gurgel had to finance the dictionary himself.

In the foreword to the book, the author talks about giria as being at the same, time cause and effects of a population destitute of literacy. "The giria has become a resource available so people would be able to communicate and understand each other in a more direct way, as well as in a simpler, more daring and also more permissive manner."

"To confine slang to the language of outlaw groups - a kind of a sub-race of a sub-people - s to ignore the reality in which we live, with our cities of concrete pouring into the urban explosion," he continues. According to the author, giria will develop at an even faster pace as long as education and culture are not a priority in the country. He notes, "there are states with giant soccer stadiums, few schools and under-employed teachers. The teaching of the language in many cases is done by semi-illiterate instructors. No wonder considerable number of Brazilians have very limited linguistic equipment."

In a recent interview, Serra e Gurgel told about the discovery that came with the research of girias: "I started to notice that slang was no longer the language for marginal and segregated groups with which it has always been historically associated, and it had started to become an alternative language. With the education crisis, its use has increased. Today it is used by all social classes."

In a note to News from Brazil, Serra e Gurgel wrote: "This book is a portrait of Brazil with no retouching, without adding or subtracting. The Brazil of Macunaima, Geraldo Miramundo, Policarpo Quaresma (three heroes of Brazilian literature). Giria is the expression of this illiterate and beautiful race." João Bosco Serra e Gurgel can be contacted by mail at SQS 302, Bloco B, apto 493 - 70338-020 - Brasilia, DF - Brazil.

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Author: Dalevi, Alessandra Article Title: MUSIC: Mad Max Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.98 Publication Date: 02-28-94 Page: p. 36

MUSIC: Mad Max.

It's no accident that the most celebrated and renowned Brazilian rock and outside Brazil chose Sepultura as their name. That's our last place of rest, the tomb. As at the door of Dante's Hell, the band seems to have placed the ominous sign warning those who want to get inside their dominion: "Abandon all hope, you who enter." Forget the easy answers, the everything is OK attitude,the no problem approach, the tomorrow will be better way of doing business. Sepultura isn't here to please.

Their fourth album, Arise, released in 1991, went on to sell over 1 million copies all over the world. It was also, their decisive step to worldwide fame and stardom. Since then they have toured the world from Rio to Los Angeles, passing through Israel. Portugal, Italy, Australia, Russia - 60,000 fans went to see them there in four shows - Japan. Greece, and Indonesia. For two years they toured the U.S., having started in late '92, opening for Ozzy Osbourne, and later going out with Helmet and Ministry.

Sepultura's leader, guitarist-singer Max Cavalera talked to News from Brazil, right after the group played to a sold-out Hollywood Palladium crowd, last December, in Los Angeles. It wasn't a surprise to see thousands of youngsters lining up to listen to them. After all, Sony's - their recording company - research shows that for the most part their fans are Latin and black teens from the inner city in Los Angeles and New York.

Cavalera, 24, responsible for the vocals and the lyrics, doesn't seem pleased at all with the world around him. "Turn on CNN," he says. "It's always the same shit. We have 90% of catastrophe to maybe 10% of something worthwhile." In a still somber note he ads: "I always liked the word chaos. It's nothing new, we have been living with it for the last 2,000 years, and it seems to get worse every single day."

Chaos A.D. is exactly the name of their fifth and latest effort. The album contains a track called Kaiowas, inspired by a tribe of Brazilian Indians who preferred to commit suicide to leave their lands as ordered by the government. The use of the headlines nad the bad news to write songs have been a constant in Cavalera's work. One of the his more powerful and controversial tunes was inspired by the 1993 revolt of inmates in the Carandiru prison in São Paulo, Brazil. More than 100 prisoners were massacred there when the military police intervened to quell the protests over overcrowding.

Sepultura would love to organize an Amazon Festival, something similar to Live Aid and other benefit rock shows. This one would happen in the Amazon itself and the Indians and the forest would get the proceeds. But Cavalera don't see himself as another Sting. "He is more interested in self-promotion than in helping the Indians," he says. "We would never bring Indians to the stage and show them as in a circus. Our style is more subtle. We send our message through a song that is heard by 100,000, 200,000 who buy our record. That's our way to try to change the world. As for Brazil we are going to continue

showing the world all the absurd things that happen there, things that seem more fitted to the Conan the Barbarian times than to our times."

Max Cavalera and his brother Igor, and band's percussionist, were only 14 and 12 respectively when they decided to form in Belo Horizonte a group of hard metal, inspired by bootleg copies by the likes of Metallica and Venom. It was then 1984. Max reminisces. "Our family was very poor and we used to live by the railroad side." No overnight success story here. "When we started," says the band leader, "we were considered the worst band in Brazil, from north to south. We already had some few fans, however. I never went to school past the seventh grade, but I compensate for that working harder and putting a lot of effort in everything I do. Many other bands want the success but not all the work that goes with it."

Their debut record was Bestial Devastation for the obscure Brazilian label Cogumelo Records. Their first full-length album, Morbid Visions, would come in 1986. This time, underground networks in Europe and the U.S. started to pay attention to what, through word of mouth, would be soon a new death metal sensation. With Schizophrenia, they were able to cement their reputation and prove that they had the power to stay. Roadrunner Records, a Sony subsidiary signed them up. By this time, Sepultura had replaced lead guitarist Jairo with Andreas Kisser. Bass player Paulo Jr. completed the quartet that continues the same now.

With Beneath the Remains, released in 1989, Sepultura became international stars. That album sold more than 200,000 copies in Europe and the U.S.. The record was hailed as one of the finest thrash albums of the '80s and it was compared to Slayer's Reign in Blood for its intensity. Arise, from 1991, with its more than one million copies sold worldwide, would lay to rest any doubt about the band's talents and possibilities. They were on their way to super-stardom.

Living between São Paulo, Brazil and Phoenix, Arizona, the quartet has spent more time on international tours, since Arise came out. For the recording of their last effort, Chaos they chose an old and traditional studio in South Wales, in the United Kingdom. Max was impressed with the castles around the studio. "Most bands prefer to record in Los Angeles or New York where they have the last word in technology. But we chose Wales, for the atmosphere that's more '70s than '90s. We went to the same studio where Led Zeppelin and famous people from hippie times have recorded."

The band is not cutting their ties with Brazil. Au contraire. They went there recently invited by the organizer of the Hollywood (a cigarette brand) Rock festival and were received with the same perks as other foreign bands such as the Aerosmith, "staying in the same hotel as the gringos," as Cavalera noted.

And the video for their cover of Motorhead's Orgasmatron was voted Best Brazilian Video by the viewers of MTV Brazil. Brazil should continue to be a source of inspiration not only through the scandalous headlines. Brazilian late rocker Raul Seixas is still a favorite of Max. As for the present Brazilian rock scene, Sepultura's leader has no kid word. "E uma bosta (It's shit)," he says.

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Author: Dalla Dea, Ariane Article Title: TRAVEL: Rio, 104 Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.98 Publication Date: 02-28-94 Page: p. 40

TRAVEL: Rio, 104.

It is February, and the streets of the city of Rio de Janeiro once again roar with the tropical summer's frenzy. Rio radiates its natural energy while the Cariocas surrender to the power of samba; it is Carnaval! The former capital of Brazil offers to its residents and visitors an unforgettable adventure in music, food, and good time.

The folia of Rio's 5.5 million residents begins on the 11, and for five days it will burn as a fever of 104, You can confirm that by checking one of the several thermometer/clocks spread all over town, especially by the beaches. But Rio is not made of Carnaval only. Day and night the "cidade maravilhosa" (wonderful city) is a big amusement park with entertainment for all the senses.

At the Floresta da Tijuca you have an exuberant jungle with about 10 thousand plant species for your enjoyment. No wonder Tijuca was the subject of the first ecological study in the world, and ended up qualifying Rio as host city to the Earth Summit '92. And while in the Floresta check out the Taunay house (the first house of Tijuca), Dona Marta lookout, Cascatinha (little cascade), and the Mayrink chapel.

Next go to the Morro do Corcovado, where the Christ, the most famous postcard of Rio, awaits you with open arms. The hill is 709 meters (2325 feet) above sea level and it has the most breathtaking view of the Guanabara bay, the bridge connecting the cities of Rio and Niteroi, the beaches, and the world's largest sports stadium, the Maracana. Take your time there to appreciate Rio's beauty.

Another place to admire Rio from the top is the Pão de Acucar (Sugarloaf), at the Urca district. The cable car will take you up there, stopping first at the Morro da Urca, where one of the most famous Carnaval balls takes place.

At the Jardim Botanico you can take a relaxing walk on the paths lined with centennial palm trees while you appreciate its eight thousand species of plants. If relaxing is what you want to do, the beaches also offer a delicious option. Strolling close to the warm Atlantic waters and stepping on the fine sand you will a first hand account of how the Carioca plays. At the south part of the city you have a display of many of the most beautiful beaches of the world.

Start at Flamengo beach, and go one by one to Botafogo, Urca, Vermelha, Leme, Copacabana - arguably the world's most famous beach -Arpoador, Ipanema, Leblon, São Conrado, Pepino, Tijuca, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Prainha, and Grumari. Is not enough? Take then an house boat trip to Ilha de Paqueta, and that should do it.

If intellectual challenge is what you are looking for, Rio won't let you down either. You might start by visiting the National Historical Museum which

shows evidence of Rio's history since its discovery in January 1, 1502. The National Museum which was the residence of Emperor D. Pedro II in the 19th Century, and is located at the Quinta da Boa Vista, is a source of inspiration besides being a historical monument. Don't miss the National Museum of Fine Arts, and the Republic Museum at the Palacio do Catete. Other historical buildings deserving special attention are the Aqueduto da Carioca, Rui Barbosa house, and the Palacio do Itamarati.

To socialize and enjoy a little more of Rio's history, recent history that is, go to the Bar Garota de Ipanema, named after the song because that is where Vinicius de Moraes and Antonio Carlos Jobin composed it. The bar is located at the corner of Rua Vinicius de Moraes and Rua Prudente de Moraes, in the Ipanema district, and if this bar is too crowded to get in, as it frequently happens, there are many others in the area that are as good. And at this time you should be able to see the famous Banda de Ipanema, a group of men that dress up as women - some drag queens, some note - and go out in the streets of Rio singing and dancing, celebrating Carnaval.

When the hunger hits you, a good feijoada at the Casa da Feijoada with a caipirinha (Brazilian margarita) should do the job and it should also bring up your energy level so you can enjoy a night of folia at many of the Carnaval balls that take place at this time. The best bets, if you can afford the steep prices, are the Red and Black ball at the Flamengo Club - headquarters of Rio's favorite soccer team - the Pão de Acucar ball, and the ball at the Canecão Club and at the Palace Hotel.

On Sunday night, February 13, at the Sambodromo, the most extravagant, rich, noisy, colorful, outrageous open air performance takes place: the Carnaval parade. The powerful drum beats will mark the climax of your trip, and it will take you through the most unforgettable night of your life, filled with colors, rhythms, happiness, and energy. You will wish you would never have to leave this place, and will wonder if Heaven is match for this party.

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Author: Mello, Rodney Article Title: RECADO Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.99 Publication Date: 03-31-94 Page: p. 5

Recado.

Things will never be as before. Politicians in Brazil struck a big victory for their own image and trust-worthiness. This time there were neither youngsters with painted faces in the streets nor slogans such as Direct Elections Now! to push the movement forward. But, at the end, Congress was doing the unthinkable some months ago: cutting its own skin and punishing its own members accused of corruption. And everything was done swiftly and serenely, while the military - unlike in the past - stayed well-behaved on the sidelines.

After three months of investigation by the Parliamentary Investigative Committee, 18 House Representatives were incriminated, 11 were let go for lack of evidence, and 14 others are still being actively investigated. For those found guilty this seems to be just the beginning. They should expect criminal trials, fines, seizure of property and even jail in the months ahead. What happened to the Brazil of impunity we were resigned to?

While the house is getting a big clean-up, however, some Brazilians are cleaning up their checking accounts in Brazil and sending the money to foreign lands. In the last 15 yeas alone, Brazilian firms and individuals have discreetly stashed more than $60 billion overseas. One third of this money is here in the U.S.. Just in the last three years, $3 billion from Brazil have helped Miami go through a booming real estate market while the rest of the country was languishing.

Ate a proxima.

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Author: Ravelo, Carlos Article Title: COVER: Soul bath Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.99 Publication Date: 03-31-94 Page: p. 7

COVER: Soul bath.

Three months and four days after Brazil jumped into a political "black hole" in which nobody knew where it would lead nor in what shape the government or country was going to come out of the undertaking, democracy has taken a turn for the best... or so it seems! And the President of the PT (Worker's Party). Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva seems horizon every passing day, since his party has emerged squeaky clean from the investigations leveled by Brazil's Parliamentary Investigative Committee or CPI, as it's abbreviated in Portuguese.

Five volumes containing 558 pages were deposited in the Brazilian Senate. The procedures were aired to a national TV viewing audience as Deputy (Congressman) Robert Magalhaes (PFL - Pernambuco), told the no-longer-shocked Brazilian people the results of what the long-awaited investigation had revealed. Of the 43 persons who were initially investigated, 18 would be charged, 14 were still being actively investigated by the Attorney General or the Federal Police, and 11 were to be let go for lack of sufficient evidence of wrongdoing.

The first steps that led to an unheard of cooperation between Brazil's major political parties in the legislature, was an obscure event that took place in a remote side road located some 60 kilometers (37 miles) from the capital city of Brasilia. On the night of November 22nd of 1992, Jose Carlos Alves dos Santos, an economist and university professor, and ex-advisor for the Federal Budget Committee has allegedly killed and buried his wife, with the assistance of two other men. Arrested later with 30,000 counterfeit dollars out of more than $3 million which he had hidden in his home, he told the story of where all that money had come from: kickbacks obtained from Deputy João Alves (Bahia state), the "rainmaker" in the Congressional Budget Committee.

After spilling out name after name, the CPI overrode bank secrecy rules, indicting 133 corporations and entities, and 219 individuals. Within a three month period, depositions were taken; 69 persons, including 34 congressmen, 5 senators and 3 state governors were heard in public hearings. After their investigations, 11 persons were cleared. But aside from those who were indicted, there is a second group for which round two will determine where they will ultimately stand. And furthermore, ongoing investigations continue as new names and indictments keep up on rolling.

For the 18 individuals indicted so far, this is only a foretaste of things to come. Many will be standing trial and their properties and bank accounts could be seized at the end. The Attorney General's office has already been taking the necessary steps to file cases in the Criminal and Civil jurisdictions. In the case of the legislators, upon confirmation by the Federal Supreme Court (STF), no exemption would be required by Congress to take them to court.

A special task-force consisting of six special prosecutors was assigned by

Attorney General Aristides Junqueira, who will deal with the 18 legislators, three governors, 14 other suspected legislators and numerous other firms and banks. Also, those initially not indicted will be under continued examination. Confiscation of property will be a priority, since illicit enrichment with Moines from public coffers is obvious, and in some cases outright blatant, as is the case of legislator Jose Carlos Aleluia.

One of the most notorious characters within Brazil's scandal is Deputy João Alves, who represents the State of Bahia, but not under a party banner. Of slight build and quick response, Alves states: "If they were to check the bank accounts of each member of the CPI, they would need to hire more people to be able to impeach me."

No wonder they call him "o anão que ruge" ("the midget that roars"). "I am not going to commit suicide" he indicates emphatically, now. This, since many have chronicled his prior menace of taking his own life in case he is ultimately impeached. Calm and collected, Alves shared his impressions with journalist Luiz Alberto Weber for the Brazilian weekly magazine Isto E.

Adds Alves: "I'm a living computer file. I have a fiery power to retaliate for any accusation." At 74, Alves apparently feels that he is a card to be reckoned with. He is accused, among other things, of having purchased winning Brazilian lottery tickets, hundreds of times.

He indicates that he actually did win all those times, and says he was just "lucky" and that "God helped me." The lottery connection scheme was apparently carried out to launder dirty kickback money.

"I'm going to fight!", he adds. "The CPI's greatest mistake will be to try and impeach João Alves." His words seem to read like a death sentence.

Jose Carlos Alves dos Santos, the fuse that set off the "Budget Mafia" affair, and ex-advisor to the Budget Committee is sitting now in a prison cell. According to him, just before the committee was supposed to render its results he was approached by a middle-man and was offered one million dollars... if he would deny all previous incriminating confessions.

The money, according to his statements to Isto E. was fronted by João Alves. Apparently, one of João Alves' attorneys approached Jose Grossi, Jose Carlos Alves' attorney, and made the offer if he withdrew his previous testimony before the commission. "I returned the money that he had given to me before (this), why would I want any more? "The implications are obvious.

Jose Carlos also denies having anything to do with the death of his wife Beth, another crime for which he is charged, as well as promoting prostitution and money laundering. He has lately speculated that his wife's death could be related to his confession and implication of members of the Budget Committee. João Alves, however, is tight-lipped.

After having taken a giant step in choosing to indict more than two dozen legislators and governors, the CPI has earned a tremendous amount of prestige and respectability. It had taken a bold step when it impeached Collor de Mello months back, but now it has taken a brisk step and shifted it into a full-fledged sprint against itself.

The arduous tasks that it covered and the swiftness with which it rendered its opinion, have left many political observers, both in and outside of Brazil,

surprised. The results have surpassed any and all initial expectations. It moved quicker and dug deeper than most people thought they would. Furthermore, the CPI's success has in turn become Brazil's accomplishment as well. And although this Congress cannot even begin to seem as a perfect example of Democracy, it has nevertheless grown immensely during the last few weeks.

One of the issues that surfaced during the CPI's debates and investigations was the need to make constitutional amendments, and reform Brazil's political structure.

COLLOR PACKS HIS BAGS-Ex-president Collor de Mello is also in the process of fighting a criminal case as a result of allegations of corruption for which he was impeached. In fact, his attorney, Evaristo Moraes, Jr., saw an opportunity in the CPI's investigations. Litigating Collor de Mello's criminal case in front of Brazil's Federal Supreme Court, he has been trying to convince the Fernando Collor that the results do not in any way help him.

Collor de Mello apparently is under the impression that he can argue that the legislature that impeached him did not have the moral standing to do so, since it was integrated by "assailants and bandits." Evaristo, however, seems to think that the Supreme Court might just as well make the opposite ruling: that Congress has been more than noble, since it did not hesitate to cut "its own flesh" to punish its own, just as it had punished other corrupt ones.

As things are going, he might be very right. In any case, the former president apparently is not worried for the moment. He and his wife Rosane have decided to explore the better things in life. And recently they decided to do some world tourism including Cuba in their itinerary.

The CPI is on a high roll. However, no one at this time dares to take a guess as to what will happen in weeks to come. One thing is certain, however, and that is that Brazil, the sleeping giant, is finally starting to awaken from its deep sleep. The average Carioca, Paulistano, Gaucho and Sertanejo - and the world - are looking in awe. But whatever happens from now on, for better or for worse, it will be in a different Brazil than it was four months ago, a new Brazil.

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Article Title: Stashing out Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.99 Publication Date: 03-31-94 Page: p. 8

Stashing out.

What do Uruguay, Switzerland, Miami, the Cayman and the British Virgin Islands have in common? Brazilian money, of course! In Brasilia, the recent Parliamentary Inquiry Committee (CPI) on the Budget has uncovered a scandal that has opened a Pandora's box funfathomable proportions in which billions, yes, billions of dollars have been funneled into safely guarded foreign bank accounts, which are the final stop for "dirty" or "launched" money originating form many sources.

Brazilian firms and individuals have discreetly stashed more than $60 billion overseas during the last 15 years alone. In fact, each and every year more than $4 billion are lost by the government through purchase and sales transactions which are carried out overseas, mostly involving foreign currency. Much of this money originates from trafficking in drugs or weapons, from bicheiro (number runner) operations within the favelas (slums) of Brazil's larger urban centers, and from corruption or skimming of funds from political campaign coffers.

Another portion comes form legitimate business deals, twisted into profitable little side schemes, which border on the very fringes of illegality. Federal sources in Brasilia calculate that close to 35% of the more than $8.5 billion deposited in Uruguay's banks belongs to Brazilians. Billions of cruzeiros are "legally" tendered in the parallel market and transferred out, eventually winding up in such far away places as Tortola (British Virgin Islands) Grand Cayman, Panama, Liechtenstein, and Switzerland, or invested into some of the 150,000 condo apartments or homes owned by Brazilians, in greater Miami.

According to U.S. officials, in the United States alone, Brazilians have deposited over $20 billion. Recent reports also indicate that just within the last three years, an average of $3 billion from Brazilian sources has found its way into South Florida's booming housing investment market.

TALK NO EVIL... Taking quick advantage and control of the situation originated by the Budget Committees' investigations into the P.C. Farias scandal, the Federal government has used the on-going process as a means to uncover all sorts of illegal operations involving foreign currency transactions. Due to the extreme secrecy under which most mega-dollar transactions take place, and also in part due to the reluctant-and at times arrogant - attitude exhibited by many foreign and local banking institutions, the government has ultimately become the eventual beneficiary from the scores of on-going investigations.

Let's take a look into some of these schemes. For example, in just one investigation executed under a so-called CC-5 Account from Brazilian Central Bank, an illegal transaction which totaled more than $200 million was unexpectedly discovered because the client-bank secrecy clause was breached, in spite of the bank's refusal to do that. Recently, 14 foreign firms - nine of them headquartered in "fiscal paradises" - were under such an investigation. They fell into the net only after the P.C. Farias affair came

out into the open. Furthermore, more than 500 other separate investigations have been conducted so far, most of them directly due to the P.C. Farias scandals fallout.

Laundering money can be, quite succinctly put, a clean and simple transaction. Nowadays the classical mala-verde (green suitcase) approach is passe. Quite simply put, bringing in a suitcase full of cold-cash into the U.S. is not "cool" anymore. Modems, faxes and fast computers are the new style. In act, according to the U.S. Treasury Department, about $1 trillion are "turbo-washed" each and every year, worldwide. Half of said amount is drug money.

In 1989, one of the Medellin Cartel's biggest operations in the U.S. was dismantled. Through a highly sophisticated scheme, the Cartel would launder drug profits through several jewelry outlets located in Los Angeles, Houston and New York. The "source" money would be smuggled into the U.S. or transferred there through foreign banks, operating under tight secrecy laws. Fake gold bars were dispatched to cover up the laundering operation, and "profits" from the "sale" of "jewelry" were deposited at banks in New York, later wired to Panamanian banks, and from there into Swiss banks accounts. Subsequently, the money would return to Cartel sources in Colombia through that country's bank system, where part of it would be reinvested into the drug business again. The rest would be used for the purchase of real estate properties in the U.S.

In the past, finding financial safe-havens was difficult for many would-be tax evaders. The Bible of fiscal loopholes, however, was published in 1988 by a Brazilian attorney and broker, Durval de Noronha - Goyos, Jr.. this attorney was the one who - according to his peers - helped P.C. Farias to stash his millions overseas.

The book titled Paraisos Fiscais, Planejamento Tributario Internacional (Tax Safe-Havens, International Taxation Planning), Lists more than 55 tax "safe-havens", and details the inner workings of tax and partnership dealings in the Dutch Antilles, England, Gibraltar, Isle of Man, Cayman Islands, Virgin Islands, Panama, Uruguay, Hong Kong and Luxembourg, among others.

Brazilians tend to favor those which fall under the British Common Law system. The concept of "Trust", previously restricted solely to Britons, is now used to protect the patrimony of whoever requests it. Each country tends to emphasize certain types of transactions over others. Individual transactions are favorable in Andorra, Ireland, and Monaco. There, they benefit from low tax rates and secrecy laws. Partnerships and business firms, however, seem to thrive better in Panama, Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands and Uruguay.

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Author: Rossi, Anamaria Article Title: INTERVIEW: Not on easy street Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.99 Publication Date: 03-31-94 Page: p. 13

INTERVIEW: Not on easy street.

In a little more than four years, the Brazilian Culture Ministry has had five overseers. In a country in crisis, culture hasn't been spared the budgetary ax. And the cuts here have been deeper and more painful than in most of the other sectors. In 1994, Roberto do Nascimento e Silva, 41, the recently installed Minister of Culture, will have a mere 0.015% from the Union's general budget to work with. Not only he is not screaming foul, he even believe that he can work with these crumbs.

The Carioca (native of Rio) lawyer succeeds Ambassador Jeronimo Moscardo, who left the Ministry after a confrontation with Finance Super- Minister Fernando Henrique Cardoso over what he was as a serious money shortage. Nascimento e Silva insists that he will be going by Cardoso's book concerning the taming of public expenditure. "I have no political ambition," insists the man who has been legal consultant for the National Council of Cinema, Embrafilme, and Rio's Municipal Theater. Despite his technical training he has authored three poetry books: Arco da Manha (Morning Arch), Aguas Emendadas (Patched Water), and O Segredo da Lua Quem Sabe E o Clarão do Sol (The Moon's Secret Who Knows Is the Sun's Glaring).

Even if the new Minister stays till the end of Itamar Franco's administration, that will be a short stay of one year. In an interview with Correio Braziliense, he talked about all this plans for this period, including a campaign to make theater more popular and the implementation of the Audiovisual Law.

Your predecessor, Jeronimo Moscardo, indisposed himself with the economic team from the Federal Government by insisting on a substantial increase of resources for the Ministry of Culture. Do you intend to continue his campaign for a 6% slice of the budget?

I don't agree with my predecessor. This proposal is unworkable within the Brazilian reality nowadays. The Armed Forces receive something around 1.23% of the budget. We need to work with the resources we have, as scarce as they are. Every administrator likes to have as many resources as he can, but at this moment the Ministry of Culture cannot afford not to be in compliance with the global program of the president and Minister Fernando Henrique's stabilization plan. We are going to work within the limits imposed by the reduction of the public deficit.

That means that you are going to work with 0.015% of the budget?

Exactly. With the help of extra-budget resources coming from the Rouanet Law and the Audiovisual Law. In terms of investment this means an increase of 4 to 5% when compared to the previous year.

What's going to be done in the area of motion pictures?

We will maintain all the rules for production that are in force. The process of getting financing will be simplified. It's unacceptable to reserve one day just so that all the filmmakers and producers can present their projects in a particular place. That scene with 350 producers standing in line presenting their projects is sad and unnecessary. We will maintain the Special Commission on Cinema, which will be responsible for choosing the projects. This is the time to rescue our national cinema.

There are about 140 projects for feature films right now, but only 17 of them can be financed. Whatever the commission decided, almost 90% of those who have signed up will be very upset. This is inevitable. The demand for resources is much bigger than what the Ministry of Culture can provide right now. It is important for us to enact the Audio visual Law in a way that those not selected can have an alternative choice for their production.

Can the Ministry of Culture guarantee that the law is observed?

Yes. Concerning the remittance made by foreign producers, most of the majors are very honest. The biggest problem is with the small companies and in the video area, where there's a multiplicity of small producers without the seriousness the bigger firms have.

Many Paulista (from São Paulo) filmmakers didn't like the selection of Miguel Faria Jr. for the Audiovisual Department, stressing that his presence would mean a strengthening of a group of producers connected to the late Embrafilme. How do you see this antagonism?

People got less ruffled than I thought they would. I'm convinced that any choice would bring discontent. I can even say that if we were able to have one person with the qualities of Glauber Rocha, Joaquim Pedro de Andrade and Leon Hirzman, the industry as a whole still wouldn't be happy. The process of dismantling the old cultural structure has been especially rigorous and dramatic for the cinema. On the other hand, the cinema in these latest year has been characterized by the politicization of its actions.

I believe that the motion picture people should start a new phase with more administrative than political actions. The cinema is an audiovisual industry. A production company cannot afford the luxury of losing its investment. And, although some sectors of the industry still think that resources are endless, that the state can finance everything, expecting nothing in return, this notion is not possible anymore. Filmmakers will have to follow a rule in which there is a minimum return established.

The Rouanet law created to help the producers obtain financing from the private sector hasn't been working. Since the filmmakers who receive the green light from the government to receive money find the private sector doors always closed. Do you intend to start a campaign to encourage business people to invest in culture?

The Rouanet law was up to a certain degree a police measure and has scared the businesspeople. And little has been done until now to simplify it. I took over at the moment in which the National Congress is undergoing a period of drastic self-analysis and it is unrealistic to hope for a new law of fiscal incentives right now. I have to work with the laws that I have at my disposal.

Last year only 20% of the approved projects were able to get financing. This

is dramatic. Then in the middle of the year there's a new project that arrives at the Ministry and it is decided that the fiscal subsidy was totally used. We are using here a hypothetical credit. I want that the subsidy be considered given only after the project has really received its money.

It's necessary to reassure the private sector with regard to the penalizing aspects of the law that ate scaring it, and to provide a technical explanation for the businesspeople. It is a fiscal law whose finer points are little understood. Our idea is to put together a small leaflet of three or four pages that would talk about the advantages of the law and the ways it can be used.

The Brazilian cultural patrimony is facing a series of problems. What can be done?

It's important that we again value the work of the professionals involved with culture. With the dismantling of the public sector, especially in the cultural area, these professionals have suffered a lot. As for the patrimony, we intend to attack on three fronts: Missoes in Rio Grande do Sul; the Quinta da Boa Vista Museum in Rio de Janeiro, and the project of restoration of the MEC Palace in Rio.

What is the announced Campaign for Popularizing the Theater?

When we had the Fundacem, a campaign was created to sell cheaper tickets during the low season. The tickets were sold out of mini-vans.

This campaign still exists in São Paulo.

We intend to extend it to the rest of the country and do it every two or three months and not only in December. Every region will have its peculiarities respected. Another side of the campaign will deal with taking the plays from the Rio-São Paulo axis and other capitals and taking them on the road to the interior. Our idea is to fund these excursions through contracts with transportation companies and state and municipal cultural departments.

Let's depart a little from technical questions and go on to some political ones...

These are the most dangerous ones, especially for Mineiros (native from Minas Gerais state). I am Carioca but all my family is from Minas.

Your predecessor had serious problems with Minister Fernando Henrique Cardoso. What's your relationship with the economic team of the government?

It's quite good. I have a great admiration for Fernando Henrique and I maintain a personal relationship with some members of his team. I think he is a man of culture. It's been said that he is interested in getting rid of the Ministry of Culture but this is not true. He's a man who has always lived in the world of culture. I believe that we will have a very good relationship. It's obvious that the Ministry will have to cooperate with the global effort that he is making in order to balance the public books. He's been adopting hard measures that cannot be agreeable.

You don't belong to any party. Can you get some backing from Congress anyway?

I'm a technician, an active lawyer in the fiscal area. I have worked for

along time in the cultural area with cinema and theater. I am also a writer with three poetry books published, but I see myself mainly as a technician. I have no calling for the political life. My work in the Ministry of Culture is a mission entrusted to me by the President which I will not evade. When my time here ends I will be back at my attorney's office.

The three ministers that preceded you at the Ministry of Culture were all diplomats. You see your selection by the President as a sign that he wants to change the way culture is treated in Brazil?

Only the President himself would be able to give a precise answer. When I talk about my technical training, I am not denying that my work has a political dimension. And I am exercising it. But my emphasis is on the technical approach. The cultural question has always been addressed in a very emotional way. The cultural process has been extremely politicized. The artists don't need anybody to treat them in an emotional way. They are already pure emotion. What they need is somebody who can create some order in the house.

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Author: Espinoza, Rodolfo Article Title: Salvation Army Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.99 Publication Date: 03-31-94 Page: p. 15

Salvation Army.

Roquete Pinto used to be just like any other of Rio's favelas (slums) or morros (hills) with a profile of insecurity and crime, and a complete lack of such basic services as running water and sewers. This anonimity, however, has crumbled after a sudden blitz executed by a combined task-force composed of Federal, Civil and Military police officers, Result? Twenty eight suspected drug dealers arrested, one person dead and eight others wounded.

Turf wars within Rio's favelas have been very common. Nevertheless, this time the drug traffickers and bicheiros apparently crossed the line one time too many. A shootout between rival gangs - a day-to-day affair inside a typical favela - left one soldier wounded. He belonged to the Army's 24th Mechanized Infantry Bttalion.

This was all that the government needed to mount one of the most impressive anti-narcotics operations ever executed in the State of Rio de Janeiro. The physical occupation of this favela - which continues to this day - has become sort of a pilot program which may soon start reaching into other favelas and morros in Rio.

"Roquete Pinto favela has become a training school for soldiers of the armed forces," explains Colonel Paulo Cesar Costa de Oliveira, of Rio's Military Police. Costa de Oliveira has been assigned to coordinate logistics between the State Police and the Armed Forces. In fact, he is already laying down the groundwork to continue on the offensive.

The favelas of Vigario Geral (siteof a recent massacre), and Parada de Lucas, are next on his "hit list". So far the results have been impressive. Drug kingpins and their underlings have been taken away, the neighborhood mapped out, and all local dwellers have been accounted for. However, best measure of success has probably been the level of trust and security that the military has instilled into the local folks.

"The whole environment has changed," says 19 year-old Denilson de Melo, who represents a committee of local residents. The previous president for the association had been arrested just a few days prior, under suspicion of assisting local drug traffickers. "Now, during warm evening, I am able to sleep outside on the roof. Before, it was always coveted by the fogueteiros," he adds. The fogueteiros are local juveniles who are paid as watchmen by the drug cartels, who use foguetes (fireworks) to warn the pushers of the arrival of shipments of contraband or of imminent police raids. Pinto claims that the community as a whole is supporting the course of action taken by the government forces.

DRACONIAN MEASURES - One of the first steps taken by the Federal Police has been to map out each and every home, street and alley in the favela, and numbers have been assigned to all. Immediately thereafter, a census was put into effect, which identified each and every dweller.

The sudden change in policy has been brought upon through a constitutional prerogative which allows the Federal Police to take full control of narcotics suppression tasks from the State Police.

Since then, incursions into the favelas have become an almost daily event. Undercover agents infiltrated into the favela serve as a source of otherwise unobtainable information. Children, adults and even the elderly, who seemed to fear the worst at first, have nothing but praise for the soldiers.

"Now we are able to go out into the streets at any time," says Severina Santos, a resident, "Without any fear that something bad will happen to us". The "bed things" that used to happen to some of the locals varied from crimes perpetrated against them by the drug lords, to arbitrary abuses carried out by corrupt police officers belonging to the 16th Military Police Battalion, previously in charge of patrolling the favela.

In fact, the support given to the soldiers by local residents is due to the fact that they finally put an end to the very same abuses effected by the State Police Forces. Even the children have noticed these changes.

"The cops were always beating up people without any reason," said an eight-year-old child. "And they were always calling us avioes (drug pushers - literally airplanes). On one occasion, they even stole my bike."

Raising local support even further, the Army has also provided free community health services. Moreover, the local health center has also become their man headquarters. "I hope they never ever leave here again," prays Santos.

SHIFTING GEARS - Rio's meteoric rise in crime, particularly after the military police's Vigario Geral massacre, Consolidated a remarkable left-right political consensus which resulted in a proposal to surrender policing within Rio State into the hands of the military.

The idea has received the support of Rio Governor Leonel Brizola, Rio Mayor Cesar Maia, and of Herbert de Souza Betinho, an internationally known Brazilian sociologist, and the moral force behind Brazil's anti-hunger campaign.

This appeal for help did not, however, catch the military high command by surprise. As early as 1989, in a document titled "National Power Structure for the Year 2000", the military had already forseen this type of situation.

The document indicated that "by the beginning of the coming century, a contingent of wrongdoers, criminals and anti-social elements will overcome State Police efforts, who will then turn towards the armed forces so that they can thus take charge of the heavy responsibility of confronting this horde of bandits. These will have to be neutralized and destroyed so that law and order can prevail."

Refusing to wait until the year 2,000, the military's top began drafting proper preventive measures by mid-1992. The plan entailed a blitzkrieg-like invasion of Rio de Janeiro's favelas. This jewel of a plan, according to Police, was dubbed Operacão Diamante (Operation Diamond)

The project had also a test-run. Very secretive commando-type exercises were carried out co-jointly with Rio State military police officers. However, the

possibility of implementing this project in the short term was always rejected by Rio Military Police. In spite of this, last October it was abrupty put into practice. And from Roquete Pinto, it is ready to be extended into most other favelas in Rio.

The area most mentioned is Morro do Borel, but the State Military Police seems to prefer that they move into Vigario Geral or Parada de Lucas favelas first. This controversial strategy has struck home with many, particularly within the police forces.

But to common folks within the favela, uninterested in politics or military strategy, the change has been a good one. Soccer courts previously abandoned to criminals and drug pushers are now being actively used and uplifted with the joyous spirit of children at play. Instead of striking fear, these troops even have fans in the fevela. One of them, 16 year old Maria Ribeiro says: "They're all darlings"

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Author: Espinoza, Rodolfo Article Title: ECONOMY: Paper tiger Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.99 Publication Date: 03-31-94 Page: p. 17

ECONOMY: Paper tiger.

Recent revelations given in Rio de Janeiro by several law enforcement and judicial authorities have given way to a new thesis that the so-called Commando Vermelho (Red Commando) is neither as powerful as alleged, nor are they the sole controllers of the narcotics networks that control Rio's drug markets. Rather, "the Vermelhos just serve as an umbrella which protects the true drug and weapons smugglers", says the Secretary for Rio's Civil Police, Nilo Batista.

He adds: "the populace has been duped into thinking that the heavy-weight drug-lords are favela-dwellers who live surrounded by cockroaches". Meanwhile, Edson Oliveira who is Superintendent of the Policia Federal (Federal Police) as well as head of Interpol in Brazil, indicates that the press has misguided the public, when it continually keeps on characterize the C.V. as a "powerful criminal organization".

"The press, for pure sensationalist purposes, has (indirectly) prompted many of these criminals to adopt Comando Vermelho's initials (C.V.)", adds Oliveira. That type of sensationalism has, according to Oliveira, produced certain negative effects.

For example, many criminals "micro-groups" have been formed in the favelas, carried out kidnappings, and used Comando Vermelho's name for that. Once piece of recurring evidence that tends to sustain this, according too Raphael Cesario, a Criminal Prosecutor, is that criminals from the favelas who have been caught, hardly ever have been caught with any substantial amount of drugs.

Oliveira indicates that a prime example is the the Banqueiro Cartel centered in Rio, which controls all jogo do bicho (numbers games) nation-wide. Exempting São Paulo, everything else is controlled straight from Rio. According to Cesario, the bicheiros opted to move into the drug market during the late 70's, as a way to diversify their portfolios. The reason? The banqueiros had been fearing that their income would plummet with the advent of the Loteria Esportiva, the sports lottery.

The banqueiro-bicheiro connection was first revealed in 1987, after the death of drug-lord Toninho Turco, killed inside his "bunker" by the Federal Police during a shoot-out. According to Cesario, several notepads found inside his hide-away bore the names of several banqueiros.

Among the names there famous bicheiros as Castor de Andrade and Waldomiro "Miro" Garcia. Some of were arrested in 1993 for racketeering, murder and weapons charges, and are currently undergoing criminal procedures in Rio's 14th Criminal Court Department. Furthermore, states Cesario, the internal wars that frequently erupt in the favelas are "promoted and planned" by the banqueiros, as a means to sell weapons amongst the opposing gangs, and to keep them fragmented as a way to have absolute control in the morros (hills).

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Author: Nascimento, Elma Lia Article Title: ECOLOGY: The sky is falling Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.99 Publication Date: 03-31-94 Page: p. 19

ECOLOGY: The sky is falling.

It was at the end of the 50s while observing the atmosphere in the Antarctic that some British scientists noticed for the first time gaps in the layer of ozone. The notion that the protective layer had developed real holes (the ozone hole term would be introduced in 1985) over the austral continent came more recently, in 1989. The phenomenon occurs only in spring, reaching its peak in October. In 1984, the hole had stretched to the south of Argentina and Chile, and three years later it was also noticed in Australia.

Now Brazil can also be added to the list of nations affected by the disappearance of the ozone. In Santa Maria, state of Rio Grande do Sul, a city situated 181 miles north of Porto Alegre (the state's capital), the ozone concentration had fallen by 9% in October, 1992. The drop had increased to 19.5% last October. The alarming discovery was made by scientists from NEPAE (Nucleo de Estudos e Pesquisas Aeroespaciais - Center of Aerospace Studies and Research), an institution from Universidade Federal de Santa Maria.

Doctors and scientists are worried that this reduction of ozone will cause a much bigger incidence of skin cancer and maybe also grave sunburns and genetic mutation. Although a poisonous gas when breathed, ozone in the upper atmosphere serves as a shield against the harmful ultraviolet sun rays.

After a study conducted in 1991, the United Nations concluded that a global reduction of ozone in the planet would increase by 26% the incidence of skin cancer cases. More than 12,000 people die every year in the United States from skin cancer. Another 12 million all over the world are affected yearly by cataracts, a condition whose main cause is the ultraviolet rays. The Meteorology World Organization estimates that the UV radiaton increases by 1.3% to 1.8% for every 1% of reduction of the ozone layer.

In a recent interview with weekly magazine Isto E. Nelson Schuch, the 45 year-old astrophysicist who is the coordinator for the Santa Maria monitoring station, said, "The Brazilian data prove that the decline of the ozone layer is a world phenomenon and not confined to the Antarctic region." And he added, "There's no doubt that this decrease in ozone will happen again in October '94."

"In warm countries such as Brazil, the ozone layer is already thinner," states Volker Kirchhoff, the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (National Institute for Space Research), INPE, vice-director. "Any decrease, small as it is, causes a significant increase in the intensity of ultraviolet radiation. We don't have previous records of such a sharp fall of ozone in an area so far from the South Pole as Rio Grande do Sul. The INPE is located in São Jose dos Campos, interior of São Paulo, but its scientists are responsible for the monitoring of the ozone indexes throughout the country and even in Punta Arenas, south of Chile. Cachoeiro Paulista (São Paulo), Cuiaba (Mato Grosso), Natal (Rio Grande do Norte), and Rio Branco (Acre) are some of the cities that have ozone monitoring stations.

"Before we used to say that to get a good tan you had to leave São Paulo and go to the beach. No more. The city sun burns strongly," says Luiz Carlos Cuce, 57, professor of Dermatology at Universidade de São Paulo, Cuce has concluded that there has been a bigger incidence of skin cancer in recent years. "The reduction of the ozone layer is already affecting polluted cities like São Paulo and Rio," he concludes.

In 1985 the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gas was identified as the main villain of the deozonization of the skies. The production of CFC - used in aerosols, air conditioning devices and refrigerators - had jumped from 50,000 metric tons in 1950 to 700,000 in 1985. This led to the signing of the Montreal protocol, in 1987, banning the use of CFC starting in 1996. But some scientists, like Nobel winner American chemist Derek Barton, doubts that CFC is so dangerous. Attacking some environmentalists for what they call "environmental catastrophic propaganda", these researchers believe that volcanoes and forest fires should be considered the main culprits of the ozone layer deterioration.

Between June and November of last year, the INPE registered 347,763 points of fire, all over Brazil, through the eyes of the satellites. This number is only 1.4% smaller than the total for 1992. As is previous years, the use of fire to clean the forest started in the southeast and in the south, spreading in October and November to the north of the country. The satellite images are converted into list of geographic coordinates that are passed daily to the Prevfogo (Fire Prevention) system, an organ of IBAMA (Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources). Without any money to act, the Prevfogo people limit themselves to watch from Brasilia while the fire consumes our forests.

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Author: Robbins, Harriet Article Title: And her ship sails on Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.99 Publication Date: 03-31-94 Page: p. 25

And her ship sails on.

Actress, dubber and translator, this Brazilian artist, now working in the U.S., is devoted to her craft. Laura Lustosa's voice can be heard daily, announcing the movies presented by TNT (Turner Network Television) Latin America. On an MGM oldies collection and the more recent, high-quality TNT original productions, she is the Brazilian voice for Lana Turner, Sally Field, Myrna Loy, June Allyson, Jane Alexander, Julie Harris, Vivien Leigh, Gena Rowlands and many others.

Laura's passion for her acting career has her devoting as much time as she can spare to stage work and studies of her craft. In Los Angeles, Laura has appeared in the play 1789, The French Revolution by Ariane Mnouchkine, and with her troupe Le Theatre du Soleil, The Trojan Women. She has also performed in plays at the 5th and 6th USC Playwrights Festival, and has worked as well in student and industrial films.

Laura Lustosa's professional name does not reflect her origins. She is the granddaughter of Brazilian João Guimaraes Rosa, considered to be one of the greatest writers in any language. His books have been translated all over the world and have been published in the United States by Alfred A. Knopf. Her original name, Laura Guimaraes Rosa, reflects a literary bent.

She said, "I'm named after Petrarch's Laura and Dante's Beatrice; as a child I complained about my name but my mother (Vilma Guimaraes Rosa, award winning writer of short stories and books) would explain that I was named after two of the most beloved muses of world literature. Still despite my literary heritage, I wanted to be an actress."

Her theater debut was in Brazil in the play Kiss on the Asphalt, by Brazilian playwright Nelson Rodrigues. How she got the role was pure luck. The production was already in rehearsal and they needed a replacement for the main female role just at the time she auditioned. Laura got the part. Good reviews helped her land more plays by renowned Brazilian playwrights: The Saint and the Sow by Ariano Suassuna, The Bloody Pig by Consuelo de Castro, and many world classics including Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream and Beckett's Waiting for Godot. These productions garnered her two best actress awards. She also directed Euripides Electra. She was making a name for herself in Brazil.

Born and raised in Rio de Janeiro, her first marriage took her to other places in Brazil such as Bahia, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and finally Espirito Santo, a state rich in natural beauty and home of many talented Brazilians, among them, singer/songwriter Roberto Carlos and writer Rubem Braga. There she continued her acting career, received her B.A. in history and met an American Brazilianist of Guatemalan and French Canadian roots, Roberto Ibarguen, who was her history professor at the University of Espirito Santo. He would become the love of her life and her second husband. Both have settled in Log Angeles where she is pursuing her career and he his in the

field of administration.

Laura is now preparing for the play Autobiography of a Star, a tongue-in-cheek, affectionate exploration of Hollywood's female archetypes, by Brazilian screenwriter Marcelo Floriano. At the same time she is doing live commentary and simultaneous translations of shows such as the Golden Globe Awards such as the Golden Globe Awards, Grammy's Emmy's and American Music Awards, as part of her work for TNT.

When renowned Brazilian film director Nelson Pereira dos Santos wrote the screenplay for The Third Bank of the river he based it on five short stories from Laura's grandfather's book of the same name. She loved the screenplay and was amazed at how beautifully Nelson managed to interweave the stories, turning them into one seamless narrative, a true epic of the Brazilian soul.

"Most important," she said, "he was able to leave intact and vivid their poetic texture and their characters' colors." When offered the opportunity to work with the father of Brazilian Cinema Novo, she was thrilled. "I had always dreamed of being in a film by Nelson," she confessed. "As a teenager I had been delighted by How Tasty Was My Little Frenchman, his Barren Lives had made me cry and his Memories of Prison was a master-piece. It was the last movie I watched before moving to the United States."

To make her movie debut under the aegis of such cultural giants, Nelson and her own grandfather, was a miracle indeed. The events that followed took a marvelous turn. When Laura went to join the company in production in Brasilia she not only acted in the film but Nelson invited her to join him, as one of his assistants to help him finish the film.

She commented; "My main function was as the slateboard person, which allowed me, for three months a daily close-up of the whole shooting process. I learned so much. I observed Nelson directing his actors, very gently, leaving them free to create, but also always knowing exactly what he wanted out of them. He has a wonderful sense of humor and a phenomenal flexibility, a readiness to instantly create something new and fresh out of unexpected events or obstacles."

By the time Laura went before the camera in her role as the reporter in the film, she had not only gotten a unique perspective on the film and filmmaking; she felt one with that environment. "I loved doing my scenes even more than I had anticipated," she said. The icing on this rich cake came when Nelson enthusiastically praised her acting in the movie, and urged her to go for a career in Brazil. "I almost exploded in joy when he said he would invite me to work with him again."

The Third Bank of the River has opened simultaneously in four Brazilian capitals last February: Rio de Janeiro, Brasilia, São Paulo and Belo Horizonte. Laura Lustosa will be joining the director for the film's premiere screening at the Berlin film festival where it has been invited to appear in competition. Her involvement in the film is total. She concludes, "Now we are all anxiously awaiting the film's opening. Some of my colleagues have told me it looks beautiful. I feel it must be as beautiful as the experiences we had during its filming and I am sure it is just as magical. Quoting Nelson Pereira dos Santos - he still talks about the enchantment of movies after having made 16 feature-length and many short films and documentaries - who said, `Making a movie is like riding on a flying carpet', she concluded, "I couldn't agree more, and I haven't landed yet."

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Author: Mahon, Tania Article Title: MIAMI: The man with 1001 songs Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.99 Publication Date: 03-31-94 Page: p. 30

MIAMI: The man with 1001 songs.

We arrived at his house two hours late. I was sure Michael Sullivan was not going to be there and we would have to cancel the interview. What a surprise! He was waiting for us with a big smile. After a quick tour of the house we sat down to talk.

His show at Scala Miami in January was a big success due to the fact that all the songs he sang were well known to everybody. With 700 recorded songs it seems to be easy to do a show with major hits only. I had heard he had composed maybe a couple hundred songs. Then I'm told by Sullivan himself that this number is closer to 700. That's amazing.

Sullivan writes songs for just about every singer in Brazil. Tim Maia, Xuxa, Gal Costa, Sandra de Sa, Joanna, Roberto Carlos Roupa Nova, Fagner, Fafa de Belem, Alcione, Trem da Alegria, Balão Magico, just to name a few. He writes jingles for commercials also and I had the opportunity to witness the making of an Arisco (food products's company) jingle that I'm sure is going to be a hit in a few months.

He called the studio and told his arranger Marcello Azevedo that Xuxa needed the Arisco songs as soon as possible and that he already had an idea. About 30 minutes later Sullivan was there at the studio, with Azevedo working on the keyboard and the computer, Cesar Nascimento playing the guitar and soon the "song" was ready. All Sullivan needed was to get the list of products that would have to be mentioned in the jingle.

I was flabbergasted. "How do you do that?," I asked. "Hard work," he said. "It's 80% perspiration and 20% inspiration. Of course, sometimes you're driving and a nice tune comes to your mind and you try to tape it or write it down, but for the most part it is hard work."

Born Ivanilton de Sousa Lima, at 14 he won the first prize on a Star Search like contest in Recife, Pernambuco. At 17 he decided to go to Rio de Janeiro and from then on he did not stop. His Irish last name was picked from a New York phone directory when he had his first English song recorded. My life was the theme song for the soap opera O Casarão (The Big House) and sold 1 million copies.

"I played with Renato and his Blue Caps for seven years and then played with The Fevers for another six years," he tells. You Know, it was like moving from Beatles to Rolling Stones. In 1978 Paulo Massadas and I got together and the majority of the songs were written since then. When Tim Maia recorded Me De Motiva (Give Me a Reason) in 1982 we received the prize for the best song of the year. Around that time Ariola Records hired Miguel Plopski as artist director and we were invited to work as his assistance. I hired the cast and produced the records for them."

From 1986 to 1993 Sullivan had around 200 songs recorded in Spanish-speaking

Latin America. Ana Gabriel, Magnetto, Yury, Rick Martin, all have hits from Sullivan. The Brazilian composer moved to Miami a year ago, opened his Art Sullivan Studio and since then he has most of all been a producer. With all the support from Sony Records he's dedicated also to find new talent. Right now he's working with a Brazilian band called Made in Brazil.

"I'm betting on them," he says. "They are great, great singers, and they have great songs. I know they will be a huge success in 1994 all over the world. You're going to hear Made in Brazil a lot, believe me."

And I do.

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Author: Duarte, Isabel Article Title: ART: The Rio Gringo Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.99 Publication Date: 03-31-94 Page: p. 32

ART: The Rio Gringo.

In magazine dedicated to the Brazilian expatriates living overseas and all of those who love the Brazilian way, it may come as a surprise to find a feature on an expatriate gringo living in Brazil. Though he has now returned to Los Angeles, it was his three years spent living in Rio de Janeiro that have most market the career of painter Sandow Birk.

Much of his work is dedicated to the memories, experiences, sights, and emotions of Brazil's most famous city. His works have been shown in prestigious galleries across America and, though still young, he is currently represented by three major dealers: the Julie Rico Gallery, in Santa Monica, CA; the Carl Hammer Gallery in Chicago, IL; and Stuart Katz Contemporary Art in Laguna Beach, CA.

With gallery shows in New York and the Laguna Art Museum under his belt, as well as an exhibition currently on display at the Delta Axis Contemporary Art Center in Memphis, TN, this young artist is definitely coming into his own. It was on an overcast day in Hollywood that I caught him at his studio, just back from surfing:

Talk about your time in Rio. How and why did you go to Brazil?

(Laughs) Well, I'm afraid it was for rather unspectacular reasons. I originally went to Brazil on a surfing trip with a friend of mine. We were both tired of college here in California so we took off and traveled all through South America to go surfing. We ended up in Rio just before Carnaval, almost broke. We soon got jobs working for surfboard makers and then we found an apartment right at Posto 5 (at Copacabana beach), walking distance to Arpoador, and then we just stayed...

And how long did you stay?

Well, just for six months that time. Then we went off to Europe where I did some studying in Paris and England, but school was never for me, so I was back in Rio a year later. That time I stayed for two and a half years...

And you were painting in Rio?

Yeah, I had been doing work based on experiences and places I had traveled and of course I began doing paintings of Brazil. My work has always been about really mundane things, everyday experiences that make up life. I'm really interested in daily life, common things: bars, the streets, taxis, lanchjonetes... I think Rio is such a great city because of that close experience with it, with its smells, its people. I mean, you walk every where in Rio and the bars are right there on the street and the people are hanging around, drinking chope (draft beer), having batucadas (percussion sessions)... and then on the beach everyone is in such a state of semi-dress... the driving-around-in-the-car sort of experience we have in Los Angeles.

Did you have any exhibitions in Brazil?

I didn't and I really wish I could. I found it very hard to get involved in the art scene in Rio, and though I did go to São Paulo regularly, and caught the Bienal there, which is fantastic. I wasn't there enough... I took a few classes at the Museu de Arte Moderna and I spent some time at Parque Laje where I met some artists, most notably Charles Watson and Pisarro, and I did have some contact with some galleries, but I was younger and they were fairly unreceptive. The Museum was good, because I had a really limited knowledge of the history of art in Brazil and I was able to learn a lot. But it was generally because of these difficulties that I eventually decided to return to Los Angeles.

It's sad to say, but I think those are problems faced by most young artists in Brazil, especially in Rio. How has Brazil continued to influence you?

Well, I met my girlfriend there and she's here in L.A. now, and I'm really excited about the World Cup this year (I used to go to Maracana all the time!)... But seriously, many of my paintings come directly from experiences I've had there. Most of my work is about a sense of place, about what sensations make a place what and where it is, and I try to reexperience a place when I'm painting about it.

I go back to Brazil regularly and it's constantly a part of me, and I try to paint about everyday living there. Almost like snapshots or glances of places. And I try to paint about places that have a special meaning to me, a place where something happened, where I met someone, or got into an argument, or a place I went when I was feeling down or something... Really just sort of everyday occurrences which have an emotional content running through them. And then when I paint about the place I try to get this quality of the experience into the painting, even though the views and scenes I usually depict are often rather than common. I guess it's the uncommon qualities of the mundane that I'm interested in...

How is the response you've gotten from the Brazilian community?

To tell the truth, I haven't gotten much. First of all I don't know all that many Brazilians here, my girlfriend doesn't really know many, and they don't seem to come out to arts events (besides music and concerts). It's too bad. But hopefully your magazine will offer some of that exposure.

And the response from others?

Oh, that's been great! It seems there's a real interest in Brazil from gringos in general. I mean, look at News from Brazil, (in English)! But I sure wish more Brazilians would get a chance to see the work because I think it would speak more directly to them... they know what it's talking about, sort of... they speak its language. Especially the expatriates. I mean, I know what its like to be living overseas, (I even know what it's like to be an illegal immigrant!, although being an expatriate American isn't quite the same, because as far as you go on the planet you're never that far from things American), and I've always hoped that my work would connect with them...

And your next trip to Brazil?

Hopefully this May or June. I like to go in the winter there because that's

the best time for surfing!

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Article Title: A Caymmi tribute Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.99 Publication Date: 03-31-94 Page: p. 36

A Caymmi tribute.

Dorival Caymmi was never in a hurry in his life, but his 80th birthday started to be celebrated four months in advance with the release of four records which encompass practically all his work, with interpretations by some icons of Brazilian music and some less memorable ones.

All this rush has a reason, at least for the author of this tour de force, publisher and guitar player Almir Chediak, who was worried about another Caymmi anthology being recorded with other MPB stars and produced by Danilo Caymmi, the son of the composer, and a talented musician on his own right.

If hurry doesn't conform with the composer's life, the music doesn't suffer for that. We have here 82 songs being sung by the biggest array of interpreters ever put together for a sole project, ranging from Tom Jobim and Tião Maia to Itamara Koorax and Leci Brandão.

Add to this Chico Buarque, Nana Caymmi (Dorival's daughter), Elomar, Na Ozetti, Angela Ro Ro, Sergio Ricardo, Rosana, Luiz Melodia, and Nei Matogrosso, among others. This is a tribute that Caymmi's work has been deserving for a long time.

The songs written by Caymmi, all of them, are little masterpieces, and a model of the care every composer ought to take with a popular song. His sense of measurement and balance has influenced all MPB that succeeded him, from bossa-nova to tropicalismo. Caymmi acts as a goldsmith when composing his songs.

A song such as João Valentão, for example, deserves a long academic study due the harmonic and literary richness that it presents. In the songbook the old song came to life through Nana Caymmi's voice and Wagner Tiso's piano in one of the most inspired moments of the work.

There are also gratifying surprises such as when Baby Consuelo sings Dois de Fevereiro. This is arguably the best recording ever done by the Baiana singer born in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro.

This time Chediak couldn't count on some singers who have been constantly present in past production, namely Caetano Veloso, Gilberto Gil, Gal Costa, Maria Bethania and João Gilberto. All of these voices will be heard in the competing anthology being released by Sony Music in March. This doesn't mean that Chediak's tribute is not first rate. Au contraire, some moments are extremely beautiful.

Sargaco Mar, for example. Dori (Dorival's son living in Los Angeles) Caymmi's interpretation is intense and contributes to the lament that is the song, complemented by an arrangement that is at once sweet and painful. If there was ever any doubt, Tim Maia proves again that his voice can conform to any song. In Não Tem Solucão he lets the swing carry the melody.

But some compositions came out in a very weird way. What is Sergio Ricardo (the one who likes to break guitars and throw them at the public) doing with Maracangalha in his hands? And how about Jorge Mautner (always with Nelson Jacobina) who demoralizes Balaio Grande? Fortunately the forgettable tracks are few. For the most part they are for partying and to singing alone.

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Author: Seabra, Roberto Article Title: Word and sound medleys Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.99 Publication Date: 03-31-94 Page: p. 37

Word and sound medleys.

If producer and guitar player Almir Chediak has his way, 1994 will be like last year, a good year for MPB (Brazilian Popular Music).The musician's publishing house, Lumiar, responsible for popularizing the concept of the songbook in Brazil, is preparing a new crop of celebrated composers.

After the recent release of the box containing four CD's from Baiano Dorival Caymmi (see accompanying article), and the compilation in a book of 82 songs of the author of Suite dos Pescadores (Fishermen 'Suite), Chediak is getting ready to release four other heavyweights of MPB: Ari Barroso, Carlos Lyra, Jorge Ben Jor and Djavan. Now the musician-entrepreneur is in an uphill struggle to convince "King" Roberto Carlos to wear the colors of the Lumiar team.

Bossa-novist Carlos Lyra has had his own songbook released in January. Edu Lobo is also getting his turn, only in a very peculiar way. Perfectionist in extreme, Lobo decided to transcribe by hand all 55 songs that were selected as a sample of his work.

Also ready to hit the streets is Ari Barroso, the author of Aquarela do Brasil. That songbook should have been released in 1993 to celebrate the 100th birthday that Barroso would be commemorating if alive, but it was delayed due to excessive work at Lumiar, which decided to give priority to Caymmi's work. There was a silver lining to this cloud. The Ari Barroso package comes complete with 96 songs with the original arrangements and two CDs with the main Barroso hits.

No doubt Chediak has found a mother load. The teacher of nine out of 10 MPB's stars, the guitar player started his songbook collection in 1988 with the most illustrious of his pupils: Caetano Veloso. Right after that he released in five volumes almost everything that bossanova had produced. Up until then, Lumiar was restricting its work to book publication, but the third songbook, the one with Noel Rosa, was released together with a record with re-recordings made by Chico Buarque, Caetano Veloso, Tom Jobim, and Nelson Goncalves, among others. It was an instant hit and Lumiar started offering the complete package: the book for the initiated and the curious, and the record for the populace.

The chance to be able to produce the songbooks under the supervision of the authors themselves is a rare opportunity, according to the Chediak. "I have compiled Tom Jobim's work going song by song with him. The same happened with Caymmi," he says. A similar undertaking was done with composer and singer Cazuza, whose songbook was released just a few months before his death, of AIDS. Chediak recalls how hard it was to convince the rock composer to prepare his songbook, since Cazuza considered his work too small and "he expected to live at least 10 more years to compose more."

The Americans were the ones who invented songbooks during the '50s. They

always followed the same recipe of reuniting a great interpreter together with a great composer. The Brazilian version added its own flavor, using several interpreters recording a great author, as it happened in the tribute record to composer Cartola. A typical example of a songbook is the CD released by Maria Bethania with songs by Roberto and Erasmo Carlos.

"When I started with this idea of songbooks, my intention was to put together in a book format what the little magazines for guitar were doing in a precarious manner," observes Chediak. His songbooks are drawing the attention of European musicians. The French arranger Michel Legrand, considered one of the world's greatest conductors, has recently bought Lumiar's complete collection.

"They are always looking at what we produce," remarks Chediak. Another symptom, according to him, is the big interest of foreign tourists in the songbooks. To appease foreign appetites Lumiar has been releasing some of the songbooks in a bilingual edition (English and Portuguese). That's what happened to the five bossa-nova volumes and the three books by Tom Jobim.

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Author: Dalla Dea, Ariane Article Title: TRAVEL: Jungle for the aliens Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.99 Publication Date: 03-31-94 Page: p. 40

TRAVEL: Jungle for the aliens.

For a time, before and after the discovery of Brazil by the Portuguese of the Amazon forest was the patchwork of dialects spoken by the various nomadic tribes living and passing through the area.

In time, as Brazil stretched its frontiers and started to tame the jungle, Portuguese was added, thanks to the caboclo who decided to stay in the land and raise his family there.

The Amazon is home for 250 species of mammals, 1100 of birds, 2000 of fishes, and 3000 of plants. Nowadays the Amazon area is inhabited by a contingent of 17 million people, 200,000 of them Indians. But although they keep their languages, there is a new official tongue in the forest. It is English.

This is what the French, the Japanese, the Italians, the Germans, the British, the Americans, the Swiss, the Chinese and the Brazilians have to understand and to talk when they decide to explore the forest.

Naturally, Brazilians are welcome to know their jungle if only they have enough dollars to enjoy it and know enough English to understand what the guide is saying or what is the program for the day that is listed on the message board, in English.

Tourism in the Amazon is geared today towards a population who can pay between $90 and $400 per person/per day of hotel (or lodge) stay and want to see a Las Vegas version of the Amazon forest (without the gambling) in a safe and exotic environment.

The price of a four day package plus airfare is around $2,000, and most Brazilians can't afford that. Some think that they can get much more value for their money going to Miami, for example.

From January to September of last year 30,000 foreigners landed at Manaus (capital of state of Amazonas) international airport, took a boat and went to explore the jungle, from their comfortable or on-purpose less comfortable bases in the shape of a lodge or hotel planted inside the forest. They leave more than $10 million a year in the region.

More than 85,000 Brazilians also disembarked at the same airport in the first nine months of 1983. From those, however, fewer than 5% went to relax in the jungle. Talking to weekly magazine Isto E. Charles Belchieur, president of Emantur (Amazon Tourism Office), commented: "Brazilians haven't yet discovered this kind of tourism. They think you can get more status going to Miami."

What the so-called eco-tourism does not do is to support the preservation of parks and the ecology. The Pica da Neblina national park, the highest point in Brazil, located in the northwest side of the Amazon, and with more than two million hectares, has only two employees to administrate it.

As a consequence of this lack of resources, the park is crowded with gold miners who poison the rivers and bring disease and death to the Indians living in the region. But, despite all the problems, ecological tourism is considered today an alternative to promote the so-called sustainable development in the Amazon.

The Amazon is not only the exotic destination. The area has several parks including the Parque Nacional do Jau, one of the largest forest reserves of South America, located on the left margin of Rio Negro, next to the border with Roraima state. There is also the Parque Nacional da Amazonia, located on the border with Para state.

Even though the Trans-amazonica Highway crosses part of the park, it is a practically untouched forest. You an also visit Parque do Noe which offers as an attraction the flights of macaws and a great community of monkeys.

Another big attraction of the region is the meeting of the waters of the Solimoes and Negro rivers. The brown water of Rio Negro and the green water of the Solimoes flow next to each other for 10 kms. The Amazon river is the result of the union of these waters. At the Cascatinha do Amor (Love Fall), one and a half hours from Manaus port, you can experience a natural hydromassage.

In Manaus, itself, a not very photogenic city, you can visit the Museu do Indio (Museum of the Indian), where you can enjoy and purchase the local arts and crafts, or you can go to Central do Artesanato for a larger variety of local crafts.

Manaus, which still preserves some opulent traits from the rubber boom of the turn of the century - the Opera House is a case in point - is equipped with good hotels and restaurants.

Get in touch with Emantur, at Avenida Taruma, 379, for tours and camping sites in the national parks, and also for boat trips, and local attractions.

By supporting the local people you will gain an invaluable appreciation for the forest, spend less money, getting at the same time a rich cultural experience.

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Author: Mello, Rodney Article Title: RECADO Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.100 Publication Date: 04-30-94 Page: p. 5

Recado.

The denials don't convince anymore. Brazil has taken the Argentinian way to try to tame the inflation that's devouring its economy at a rate of 40% a month. Now we have our dollar and it's called real. People should start using it anytime, probably before June. For those used to the American dollar the conversion between the two currencies couldn't be simpler. One real = one dollar.

Most of the economists even from different political camps are betting that the real will cut Brazilian inflation to zero, at least initially. That's the problem. Brazilians have been so many times through this mill before that the majority seems to be skeptical that this time the prescription is really going to work.

We've just commemorated the eighth anniversary of the Plano Cruzado introduction, the father of all post-dictatorship authoritarian economic packages to fix Brazil. The so-called FHC2 (for Finance Minister Fernando Henrique Cardoso) plan has better chances to work than its cousins in the past and not only because of the lessons learned in some eight other failed plans in less than one decade.

Our dollar reserves are solid and the country is again starting to grow. Moreover this time the reforms are not a jack-in-the-box jumping at an unsuspecting and unprepared citizen. The plan has been discussed exhaustively and corrections have been made and are still being made in concert with Congress.

Our cover story tries to bring a little light to this last rescue mission to save the Brazilian economy. We even talk about some few and powerful oligopolies that would love to see the FHC2 fizzle and be thrown in the drain of good intentions gone sour. Ate breve.

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Author: Ravelo, Carlos Article Title: COVER: Is this real or is it dollar? Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.100 Publication Date: 04-30-94 Page: p. 7

COVER: Is this real or is it dollar.

If there is one name that seems to be mentioned more than President Itamar Franco in Brazil these days, it's that of Minister Fernando Henrique Cardoso. The strange thing about it is that he wishes to keep as far away from the Brazil's political limelight as possible. The reason: URV or Unidade Real de Valor (Unit to Real Value), the government's newest anti-inflation measure.

If it smells like smoke... than something must be burning! So the old saying goes. And many smoke signals are already on the economic horizon, pointing towards possible "flashpoints". But, how will the URV work? As an indicator of the daily inflation rate - to be calculated by Brazil's Central Bank - a day-to-day quote will be issued in cruzeiros reais, placing that day's value of the URVs.

Although some economists indicate that the re-adjustments should take dollar exchange rates into account, others espouse a theory that several economic indicators should be grouped together, and jointly self-correct the index accordingly. The main idea is to try to, gradually but definitely, bring inflation rates down to a manageable level.

In the initial stages the cruzeiro Real would continue to be the accepted currency, but gradually salaries, contracts and prices would begin to use the URV standard. The adjustment period could take anywhere between two to six months. As to the name of the new currency, it will be called the real.

SHOW ME THE WAY ...One of the government's main concerns has always been how inflation eats-up the average worker's salary, even before his pay-check is signed and delivered. It is a game of cat and mouse, in which salaried employees at the lower end of the earning ladder never seem to go beyond the first step. But the second step of the FHC-URV plan will attempt to wrestle the problem head-on.

Three local indicators will be combined and used to come up with the proper indexing: IGPM (by Fundacão Getulio Vargas; IPC (from FIPE, São Paulo's Economic Research Institute) and IPCA (done by the IBGE, Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics). However, it will still be impossible to control thousands of prices on a day-to-day basis; therefore, the option would be to let most prices continue to "float" for a reasonable period, but under very strict governmental scrutiny. Rent costs, financial market values and other prices would continue to be expressed in cruzeiros, but constantly progressing towards an overhaul through the URV.

The first battle, of course, will be dealing with salaries. Drawing on the experience of the 1986 Cruzado Plan, the virtues - but not the vices - of that plan are supposed to be taken into account. "We have learned our lesson," stated Minister Cardoso. According to him, the Plano Cruzado did not succeed due to a lack of monetary reserves (which now total $36 billion), and to a prolonged period of price fixing, which in turn led to depletion of staple

items, excess consumption and hoarding.

Already many a Brazilian is wondering what the URV will mean to him or her in practical terms. Here are some of the highlights: MINIMUM WAGE - The criteria for minimum wages and for pensions is almost identical; both will be indexed at $63 per month. However, some experts state that said sum could be somewhat higher, and the minimum wage threshold could eventually be set higher yet. GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES & OFFICIALS - Salaries for governmental employees will be indexed as well, thereby placing them in the same standing as private employees. PRICES - Unlike salaries, the URV will not be over imposed upon the pricing structure. Industry and commerce will be able to increase prices - albeit accordingly - and certain consumer goods would be allowed to come into the country to substitute for those which are exageratedly expensive or non-competitive with foreign items. PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION & UTILITIES - This is probably the only area which has already been pre-indexed, by averaging it with inflation rates during the last four months. Water and electric power, although calculated in URVs, will still be billed in cruzeiros reais. RENTS - New contracts will only be expressed in URVs, and their value will go up on a month-to-month basis in cruzeiros. Old rental agreements would remain as they are, at least until there is a change in currency after monetary reform takes place, changing the cruzeiro real to real. In any case, parties that wish to re-negotiate old contracts for new ones in URV could do so. FINANCIAL IMPLICATIONS - Financial transactions will remain as they are. Banks will continue to pay interest rates more or less as they please. However, the government would like to be able to handle interest rates, and adapt them according to the needs of the stabilization program. For example, if it is verified that consumer spending has gone up swiftly, leading to an increase in prices, then the government could increase interest rates accordingly. HAND IN HAND - Although the government team has worked hard to develop the URV economic package, there is still resistance in Congress. No one there is awe-struck enough by it to even begin to think that the plan will reduce inflation rates from one day to the next; the intention is rather to have inflation and salaries walk hand in hand. This would give the Brazilian economy, chaotic as it is, some sort of structural balance.

It is in its third stage, however, that inflation can actually be controlled. Many businesses might be tempted to try and change their prices frequently, since consumer prices will not be subject to initial control, but they will be forced to display item prices in cruzeiros reais. If a big supermarket chain, for example, wished to change their prices, it would be almost impossible. Why? Because with an average of 30,000 articles per store, it would be insane to try to stamp each and every article, each and every day.

Although the Cruzeiro Plan seems airtight to government economic experts, the Departamento Intersindical de Estatistica e Estudos Socio-Economicos (the Social-Economic and Statistical Interunion Department) known as DIEESE, has carried out its own research into the government's allegations as to the benefits of the URV plan. According to DIEESE, the average worker would lose anywhere between 28% and 34% of their actual salaries once the plan is implemented. During the last four years alone, workers have lost nearly 60% of their purchasing power through runaway inflation.

JUST ANOTHER PLAN? - Planos Cruzado I & II, Bresser, Feijão com Arroz (Beans and Rice), Verão (Summer) and Collor I & II. All bring bad memories to many a Brazilian. Most failed by not taking a simple item into account: that as long as government spends more that it is bale to recoup, inflation will continue

its course. To counter this, countries like the U.S. and Japan, which also have an extremely high public sector deficit but very little inflation, follow a very different course.

In Brazil, one of two things is done. Printing paper money, or sales of government bonds or titles. When the government issues worthless paper currency, the economy becomes stagnated, and this devaluates the currency in a vicious catch-22-like circle. That is what has traditionally happened in Brazil. Prices are constantly being increased to prevent any possible loss.

Brasilia also stimulates inflation through bond sales. Since the government lacks sufficiently high ratings, they offer high interest rates on short-term bonds. This high interest is then passed on to the financial market, from there to industrial firms which borrow from the banks, and it is then passed on to the consumers through increased prices on consumer goods.

Countries that do have low inflation rates, tend to issue low-interest type bonds; in the U.S. 5% is an average. Japan, is also known for long-term bond issuance, sometimes with 40 year-long yield periods. Those bonds gain acceptance because the purchaser knows that their money and interest will be there on the agreed maturity date. In Brazil, where governments are distrusted, the Central Bank is unable to offer bonds with a recovery date of more than one year. In fact, bonds with 28 day return rates are not uncommon.

Although the deficit is one of the most visible sources of Inflation in Brazil, it is not the only one. The other is the habit of fast-tracking prices, which by now is almost an endemic illness in Brazil. However, once people are convinced that the new real is a stable type of currency, then price-tracking will become less and less of a necessity, thus bringing down inflation.

WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE? - Most old-times have already forgotten, and the younger crowd doesn't even know what a low-inflation economy is all about. The last time that inflation remained below 2% per month was in December of 1978. As of now however, people can focus their hope upon a new and different Brazil post-URV.

With a controlled public deficit, stable prices, lower interest rates, and an increase of GNP into the 4%-5% bracket per year, the economy can then begin to expand vigorously.

Things which are "normal" in a stable economic environment, such as purchasing a home or car, could start to become a reality for many "middle-class paupers" in Brazil. Brazil, the post-Collor, post-Budget Inquiry, post-PC Farias Brazil, is reaching its third major cross-road within the last three years.

Depending on how Brasilia - and Brazilians themselves - choose to handle or mishandle this new economic plan, the future of the newer generations within this sleeping poor-rich giant will be on hold. They are hoping for the best, preparing for the worst, and not forgetting to invoke any power, extraterrestrial or not, who might help.

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Author: Braga, Isabel Article Title: INTERVIEW: Laying down the law Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.100 Publication Date: 04-30-94 Page: p. 13

INTERVIEW: Laying down the law.

Despite all the diversions to which the Brazilian Congress has been subjected recently, including an investigation of two dozen legislators accused of corruption, the House of Representatives started the revision of the Constitution in January. This job should have ended in mid-March, but nobody expects now that this will happen before the end of this month.

Our Constitution was written in '88 with the proviso for these adjustments being made right now. Among the most significant proposals, there is one dealing with the end of parliamentary immunity, another one extinguishing the compulsory vote and still another that would allow presidents, governors and mayors to be reelected for a second term of four years.

Leading all this work is Nelson Jobim, a representative from the gaucho (from Rio Grande do Sul state) PMDB (Party of the Brazilian Democratic Movement). Talking recently to Correio Braziliense, the federal deputy didn't spare those members of Congress who are against any change in the present Constitution.

In 1988, while the new Constitution was being written, there were several charges that lobbyists were buying the votes of some legislators. Do you believe that the recent Budget CPI (Parliamentary Commission of Inquiry), which has found several representatives guilty of corruption, can inhibit the repetition of such acts during the present constitutional revision? Has the revision gained support with the Congressional clean-up?

It has. But we have to make it clear that in 1988 the majority of lobbyists were from corporations and this is going to continue. They are already here. This is part of a normal democratic process. You cannot forbid the interested sectors from discussing their interests.

The curious thing is that when somebody badmouths the lobbies - this became too evident to me as the relator - it is because that person believes that only its group can lobby. For example, the workers' lobby accuses the company's lobby, but it's always here.

On the issue of monopolies, the business sector talks, argues, defends the monopolies' destruction. You hear accusations from the state companies' unions, pointing their finger at the lobbyist, but they are lobbying too.

How about the representative vote being bought? Can the CPI inhibit this?

I can't say that it would inhibit this since I've never seen any deputy selling his vote. Neither have I received a visit from anybody offering me anything: advantages, trips or tickets. I have no knowledge of this happening.

Have you discussed the suggestion of doing away with the Budget Commission after the scandal that smeared so many of its members?

Our interest is not only to avoid similar scandals in the future, but also to discover if we need a constitutional change dealing with the work of the CPIs. One of the suggestions is to leave the Budget Commission out of the Constitution since this is a regimental matter and not to get rid of the Commission altogether.

Your early opinions stirred a major controversy in Congress. Some of them, as your views on reelection and the end of the non incompatibility already in 1994 were said to be casuistic and retrograde. How did you face those criticisms?

My early opinions were able to reach their objective, which was to provoke discussion. If I had been in favor, for example, of maintaining the obligatory vote, I wouldn't be proposing anything and the matter wouldn't be discussed. Since I advocated the non-obligatory vote, this has touched both sides, those in favor and those against the compulsory vote.

And how about the amendment that ends the ineligibility of relatives of people in executive posts? Do you think it will pass?

It's all a question of consequences. If you adopt the proposal allowing reelection, you have to decide whether the occupant of the post has to abandon it a certain time or not. It seems to me nonsense to require an individual to leave the same post he is going to be running for.

The reelection plan should respect administrative continuity. If a candidate doesn't have to quit to run for the same office, why force him to resign when running for another office? If he doesn't have to resign how can you justify the need for non incompatibilization of relatives if he already isn't incompatible? This is a logical question and shows that when you change the paradigm of the electoral system, allowing reelection, you have to examine the whole set of non incompatibilizations and inelegibilities of the person and his relatives. When you change above you have to see what changes below. This is the meaning of the proposal.

What do you think about the use of the government machine for re-elections?

This is a possibility. But I have a question: who is interested in the incompatibilization? The public power or the actors in the political process? I wanted to provoke this discussion. To forbid reelection and to require resignation exacerbates the public administration situation because this destabilizes it.

If we decide that an eight-year administration is able to make medium and long-term projects and not very-short-term ones since it can be re-elected, if this is true we are benefitting public administration. As long as we forbid reelection and we require non incompatibilization, we are condemning the best cadres, who normally run for the executive posts in the presidentialist system, to a four-year ostracism. Who is interested in that? We have to have the public interest as foundation.

What do you say to those who have criticized the centralized way in which the initial opinions were presented, that this would have led to the discussion of political topics only and not their merits? You intend to change the way the process is conducted?

The problem is not of conception. The initial opinion is not the end of the process but its beginning. The reporting committee doesn't report its ideas but makes compatible the ideas contained in the amendments. The opinion is a formulation of all the options stated in the amendments and the selection of an option among them or of another one produced by the reporting committee. It is the raw material to be worked with in the deciding process. Without the raw material we wouldn't have a discussion. The proposals of the facultative vote have been in Congress since the beginning of December of last year. Has anybody discussed it? No. The debate is possible only when the raw material is taken to the political parties and legislators by the reporting committee.

This work has two fundamental moments. First comes the political negotiation about the raw material, the relator's opinion. When the time to vote comes I myself might change my opinion, according to the negotiations. If I decided to avert this, presenting the report as the end of the process, I would never get anywhere.

How about the lack of quorum in the revision sessions?

When the opinions go to the full house, the way they were proposed, I believe the congressmen will participate. Because we are going to discuss the reelection. Those in favor will want to approve it, those against will try to prevent it's approved. The same thing will happen with the facultative vote.

And how are you going to deal with obstructionists who intend to gain time so the proposals they are against cannot be discussed?

There are procedural methods for dealing with this. The big problem is that the contras will have difficulty participating in the negotiations if they keep this position. Political negotiation is a two-way road. It's born from the presumption that all want to participate in the process. One of the items in the process is the political negotiation.

With the end of the CPI, the beginning of the recall, the hunger strike and all the tension in Congress is there any climate to vote the Constitution's amendments?

If this worry was genuine we should also ask: can you deal with the Budget, the fiscal readjustment? The contras have said that Congress wouldn't be able to vote on the revision because of the CPI. But I didn't hear the same discourse when time came to vote on the amnesty for those workers fired by Collor. Was there any speech to verify if any congressman present was named in the CPI? Nobody has asked that. These are justifications dealing with certain interests, they are not based in reality.

With so many things to vote for, Budget, fiscal adjustment, isn't the revision being placed in the background?

No, we are complying with the regimental deadlines. The only delay happened with the amendments.

How about the criticism that society is not interested in the revision?

Where did the 17,246 amendments come from? All from the congressmen's heads? There are popular amendments. The unions are mobilizing themselves. We don't have the same engagement as in 1987 and 1988 because we are not writing a new constitution.

If the tendency is to simplify the text of the law, what we should expect?

There are some useless rules such as the one that says that tourism will be privileged. There are several amendments that want this suppressed. It's all the same whether the rule stays or not in the Constitution. This without mentioning the fact that every time you place something in the Constitution you limit the Legislature's choices, because judiciary control becomes part of law creation. The Congress's tendency is to retake its legislative power.

And the 3,400 amendments dealing with the Judiciary Power? Is there a tendency to create an external control?

There is an amendment for everything: corporate, non corporate, and doctrinally correct or incorrect. The tentative plan is to have a Council (of the Bench). We have to find something for the Judiciary Power that the other powers already have, that is, social responsibility. It's not the policing over the judicial power of judges but a mechanism through which society can see transparently how they are meeting their administrative obligations.

The revision starts with the political reforms. Will you have time to talk about economic reforms?

Yes, because this is not a question of time but of vote. There isn't a lot to be discussed concerning the monopoly. You have solution A, B, C and D. The way to solve this is voting. Don't think we are going to have a political negotiation between the neo-liberals who want a minimum state and the ultra-left that today depends on the state and lives under the state's umbrella. There are no negotiations between the two extremes. We can have some negotiation in the middle, we can reach some kind of consensus and then we vote.

Which themes will consume more time in the revision?

Tributary system and Social Security system. The discussion is ample and the alternatives are plenty. I feel that we will have changes in these areas, but I still don't know what the tendency will be.

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Author: Espinoza, Rodolfo Article Title: HISTORY: The war that never was Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.100 Publication Date: 04-30-94 Page: p. 16

HISTORY: The war that never was.

It was 1893. Brazil was beginning to peek into the approaching century. With an agrarian society managed by tenants and farmers, Brazil was ill prepared to confront a simple man named Antonio Conselheiro (Antonio the Counselor), and to face thousands of his followers in a place as inhospitable and barren as the northeastern sertão. Religious fanatic, madman, socialist visionary. Which one was he? Or was he really all of them rolled into one?

Antonio Vicente Mendes Maciel, the Conselheiro, drew a huge following and changed the history of the sertão as well as the outlook of its people, some of which remember and venerate his name even today. Canudos and Vale das Mortes (Valley of Death) are two names that nowadays do not mean much to the average Brazilian, but in the sertão, where oral history is still alive, the names convey memories of much spilled blood and many shattered dreams.

The earth at Vale das Mortes still holds the bones and memories of many of the ancestors of the locals. The old folks have not forgotten it, and they are making sure that the younger ones don't either. In nearby Bendengo, a hamlet located close to the town of Alto Alegre, Ana Rodrigues dos Santos, holds a fistful of black soil, saying that it contains gun powder, dried blood and ashes.

During the Canudos skirmishes, her mother Francisca fled for her life, together with her husband, into the caatinga, the harsh savanna-like brush which covers much of the sertão. However, her grandparents were not so lucky; both were massacred there, victims of the unending greed for power, harsh intolerance, and a simple fear of the unknown displayed by the wealthy, the military, and governmental authorities of the sertão during those tragic years.

Antonio Conselheiro attracted many people in this part of the sertão Baiano. He was a man with ideal of an egalitarian society, and opposed to the common abuses perpetrated against the impoverished populace. The town of Canudos was ready to become a thorn in the side to many of the well-to-do, and a focal point for insurgency. Overconfident and arrogant, the Army, under the prodding of the wealthy and the church, forced the hand of Luiz Viana, Governor of Bahia State at the time.

Viana had been fairly tolerant of Antonio Conselheiro, and never wished to use excessive force against him. However, what initially was supposed top be a "stroll in the park" for the Army eventually turned out to be three and a half years of stunning defeats which almost broke their will to fight. Between the years of 1893 and 1897, several expeditions sent in to subdue Conselheiro and his supporters failed miserably. But this was not only due to resistance by the rebels, since nature itself contributed to push back the invaders.

During the first two military campaigns into the caatinga sertaneja, a powerful force of soldiers headed by Major Febronio de Brito was turned back.

Scores were injured, and hundreds abandoned their weapons and backpacks and deserted. The infernal heat of the sertão and the blade-like cuts inflicted upon them by a local cactus called macambira did their dastardly deed, cutting into their feet and legs and incapacitating dozens of foot soldiers who were totally unprepared for this hostile environment.

Four expeditions were necessary before the Republican forces were able to reduce rebel opposition from the Conselheiristas. A temperamental and epileptic gaucho Colonel named Moreira Cesar was assigned the task of taking Canudos. He won the epithet "Corta Cabecas" (Head Cutter).

According to Ayrton Cesar Marcondes, great-grand-nephew of the Colonel, his great-uncle was always subject to extreme changes of mood and he was also known to have a violent character. That, however, never hindered him from leading the soldiers under his command, and he died on the battlefield on March 3rd of 1897, hit by a bullet.

Folklore has it that his body lay abandoned in the battlefield, and that days later, even the vultures refused to eat his flesh. Although he had an expensive ring on, no one dared - until much later - to desecrate his body, being hated so much by the local folks. Corta Cabecas was then replaced by Colonel Pedro Nunes Tamarindo, who also lost his life in the battlefield.

In fact, Conselheiro himself did not ever participate in or know about the results of the last battle, which took place on October 5th of 1897. He had died two weeks earlier, on September 22nd, a victim of dysentery and dehydration. Many believed that he would resurrect, and historians attribute the fanatical resistance of his men - and their subsequent massacre - to that fact.

On that fateful day, volley after volley of cannon fire was directed at the rebel troops. The area had been circled in, and no one could go into or out of the confined area. A giant Whitworth-32 cannon positioned at Alto do Mario rained death upon the jaguncos. Afterwards, hand-to-hand combat at close quarters was the rule.

There were orders to take no prisoners. According to stories handed down through the years, many were cut open with bayonets, and scores were knifed into the ground by chucho de fuzil, as the locals called the weapon. Canudos became a killing field, and within a few days more than 30,000 lay dead. Most were never properly buried.

The current Canudos (the original one was covered by the waters of a dam) lies of Brazilian State Road BR-115, called the Transnordestina, and is located some 420 kilometers (260 miles) from the state capital. "Our story has to be told for the city's own sense of honor. We had the guts to face a struggle of that type," says Manole Adriano, Jr., the mayor.

One of the major contributors towards elucidating the true facts behind the massacre has been Jose Calazans, now 78, who has been researching the subject during the last 40 years. Referring to Conselheiro he writes, "He was anti-republican; however, he never promoted any sort of revolution or reforms". Calazans's work prompted Bahia to open its heart towards Canudos.

In celebrating last year's 100th anniversary of the event, the Universidade Federal de Bahia placed on exhibit carefully preserved documents from the time. And to prevent future misconceptions about Conselheiro, the State

University of Bahia has microfiched thousands of documents for posterity. Nonetheless, even to this day the Army denies that there ever was anything close to a massacre of thousands of innocent civilians, claiming that it was a battle.

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Author: Luis, Emerson Article Title: ECOLOGY: The white menace Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6 N.100 Publication Date: 04-30-94 Page: p. 18

ECOLOGY: The white menace.

Many of the pastors and priests who are ministering to the Indians in the Brazilian Amazon are also very skilled geologists with an expertise in prospecting for subsoil resources. They have at their disposal not only modern planes, fast boats and high tech communication gear, but also sophisticated weapons.

This is not information circulated by a left wing rag or a ultranationalistic party, but material contained in the files of the SAE (Secretaria de Assuntos Estrategicos - Department of Strategic Affairs) a federal organ linked to the presidency and the heir of the Army's Center of Intelligence (CIE) and the infamous and extinct National Service of Information (SNI).

According to an ex-military commander in the Amazon, the majority of the missionaries now working now in that area are in the service of those First World countries that are in favor of transforming the Amazon into a Patrimony of Humankind, thus being able to control the use of the land in the region. In recent talks with legislators, the military ministers have expressed their fear of the Amazon losing its sovereignty in case the U.N. approves the Declaration of Rights of Indigenous People in 1995.

This document prepared behind closed doors by the U.N. Security Council talks about the creation of indigenous nations in Brazil and in other countries. The documents of the Department of Strategic Affairs have been collected for the last 10 years.

They used to be off limits to non-military personnel, but now the representatives will be able to consult them without having to get special permission from the Federal Police. The papers describe in detail the activities of various groups that have been working in the Amazon for many years, and they also show what the military considers to be errors in the demarcation of the Yanomami lands.

Generals Euclides de Oliveira Figueiredo (brother of ex-President General João Figueiredo), Leonidas Pires Goncalves, and Antenor Santa Cruz Abreu, the three of them ex-commanders of the CMA (Amazon Military Command), always very interested in the missionaries' activities in the Amazon. Pores Goncalves has crisscrossed the country talking about the Indians and the preservation of the environment. Oliveira Figueiredo has criticized the amount of land that was given to the Yanomamis, arguing that their population is less than 5,000.

The military has been contending that the Yanomami demarcations, in addition to taking 40% from Roraima's state territory, they contain the best natural deposits of gold, cassiterite, diamonds and strategic minerals such as monazitic sand and uranium in the region. "This potential," says a military officer asking for anonymity, "stirs the covetousness of the big powers, which want to establish their dominion in the region through the submission of the Indians."

The Escola Superior de Guerra (ESG), a school for political and social studies, has concluded in its study' Structure of the National Power, that there's an excess of areas allotted to the Indians in the Amazon. According to the ESG, the independence of the Indians is an assault to Brazil's national sovereignty and an open door to the advance of foreign powers into Brazilian territory. The ESG preaches a strong hand and even war to preserve the area.

In response to these worries, President Itamar Franco has recently sent Congress a proposal establishing procedures on parceling, exploring and giving permission to missionaries to enter the territory. Congressmen from the Amazon states have been very vocal about their disagreement regarding how the land has been distributed to the Indians.

João Fagundes, a PMDB (Party of the Brazilian Democratic Movement) representative from Roraima, for example, is in favor of a security land strip on the border that would measure at least 12 miles, but no more than 62 miles. This strip, vigorously defended by the military, who would like it to be 93 miles, would be reserved and sometimes occupied by security forces as a shield against foreign interest in the area.

Fagundes suggests that the Indians be indemnified when these security strips encroach on their land. The executive branch of the government has already talked about its intention of ruling by decree over the use of the territorial buffer zone. A proposal sent by SAE to Congress establishes that any depend on a previous consultation with the Executive Department of the National Defense Council.

Fagundes is also proposing that the Indians receive assistance from the State but they should not receive more than 5% of the exploration of any natural resource in the area they live in.

Not everybody agrees with these positions. The CIMI (Conselho Indigenista - Indigenous Council) has criticized the Escola Superior de Guerra, saying that the school doesn't have any credibility since it has always been at the service of the dictatorship. The Brazilian Congress right now is examining a proposal for creating 164 new reservations close to the border.

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Author: Hasson, Aron Article Title: IMMIGRATION: Fiction & fact Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.100 Publication Date: 04-30-94 Page: p. 23

IMMIGRATION: Fiction & fact.

"What side of the bed does your spouse sleep on?" "What color tooth brush does your spouse have?" These are the questions believed to be the normal inquiries at a marriage interview at the Immigration Office. But that is not what really happens. There are so many rumors about the encounter with the Immigration Officer that people end up memorizing useless trivial facts in order to obtain their goal: "to have the temporary green card stamped in their passport."

The mystery begins when you try to understand and fill out the one dozen immigration forms. You then get photographed and fingerprinted, spend hours in different lines at the immigration office to pay $255 for filing the case, wait months for an interview, take a medical exam which stays in a sealed envelope containing the results as to whether or not you have a contagious disease or AIDS, and then finally after gathering any and all documents and photos together, you get to the most difficult part: the interview.

I have sat with approximately two hundred married couples at the Immigration Office, mostly in Los Angeles, over my fourteen years of experience as an immigration attorney, and found it to be nerve-racking for many clients, and the mystery to be as high as the one that involve Saci Perere, the one-legged mythical creature that haunts Brazilian forests. People are expecting the most exceptional questions and situations.

There are many different types of experiences in enduring the green card interview. Some are routine, some are heart throbbing, some are rigid, some or fun. Some last five minutes, some last 45 minutes. Some of the immigration officers act like Nazi agents, while others make you feel as if they are your old friend. The big question is how can you get the fun interview which lasts five minutes with your old friend?

In reality, there are no payoffs, there are no shortcuts, and/or no matter how "well connected" and "well liked" your attorney is to the immigration officers, the officer will make his or her own decision on the case. The most common questions at these marriage interviews are: "Where did you meet?" "Did you have a wedding ceremony attended by your family and friends o just the two of you?" "Did you go anywhere for your honeymoon?" Some of the questions are so incidental to normal living habits that it would be very difficult to "memorize" the right answers to hundreds of different possible questions like: "What was the last movie you went to?" "What was the last video you rented?" "Where and when was the last time you went out to dinner?"

The immigration officers are thoroughly trained to have instinctive feelings about any case they have doubts about. For example, when excuses or complex answers are given to simple questions, it gives reason for the immigration officer to have suspicions that the couple may be trying to cover up something. Such cases often result in several more minutes of detailed and sometimes hostile questions.

The best approach to have your case go smooth is to have all of the interview so that more detailed questions are not raised. This will make the immigration officer's job easier and it will help shorten the time in the interview so that there is less opportunity to have extra questions asked of the couple.

To be specific, a couple should have in their possession all original documents with translations, have letter(s) from employers verifying income and tax returns, and of course documents showing that the couple is living together, like joint bank accounts, joint auto or health insurance, and photo together (preferably with family members). It may turn out that these documents will not even be asked for, but it is better to be over prepared than under prepared.

Secondly, remain clam and collected, and try not be intimidated by some of the curt mannerisms of the immigration officer. I have seen many couples answer simple questions wrongly just because they were intimidated by the whole atmosphere. For those able to afford an attorney's service, one of the most important contributions of the lawyer after making sure the documentation is complete, is the ability to help the clients feel as comfortable and as confident as possible (in addition to keeping you company during the additional hours of waiting at the Immigration office for the interview).

After all of the formalities have been concluded you are given the good news: "your green card has been approved, BUT this approval is conditional and only valid for two years, at which time your U.S. Citizen spouse must file another petition for you." "Thank you. Can I travel now?" "Yes." "Puxa, que legal!" There is such a huge feeling of relief when the couple get out of that anxiety-filled office. Finally, four months later you receive an envelop from Texas?! and it has a plastic pink card with your photo on it. Is this the green card? Yes, several years ago the Immigration office changed the color of the card. So now you know some solutions to the mystery.

Aron Hasson is an attorney in Los Angeles and has been practicing only immigration law for the past 14 years. His office is at 10850 Wilshire Blvd., Suite 750; Los Angeles, California 90024 - (310) 475-4779.

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Author: Dalevi, Alessandra Article Title: BOOK: Good snack Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.100 Publication Date: 04-30-94 Page: p. 25

BOOK: Good snack.

Insight Guides have a tradition of responsible and serious approach to travel guides, conveying both the good and the bad, rather than simply doing the requisite selling job that entices people to go to the country. They strive to merit the name Insight by trying to communicate the totality of a culture, its history, social structure, political organization, in addition to what is fun for a visitor to do. Brazil, the newest addition to the Insight Guides, takes a stab at capturing the many world of that complex country.

These guides try to cover every aspect of the countries they approach. Naturally there's a good and bad side to this. For one, the reader becomes familiar with the most important aspects of the country's history and social development, but this might also generate some misunderstandings because finer nuances are omitted. Some of the misrepresentations are not malicious in nature, but caused by the need for brevity; and some aspects are minimized in relation to the onslaught of other information.

Another problem stems from the fact that this is a guide book, written for people who presumably have scant or no knowledge of a complex country with many different faces. On the other hand the book is filled with beautiful photography of places and people. Moreover, Brazil presents an unusual collection of images, images that are thoughtful and serious as well as pleasing to the eye. I only wish the photos could be even larger. Being intensely personal, the work gives the reader a feeling that he is seeing beyond the image into the soul of the country.

The point of view brought here is distinctly European, stemming from the fact that all writers are British or white American. This point of view does Brazil a subtle disservice in some instances, not so subtle in others. Too much time is spent on racial composition and the multicultural aspect of population and culture in an almost gawking manner. Comments such as the "Oriental faces of São Paulo" are annoying. In the book, populations that are not European in origin are treated as exotic.

Brazil also refers to African religions as "culls", as if they were some how frivolous and less sacred. The book also presents a valiant effort to apply revisionist interpretation to Brazil's social, economic and historical development. The problem with the revisionist viewpoint is that it is still an evaluation imposed from an other perspective, not fully authentic. I would have preferred to read an interpretation from a Brazilian point of view, or more appropriately, from many Brazilian points of view.

All in all, as a travel book, the guide does a good job. It even makes some attempts to point out economic and social complications, but with the fall of Collor, the book has become outdated on this subject. The recent political and economic history has moved so quickly that almost any book can be expected to become outdated within six months. If we cannot use Brazil as a full exploration of the country, it can be considered an adequate introduction to

it.

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Author: Robbins, Sam; Robbins, Harriet Article Title: CINEMA: Starring in Berlin Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.100 Publication Date: 04-30-94 Page: p. 30

CINEMA: Starring in Berlin.

The films shown at Berlin's 44th International Film Festival films in competition included noted Brazilian director Nelson Pereira dos Santos's new release, A Terceira Margem do Rio (The third bank of the river). This was Santos's fourth participation in the Berlinale. A Terceira Margem do Rio is based on five short stories (A Terceira Margem do Rio, A Menina de La, Os Irmãos Dagobe, Fatalidade and Sequencia) written by the internationally known Brazilian writer João Guimaraes Rosa. Directed and written by Nelson, the story reflects the innermost core of Brazilian soul through real and fantastic images of current Brazilian life and the erosion of both the land and moral values of its people.

The film tells the story of a Brazilian family living in the countryside next to a river near Brasilia. One day the father says farewell and rows off, never to return. His son, Liojorge (IIya São Paulo) leaves a package of food daily at the river bank for the father he never sees again. Liojorge knows that he is still alive, for the food is gone when he returns to replace it. Liojorge grows up, meets Alva (French actress Sonjia Saurin); they wed and their child Nhinhinha is a miracle indeed. They discover she has magical power and can perform miracles at will.

After being harassed by three police brothers, one of which is after Alva, Liojorge moves his family to a favela in Brasilia. The child immediately becomes known as the `little saint' as she continues to perform her miracles. Their happiness is short lived when the ruffian brothers reappear. One of them kidnaps Alva while the others arrest Liojorge on a trumped up charge. Liojorge escapes with the help of his friends, rescues Alva and while so doing, shoots the kidnapper and returns to the favela in Brasilia. The little saint wearies of her miracle making and chooses to leave the grasping and greedy world around her. Bereft by her death, Liojorge and Alva return to the country where he once again leaves food for his father on the riverbank.

The elements of the Rosa story and the talent of Santos make a mirror-like reflection of contemporary Brazil. With the rapid changes in Brazilian society, peoples' hopes are focused on miracles that will become the avenue of escape from their difficult existence. But miracles end with the dying `little saint' and once again the hard reality of daily life takes hold. It is a tale told in broad strokes and the setting in Paracatu reflects a love for the land and its people. It also points out the strong family values and the continuing and unconditional struggle for a better life.

Nelson Pereira dos Santos is to be commended for his tenacity and perseverance in pursuing this project (four years of work) at a time of profound economic disarray in Brazil (half of the $1 million budget for the film came from France). His love for Brazil, its people and traditions was his motivation for bringing screen a work reflecting contemporary times in his land. The film was an international co-production involving Regina Filmes in Rio, the Polo de Cinema E Video de Brasilia, the Brazilian Culture Ministry and the

French government.

Laura Lustosa (the granddaughter of João Guimaraes Rosa) returned to Brazil from the United States where she had been working in theater, film and television to portray a reporter in A Terceira Margem do Rio, not only because this gave her an opportunity to be in a story written by her grandfather, but also because Nelson, a cinema legend and one of the cinema novo creators, was making the film. Maria Ribeiro, who portrays the mother in the film, was the star of the award-winning film Vidas Secas in 1963.

On February 20th, A Terceira Margem do Rio had its world premiere in Berlin at the same time it was opening in Brazil. Present at the Berlin's press conference after the film showing were actors Ilya São Paulo, Sonja Saurin, Maria Ribeiro, and Laura Lustosa and director Nelson Pereira dos Santos.

The questions then asked dealt mainly with the economics and filmmaking processes in Brazil today. There was great admiration expressed for the work accomplished by Nelson and all those who participated in the film. The film played four times to sold out audiences in spite of the frigid weather in Berlin.

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Author: Dalevi, Alessandra Article Title: MUSIC: Bye bye, Seattle. Hello, Recife Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.100 Publication Date: 04-30-94 Page: p. 32

MUSIC: Bye bye, Seattle. Hello, Recife.

Chewing gum and eating a banana at the same time is not a new phenomenon in Brazilian music. The band Sepultura, for instance, has been chewing a lot of gum - their lyrics are in English - and thanks to that has built up a vast following, mainly in the United States and Europe. Other successful Brazilian rock groups, including Legião Urbana and Paralamas do Sucesso have also tried to translate their Latin sensibility into English, but with every little resonance outside Brazil.

Paradoxically, a new breed of Brazilian roqueiros is doing rock in Portuguese without giving up their claim to international fame. These are some of the names people are starting to listen to and talk about in Brazil: Chico Science & Nacão Zumbi, Mundo Livre S/A, Nacão Pernambuco, Gangrena Gasosa, Raimundos, Jambendola, and So Preto sem Preconceito. Strictly speaking the new rhythm is not rock, and critics have been looking for labels that would define the movement. Gangrena Gasosa, for example, is pointed out as the leader of the sarava metal line, while Mundo Livre and Chico Science & Nacão Zumbi are considered the creators of manguebeat or movimento mangue.

Many of these groups and much of the present Brazilian musical effervescence comes from the capital of Pernambuco, Recife, a city that has been called the Brazilian Venice in the past but whose musical voice has been more or less silent until recently. Chico Science & Nacão Zumbi released Cidade, their first album, in march, but they've been a big hit in Recife for some time now. Nacão Pernambuco so charmed Los Angeles-based Brazilian musician Sergio Mendes that he is going to use their all harmonious batuque (drumming) in his next CD, which might mean instantaneous international recognition, as has happened before with the Baiano band Olodum.

There are at least 100 other bands playing right now in Recife. They don't care if the radio stations continue ignoring them. The public, mainly people who are tired of axe music and the so-called brega sertanejo, have been showing up in droves to cheer their heroes in small bars, clubs, squares, public market and in the big five music festivals that happened in Recife in 1993. Some recording companies are also very attentive ever so eager to be able to pinpoint the new trend. The Rio label Rock It! released the first album of Gangrena Gasosa in January. Chaos, a branch of Sony, was the responsible for Cidade, Chico Science's debut release. Warner, through its Banguela label, has signed Mundo Livre S/A and Raimundos, a band from Brasilia.

All this movement is a big change from a still-prevailing idea that Portuguese is not an appropriate language for rock. This attitude had infiltrated the rock industry in such a sneaky way that even instruments such as the harmonica and the tambourine had been banned as being campy or careta, as they say in young slang. The shame of being Brazilian seems to have disappeared. The group Jambendola has adopted the jegue (donkey) as its mascot. It's smiling and flying donkey that has been named Jegasus.

The Pernambucano bands have extreme respect for maracatu, a traditional regional rhythm that has already inspired some famous MPB (Brazilian Popular Music) composers such as Dorival Caymmi, in Dora and Jorge Ben Jor in Mas que nada.

"We want to show maracatu as an authentic musical product of Pernambuco, but dressing it in new clothes," says Felipe Santiago, 41, the producer of the group Nacão Pernambuco. An economist from Rio, Santiago went to Olinda for a training course 14 years ago and has never left Pernambuco since.

In an interview to weekly magazine Veja, Jorge Davidson, Sony's artistic director, stated, "The lyrics of the new bands are intelligent, they deal with social questions in a direct way, linking to their music messages that represent a youthful vision of the country. It will be no surprise if they end the year with a golden record."

The new bands seem to be reediting the anthropophagic spirit preached by the Semana da Arte Moderna in the 20's, which taught how to devour all foreign culture and regurgigate it as a national product. While lyrics has lost their meaning in the deafening noise of many a hard rock tune, the new roqueiros are giving a preeminent place to the words of the songs.

When we say the new crop of musicians likes to write political tunes this does not mean we are seeing a return of the 60's when songs inspired by Lenin and Marx were the rage. Nowadays the inspiration comes mainly from the media, and especially from TV. Cidade, from Chico Science, for example, talks about a sewer problem in Recife: Num dia de so Recife acordou/Com a mesma fedentina do dia anterior (On a sunny day Recife woke up/With the same stench as the day before).

So Preto sem Preconceito is a Carioca band that has already made a name playing what some call samba-metal. For them the use of Portuguese in the lyrics and a lot of percussion have been essential to their successful career, with six albums already recorded. Nine years ago, when they started, the idea was to create a Jackson Five type of group. They ended up playing samba because the money wasn't enough for them to buy guitars and drums and percussion instruments.

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Author: Alexander, Francine Article Title: PROFILE: Big mouth Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.5; N.100 Publication Date: 04-30-94 Page: p. 37

PROFILE: Big mouth.

Tapping into the U.S. market is the latest dream of some very talented singer-composer-arranger-instrumentalists already well established in Brazil. Four men with melodic voices, razor-sharp precision and a knack for subtle instrumentation recently ventured outside of Brazil for the first time in hopes of finding new fans. Mauricio Maestro, Ze Renato, Lourenco Baeta, and Fernando Gamaare Boca Livre, a hard-working foursome hoping to make itself a part of American culture.

The group's first visit to the States recently brought with it flawless a capella singing, sometimes racing along like a blizzard, sometimes mellow and languid like a sunset, with instrumentation as soothing as the lap of waves on the ocean. Boca Livre brings us music that is part jazz, part folk, part sweet, part brash, always interesting, a challenge to the wit, a pleasure to the ear. Americans don't know much about the group, but introductions are being made, and so far the climate seems encouraging. There are signs of dedicated (if not droves of) fans willing to join the ranks of their counterparts in Brazil

Last year Boca Livre recorded their latest album, Dancando pelas Sombras (Dancing by the Shadows), an independent release financed and produced by the members of the group. Boca Livre had already made one successful journey on the independent road, having financed and produced their first album in 1979. "In the beginning the companies were very skeptical," says Maestro, the group's founder. "They didn't believe it was possible for vocal groups to do popular work and sell records. They didn't believe, so we paid all the recording expenses and did all the marketing. We are the reason the album happened." The record sold an impressive 150,000 copies.

Maestro, who does all the ear-catching, mind-boggling vocal arrangements for the group, candidly admits that the latest recording has put new pressures on the group to build a stronger following. "The times are odd in Brazil," he says, comparing the group's second independent production experience with their first. "It's not the same as it was in the beginning. Now, inflation is very bad and it is very difficult to see the return of your money."

The financial challenge is compounded by an aesthetic one, what Maestro calls the lowest common denominator kind of recording: "Radio stations aren't playing much Brazilian popular music now. They play a lot of rock and roll produced for the broad audience. I think the stations should play all kinds of music and let the audience make their own selection. But they don't think like that."

It's a common complaint from performers whose music dares to eschew the proscribed sounds of modern commercial radio. The question is, will the group find the U.S. market any less proscriptive? After all, we have our commercial problems, too. For year, American jazz musicians have complained about dwindling audiences and slipping sales. The best of the best still see only a

fraction of top pop and rock star sales.

Given this environment, a few factors might give Boca Livre in edge. The group's sound will not be a wholly unfamiliar experience for American listeners, an advantage in this market. Legitimate comparisons could be made to Manhattan Transfer, Bobby McFerrin, and Take Six - the Los Angeles times even adds Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young (or possibly the Grateful Dead?) - all well respected and successful. Add the fact that vocal harmony is a popular vehicle in the United States, and Boca Livre's precision delivery of traditional and nontraditional Brazilian sound could ensure the group its own special niche.

To improve their chances, the band is planning an album in English. "We will be working a lot in 1994 and we other cities and trying to conquer the American public. This is a project into which we are putting a lot of effort," says Baeta.

The American market is a wellspring of potential, according to Baeta and Renato, who describe with enthusiasm the vast Latino audience waiting to be conquered here. "This is very interesting for us. If we are able to please these people that would be very good for us."

Most important, Boca Livre is smart about its repertoire. A recent performance at Le Cafe, an intimate club in Los Angeles's San Fernando Valley, featured a mix of melodic and mischievous music, the cap of which was a rendition of Roxanne, the venerable Police/Sting standard, wailed from the heart by Ze Renato. The selection was a smash from the first few notes, not only thanks to audience recognition, but also from eager anticipation of what Boca Livre would do with the well-loved tune. Renato's pleas to Roxanne would have made Sting envious.

Roxanne is not among the tracks on Dancando pelas Sombras. Still, I've played the all-Portuguese album for several English-only friends. I get a startled look followed by an exclamation, "Those guys are good!" Followed by, "Is there somewhere I can get this album?"

Which raises tow key questions: Will Boca Livre's potential consumers in the U.S. get to hear the group? Tom Schnobel of KCRW, NPR's member station in Los Angeles, can be counted among the conquered and has featured the group on his weekly Cafe L.A. program. But will responsible yet all-too-few programmers such as Schnobel be enough to build a meaningful following?

And will there be a distribution channel to meet demand? According to Maestro, this element is not yet in place. "This is the first time we've been outside of Brazil," he says. "We have some friends who know our work and send records to other people. And some people outside of Brazil are interested in our work." But for this trip, the group acted as its own distribution network. Happily, all the CDs disappeared.

If the group does get a footing here, it could add to the momentum Brazilian music has been slowly regaining in the U.S. Aside form Boca Livre's own compositions, their spirited interpretations of other musicians give U.S. audiences the opportunity of other musicians give U.S. audiences the opportunity to hear some of Brazil's best.

"Inspiration is a small part of the process," says Maestro. "The big part is work, work, work."

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Author: Adams, Scott Article Title: Next attraction Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.100 Publication Date: 04-30-94 Page: p. 38

Next attraction.

The rising international popularity of contemporary jazz has come to provide a launching pad for Brazilian Instrumental music, and subsequently it's been targeted as "the next Brazilian wave."

You need look no further than Windham Hill's Instrumental Music from Brazil sampler to see how this musical trend has begun to take hold. It features 13 tracks and nine artists from the highly stocked Visom Records talent pool.

Visom's elegant collection of acoustic and electric selections centers around Windham Hill's traditional sound, but with a delicate tropical flavor. Visom owner Carlos de Andrade talked abut the growing phenomenon of Brazilian Instrumental music from his office in Rio de Janeiro.

"Many factors have shaped its direction, but most important is our desire to show the rest of the world our own cultural growth. Brazil's economic and social problems get so much attention that its sometimes difficult to remind people of the richness that exists here."

Windham Hill's sampler was designed to test the market and gauge reaction to several Visom artists. This was essential because of the great diversity of Brazilian musical style and form. Quite a different situation from American instrumental music.

"Take guitarists," said de Andrade. "In America you have, say, Lee Ritenour, Larry Carlton and Ray Obiedo. Each with a different musical personality, but still within the same musical style."

He continued. "In Brazil, you have contemporary fusion with Torcuato Mariano, the modern interpretations of traditional regional music with Alemão and the unvarnished enthusiasm of Ulisses Rocha on yet another side. Our musical variety is virtually unmatched in the world."

The success of Windham Hill's Visom sampler was such that a series of single artist releases has been planned for 1994. And that's only the tip of the uh, iceberg.

Groups: Aquarela Carioca, No em Pingo d'Agua, Galo Preto, Uakti, La Vem a Tribo, Opus 5, Zonazul. Artists: Mario Cimbelli, Nando Cordeiro, Edgar Duvivier, Paulo Brasil, Mauro Senise, Serginho Trombone, Marcos Resende, Rildo Hora, Junior Homrich, Gilson Peranzzetta.

Want a few more? Andre Geraissati, Victor Biglione, Pascoal Meirelles, Roberto Sion, Tomas, Paulinho Trompete, William Magalhaes, Zezo Ribeiro.

Each of these is developing its career along with the expanding Brazilian instrumental music base. Many have already established themselves as highly rated studio musicians, but until now how lacked the opportunity to record

their own music. Now that market demand has increased, new outlets for these talented musicians are appearing.

Echoing Visom's involvement with Windham Hill is Rio-based Caju Music and its relationship with Fantasy Inc. British co-owner Barry Powely paints an enthusiastic picture for Brazilian instrumental music with a clear understanding of his labels objectives.

"When we started Caju four years ago, our idea was to provide high quality recordings of unknown musicians and give them a shot at establishing themselves," said Powely. "Then we found that many other small labels began popping up with the same approach. Now these musicians from Rio's club scene are more in the public's eye, not only here in Rio but all over Brazil and now in the U.S.. There's been an incredible increase over the last few years."

Through Milestone World Music, Caju's releases have included Gosto de Brasil; a sparkling jazz interpretation of music from the Brazilian Northeast, including a special tribute to Luiz Gonzaga. The Bonfa Magic by having the artist revisit his most famous compositions. Dois Irmãos by clarinetist Paulo Moura and guitarist Raphael Rabello won the Sharp Premium Award for Best Instrumental Recording of 1993. Its the highest honor in Brazil's recording industry.

"We're working to become the Deutsche Gramophone of Brazil," said Powely. "And its something we feel the North American buyer will continue to appreciate. I expect success will occur as new marketing techniques help the U.S. buyer to be more aware of what he is purchasing."

Others, including Hermeto Pascoal, pianist Antonio Adolfo, Olmir Stocker and percussionist João Parahyba enjoy the innovative marketing aspects of Happy Hour Music. This small California based label uses direct mail and an 800 number (571-DISC) to provide its catalog of high quality recordings with superior musical content to buyers nationwide.

Much as with Bossa Nova's rise to world-wide popularity in the 1960s, Brazilian Instrumental Music is now poised to achieve similar success as the "next Brazilian wave" for many of the same reasons. The new BIM has a fresh, vibrant quality and provides a genuine alternative to much of the overworked and cliche-ridden music that poses as contemporary jazz here.

Additionally, melodic, rhythmic and harmonic development are all Brazilian strong suits and creativity with instrumental music in Brazil is on the rise, just as many pop composers decry the lack of true vocal talent to replace the current generation.

Scott Adams is the editor of The Brazilian Music Review, and long time columnist and features' writer for Jazziz magazine, where this article originally was published. You may contact him at (708) 298-8019.

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Author: Dalla Dea, Ariane Article Title: TRAVEL: Taste of Europe Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.100 Publication Date: 04-30-94 Page: p. 40

TRAVEL: Taste of Europe.

Santa Catarina is not just another state. Its 4.5 million residents, influenced by Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, and especially by German immigrants and their children, have developed more than just a just a place to live. They've created an island that is economically and socially ahead of any other state in the rest of Brazil. Santa Catarina's small size, 95,318 km (59,240 mi), is no obstacle for its 25,000 industries, mainly of textiles, to produce five percent of Brazil's total export products. But Santa Catarina's main business is tourism.

In 1993 Santa Catarina hosted close to 400 thousand tourists, and this year the state's officials expect an additional 100 thousand. Coming mainly from Argentina, these visitors explore the variety of the state's 60 beaches, with Caribbean-like bays and experience cultural contrasts as the one between Blumenau and Joinville in the Itajai Valley. Even Santa Catarina's rainy days - an average of 16 days per month, the highest annual index of rain in the country - don't stop people from enjoying this progressive state. In the summer, the airport of Florianopolis, the capital, is the third busiest of Brazil. Santa Catarina is more visited than Rio de Janeiro, according to a recent article in Veja magazine.

Your first stop is Florianopolis island, the cultural and administrative center of Santa Catarina, and the most important tourist point of the Brazilian south coast. The city's best feature are the beaches, and the most sought among them are Jurere, Canasvieniras, Ingleses with its beautiful dunes, Mocambique, and if you surf go to the clear waters of Mole beach or to the famous Joaquina beach, where some of the most important national and international surf competition takes place.

If you like archaeology, visit Armacão beach; it is one of the most important sites of archaeological studies of the state. For a relaxing evening go to the Lagoa (Lagoon) da Conceicão one of the most visited attractions of the island. There you can enjoy a giant shrimp prepared on garlic and olive oil, or in coconut milk, whole sitting by the water watching the fishermen catching more shrimp.

Florianopolis is the biggest honey producer of Brazil, and at Cidade das Abelhas (Bees' Town), in the Instituto de Apicultura you'll be able to buy some of that regal stuff. For some shopping you might go to places such as Casa Acoriana, Mercado Municipal, Campeche beach, or Ribeirão da llha, where you can find a wide range of arts and crafts made by local artists.

After enjoying a relaxing stay in the capital, travel north to the most famous beach resort of the south coast of Brazil: Camboriu. There you might visit the beaches of Laranjeiras, Taquaras, and the nude beach of Pinho. Take a boat trip around the coast, and tour the Museu Arqueologico e Oceanografico. By then you'll be ready to take on the sights and the pleasures of Vale do Itajai, where a strong European influence can be seen all over, in the small

farms, the type of construction, the peoples' faces.

Blumenau, located at 139 km (86 miles) north of Florianopolis, is the central point of the Itjai Valley. Its main products are textiles (it is the second most important world producer), and meat packing, but the biggest attraction of Blumenau is the Oktoberfest; seventeen days of German-heritage celebration, that happens every year in October. But if your can't visit Blumenau in October you will not be disappointed. The town has more to offer than song and bargain beer. The Spitzkopf Ecological Reservation next to the Florsta Negra (Black Forest) will relax your spirit, while the Jardim das Bromelias (25 km from Blumenau) will delight your eyes. Blumenau reflect in its architecture, culture, arts and crafts, food, and in the population a marked German influence.

Your next stop in the Itajai Valley is Joinville, located at 105 km (65 miles) north of Blumenau. Known as Cidade das Flores (Flowers' Town), Joinville is the biggest city of Santa Catarina (more than 400 thousand inhabitants), the center of the industry of most important industrial hub of southern Brazil. The city hosts annually the Fenachope, the draft beer festival, that is held in September and the Festa das Flores (Flowers' Feast) held every November. That's when you have a chance to find out about the rich variety of flowers cultivated in the region, among them all kinds of orchids.

Another feature of Joinville are the early constructions by the German settlers, that you'll find in different locations, being the Rio Comprido and Morro do Ouro the most visited ones. Throughout the state you'll also find fine hotels and food, but camping is highly practiced and recommended. The Campgrounds are excellent, and Santa Catarina has at least one camping site in each of its 60 beaches.

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Author: Mello, Rodney Article Title: RECADO Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.101 Publication Date: 05-31-94 Page: p. 5

Recado.

Magic realism has always found in Brazil a fertile soil for Literature. Furthermore life on the absurd lane has been an integral part of living on these shores. In such a chronic state of life imitating the weirdest art, however, these seem to be the best times for reality to put fiction to shame.

Time has shown that president Fernando Collor's impeachment in 1992 wasn't the end of a process of purgation and cleansing but just the beginning of the Via Dolorosa of our national passion.

The last scandal, arisen in Rio, uncovered what everybody knew: that the jogo do bicho (number's game) was a thriving respectable underworld power paying its way in kickbacks, intimidation and some token social gifts to some of the poorest.

What wasn't that obvious was the fact that they maintained on their payroll the highest authorities of the state, those whose job was to protect the population from these crooks. Rio state's governor, Rio city's mayor, the Security secretary, all were getting checks from that Mafia and were having their hands greased to look the other way, together with judges, sheriffs, journalists and a whole police battalion.

Apparently in Brazil every time the doctors eradicate some cancerous tissue, they find that the disease has taken root a little deeper and the scalpels have to go back to work.

Luckily the patient continues to show an unmatchable ability to heal itself and therefore the prognostic is still hopeful. But it's hard to keep faith in the system when time after time Brazilians learn that they cannot trust those in charge.

Ate breve.

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Author: Nascimento, Elma Lia Article Title: COVER: Mars, here we come Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.101 Publication Date: 05-31-94 Page: p. 7

COVER: Mars, here we come.

Not everybody is convinced of Brazil's sincerity about its newfound peaceful intentions; but since Brazil created its local NASA, the Agncia Espacial Brasileira (AEB) last February, the chances of the country seriously joining, and in a very short time, the very exclusive space club has increased considerably. Brazil has been sending rockets into the space since 1965, but they have been only small boosters for launching meteorological probes at low altitude.

When Brazil showed interest in expanding its scope with the placement of satellites in space, the United States voiced its concerns and put a firm foot against the door of technology transfer, alleging that the same technology might be used to shower enemies with missiles. A Yankee diplomat even confided that he had been forbidden by his government from giving some technology books as gifts to Brazilians. Until the creation of AEB, the whole space program in Brazil was in the hands of the military.

In a 1993 study ordered by the White House, the Rand Corporation, a California-based think tank, concluded that the Brazilian space program would not be "economically viable" unless its real objective were the production of missiles. Tired of being snubbed by Washington, Bras¡lia was already looking somewhere else to find the components it needed. Right now, Brazil and China are in a joint venture to produce a communications satellite; and Germany, which has sold its atomic technology to Brazilian nuclear plants, has been approached to help develop a better stabilizing system for satellites.

Before February, COBAE (Brazilian Committee on Spatial Activities), a branch of the Armed Forces, was in charge of all Brazilian space ventures. COBAE was created in the early seventies, under the military umbrella, to supervise all space research in the country and hasn't disappeared with the advent of the new space Agency. The committee is still responsible for the signing of international treaties. It has recently reached an agreement with NASA to launch a series of research rockets from Brazilian territory.

The creation of AEB came with promises that the country was ready to accept the conditions of the MCTR, an international treaty that limits the production of missiles. When American Vice-President Al Gore went to Brasilia in February, he heard again about how peaceful the plans for the Brazilian space program are.

Speaking to weekly magazine IstoE, Major Brigadier Ajax Barros de Melo, 59, general director of AEB, talked about the American fears: "We want to make it clear that in reality we've never had military objectives. But we are not going to be formally signing any document. We are adults and we will do the same as Russia and China, which simply declared that they were adhering to the terms of the agreement."

He added, however: "Whoever makes and places a rocket in orbit can point it in

any direction. We have this capacity and the Americans know that. That's sovereignty."

Brazil's proclamations of good intentions seem to be enough to mollify the U.S., which has already declared that "the creation of the civilian agency has placed the relations between the two countries on track again." Brazil now can even develop weapons as long as it honors its commitment to keep this technology at home and not to pass it along to other nations.

The Brazilian space program is still very modest. All the country wishes to do in the near future is to launch fewer than a dozen nationally built satellites, one of which is already in the skies. The first of them was launched in 1993 by an American rocket. Initial plans, started in 1980, had called for a VLS (Satellite Launching Vehicle, now being developed by Brazil) to launch the Brazilian orbiter in 1986. Later, the date was revised to '89, but once again the deadline came and went and the rocket still hadn't left its planning stage. Lack of resources and American restrictions have contributed to all these delays.

The Unites States has prevented Brazil from getting parts for the so-called inertial platform, components that serve to show when the rocket is getting off course. The U.S. has also prevented Brazilians from getting a system to stabilize their satellites when in orbit. That's why the SCD-1, the only satellite made in Brazil that's orbiting the earth, has been gyrating like a crazy lambada dancer in space.

It's ironic that the INPE has been testing an Argentinean satellite that has the system Brazilian satellites lack. Argentina has been favored by the U.S. in this field and was able to get its hands on the SAC-B system which allows satellites to maneuver in space. In the satellite being developed with China, that country is responsible for the guidance system, but once again there is no explicit transfer of technology being made between the two countries. Brazilian scientists believe, however, that all such contacts will eventually make the country an insider on these technological matters. "If you place the appropriate people in a cooperative project, this transfer of technology will inevitably happen," says Carlos Santana, the manager for the Chinese-Brazilian venture.

The government is betting now that the first VLS, a $40-million project, will be ready for space by December 1995, but not soon enough to place in orbit the next Brazilian satellite, the SCD-2. Once again, Brazil will have to hire another country to do the job.

If the satellite launcher is still on the ground, however, it is not for lack of talented heads. Jay me Boscov, 61, the father of the VLS, is a Brazilian who for nine years worked in France, helping with the development of the supersonic with personal resources his advancement in France, Boscov same place where he had concluded his studies in 1959.

Still there isn't a schedule to coordinate the rockets' program. AEB was created to try to accomplish this objective as well as to integrate the military and civilian sides of the program. While the CTA is linked to the Aeronautic Ministry, the INPE (National Institute of Space Researches), which is in charge of the satellites, is part of the Ministry of Science and Technology.

With more than 1300 workers, the INPE, in cooperation with NASA, has been

involved in space, astronomy and meteorology research since its creation in 1971. But Brazil's interest in space started at least 10 years before that. CNAE (National Committee on Space Activities) was created in 1961, only four years after the Russians launched its pioneer Sputnik.

In 1964, the Aeronautic Ministry opened the Barreira do Inferno Launching Center close to Natal, state of Rio Grand do Norte. At the beginning of the sixties, in a diversified effort (the same error made by the Americans when their space program started), the Navy was developing the Somma (Meteorological Probes for the Navy) project while the Air Force was using the so-called Somfa (Air Force Meteorological Probing) rockets.

They would in time give birth to the Sonda dynasty (from 1 to 4), and to the VLS itself. While the Sonda I was 3 meters (9.8 feet) long and weighed 54 kilos (119 lb.), the first VLS will be 19 meters (62-4 feet) and will weigh 50 tons. The little Sonda I was launched in space more than 200 times during a period of 12 years. The VLS is capable of putting a cargo of 115 kilos (253 lb.) in an orbit of 750 kilometers (465 miles) of altitude.

More recently the Alcantara Base, a launching center, was opened in the state of Maranhão, very close to the Equator and not far from French Guyana Kourou Base from which some two dozen Ariane rockets have been launched.

The first Brazilian satellite has been in orbit since February 1993. It is the SCD-1, the Satellite for Collection of Data. By the end of the year, the SCd-2 should be ready to go to space, where it will take the place of its older brother, whose life expectancy is just a little more than two years. The function of the SCD family of satellites is to receive meteorological data from 25 stations spread all over the country and to transmit these data instantaneously to the control centers maintained by the National Institute of Space Research (INPE).

The SCD-3, already approved by the government, will be the first national satellite to test telecommunication equipment in low altitude. The plan is to have eight Brazilian satellite in space making possible a network of mobile phones throughout the whole country. Embratel (Brazilian Enterprise of Communications) is part of the world communications network through the Intelsat and Inmarsat systems. The satellites being operated now by Brazil for its domestic communication are all foreign built.

Two of the satellites being built are a joint-venture with the Chinese. They are known as CBERS-I and CBERS-2 (Chinese-Brazilian Earth Resources Satellite) and should be able to take pictures in order to spot and prevent illegal fires in the Amazon, among other tasks. However, the first CBERS won't be launched until October 1996, to be followed in 1998 by its younger sibling.

At the same time, Brazil will be trying to develop on its own similar satellites. These will be part of the SSR family, which should start going into space also in 1996. According to initial plans, the SSR-1 should have been in orbit in 1994.

Space humor - Brazilians themselves have never taken their space program very seriously. Echoes of this spirit can be found in literature, music and film. What is considered by some as the first Brazilian science-fiction romance, Albino Jose Ferreira Coutinho's A Liga dos Planetas (The Planets' League), written in 1921, has as its hero a Carioca (native of Rio) drafted by President Epitacio Pessoa to contact extra-terrestrials to create an

interplanetary organization. The government built him an airplane and he went to the Moon, Venus and Mars, having even to face a war. The unsettling revelation at the end, however, was that our hero never left Brazil, not even his boarding-house in downtown Rio where he dreamed all these adventures.

In a similar way, Violeta Ferraz, in the 1954 chan-chada (B_movie) Carnaval em Marte was hit on the head by a vase and dreamed that she was the Queen of Carnaval in Mars. When, in 1959, the Sputnik fell into comedian Oscarito's backyard, in O Homem do Sputnik (The Man of the Sputnik), there was again the upsetting news at the end when it was discovered that the assumed satellite was nothing more than a metal ball fallen from the neighbor's roof.

It's also true that Golias and Grande Otelo, two comic geniuses, went into orbit in Os Cosmonautas in the early sixties. But there was no doubt about the message of the slapstick. Golias was called Gagarino, a play on the name of Soviet Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, who, in 1961, aboard the Vostok, became the first man to orbit the earth.

To understand a little how hard has been life for the Brazilian space community, it's enough to say that since 1979, the MECB (Complete Brazilian Space Mission) has received only $150 million for its projects. This is the amount a Third World country like India spends every year in its own space program.

Another illustration can be given through the ever present play of image and reality. Impeached image and reality. Impeached ex-president Fernando Collor de Mello had assumed power by promising to find a place for Brazil in the first world. On his desk he kept a picture of a VLS rocket and used to say he was entirely in favor of the program. When Collor had a chance to help the program, however, he cut a budget that was already critically low.

The skies seem to be getting brighter for the Brazilian space program, however. The VLS will be receiving $40 million from the government by 1995. The INPE budget for 1993 is almost $70 million, and there is a new sense of pride and self-assurance among the participants in the program. "Our space mission," says Marcio Barbosa, the INPE director, "has created about 5,000 highly specialized jobs, besides allowing the transfer of First World technology to several sectors of the civilian industry."

On the other hand there are no false hopes that from now on the doors of high tech will be open to the Brazilian efforts. AEB director Ajax de Melo has no illusions: "I don't believe our potential partners will help us build the VLS. We will have to do it by ourselves."

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Author: Noblat, Ricardo; Negreiros, Jose Article Title: INTERVIEW: The other Fernando Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.101 Publication Date: 05-31-94 Page: p. 13

INTERVIEW: The other Fernando.

More than ever, presidential candidate Fernando Henrique Cardoso is now orchestrating his economic plan and the alliances for his candidacy from his senate seat, to which he has returned after passing the Ministry of Finance to a main in tune with his thoughts, former Brazilian ambassador to Washington, Rubens Ricupero.

Few people doubt now that Cardoso abandoned a comfortable position as Foreign Minister to assume a risky job as Finance Minister in May, 1993 with an eye on the Alvorada Palace, the executive mansion in Brasilia. His candidacy is the worst news Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, the favorite of all polls for the presidency up to now, could have received. Worried about the leftist leanings of former union leader Lula, businessmen were looking for an anti-Lula.

FHC, as Cardoso is frequently called in the press, couldn't be a more perfect antidote to Lulism, in a homeopathic way. He is no right-extremist or seven a moderate from the right as Lula and his PT (Worker Party) would like to have as foe. Au contraire, the senator for PSDB (Party of the Brazilian Social Democracy) has his own left-leaning positions himself and is in a party considered center left.

Besides, Cardoso, an intellectual, fled Brazil, persecuted by the military regime, and took refuge at the Sorbonne University. Moreover some of his disciples went on to create the PT. To all of this, FHC adds the charm of being appealing to FIESP (São Paulo State Federation of Industry) and the International Monetary Fund.

Fernando Henrique likes to cite French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre to explain how he makes his political analyses: "L'enfer sont les autres." ("Hell are the other people."). It will be a challenge for Cardoso, the candidate, to arrange a winning coalition of friendly and unfriendly parties all interested in at least a piece of the presidency, be it a vice-presidency or an important ministry.

But in the end the new Fernando (impeached Collor de Mello was also a Fernando) will be inducted into the Palacio da Alvorada based on a plan he put into action months ago, I the URV (Unit of Real Value) proposal. If it is working in October and November when the first and the second rounds of the election respectively occur, he will be new Brazilian President. If not, it will be; `Bye-bye, Fernando, nice try.'

Have the people understood your economic plan?

We live in a society where everything is instantaneous. Brazil has huge pockets of backward. In an economic plan like this everything happens fast and in two days people already know everything.

And did the politicians understand?

They were a little scared, they took their precautions, and they attacked. The PSDB got scared. They thought: my God, what are they doing that we don't know? Are you going to lose the elections? Only victory has allies during these times in Brazilian politics. But those who fight to build victory can be counted on the fingers of your hand. When somebody wins then there is that downpour. It is early to tell if it was a victory but the acceptance was much faster than I anticipated. This in big part because the media has helped tremendously. For me it has been a physical massacre to have to answer all the questions from the media.

Why are you the only one who talks?

Because that's the way it works in a mass culture. It's useless if anybody else talks. The media creates its own interlocutors and even invents some of them. During the 70s, when we were fighting the military regime, the media invented the Gazeta Mercantile (a financial daily newspaper from S...o Paulo) forum (business leaders), the union world (Lula) (he was then leader of the metal workers union) and the intellectuality of the SBPC (Brazilian Society for the Progress of Science). These segmented interlocutors didn't have representatives, they hadn't received a delegation from the masses. It was the media that chose them arbitrarily. Modern society is different. It inverts the notion of party, of grass roots. The media said, "The Minister is the spokesman," and I went on TV to talk.

Who are they going to invent next?

Maybe the counter-interlocutor. Somebody who will make the counterpoint. But this is not a random invention. It exists because there is a counterpoint in society, This is not malevolent perversity of the reporter.

And who will be the counter-interlocutor?

This is a political question. But there is always a tendency to link the economic process together with the electoral process. Let's wait and see how the partisan question gets resolved. They are inventing an alliance between the PFL (Party of the Liberal Front) and the PSDB, which is making the PSDB very, very nervous. They are finding out that it will be necessary to have strong support form a variety of sources in order to do anything in Brazil.

Have you become the new Tancredo? (Tancredo Neves, a gifted politician, was chosen by Congress to be the first Brazilian President after 21 years of military dictatorship, but he died before being inaugurated.)

Yes. But this is not because I, my party, or other people want it. It's Brazil in this moment that wants to produce someone who can symbolize a national union.

Do you think the press is only vocalizing this hope?

I think so. The press is anticipating it. The press has other antennae that don't pass through the representative system. The system runs after the press.

How do you see yourself in this role?

I'm not sure I'm going to get this role. I am very cautious. This comes and

goes. I am not sure this movement will have a wider following. I haven't advanced even a step in this direction. Neither have the parties.

There is a big need among certain sectors to create an anti-Lula candidate, isn't there?

That's true. They are trying to give birth to an anti-Lula candidate. But the PSDB is not anti-Lula. Neither am I. Now, society is trying to create somebody who will be able to defeat Lula. Is this achievable? This is not a question of wanting or not. It is something deeper. It will depend on thousands of factors. This need challenge Lula exists. But it is not clear who is going to perform this role.

I have my doubts about my candidacy. It is not an easy position to be a challenger. It's something vexing. Besides, my allies will not be chosen by me. All of this provokes interior, psychological and emotional disturbances. On the other hand, it has its positive aspect. I know that I can be a candidate. The party wants it, there are other forces that want it, and I have some chance of winning.

But I also can decisively contribute to putting the country back on its feet, doing what I am doing Wouldn't this be more useful and even better politically? I am 62 In four years I will be 66. This is not an elementary calculation to be made. On what does it depend? On having somebody as candidate for those forces.

Don't you feel it is complicated to try to stabilize the economy in a climate of political instability?

Au contraire. This attempt at stabilization is only possible due to the political fluctuations we are presently experiencing. By the way, I have a heterodox thesis about this. If the political situation were stable, we wouldn't be able to end inflation because inflation has its beneficiaries. If the government is organized, it doesn't allow us to destroy inflation because to end inflation it's necessary to restrain the government. I've done this.

How?

People say, "Fernando Henrique is a suave creature, he never says no." But I have restrained all the governors. We've created a very stringent rule to control the state banks. The first collateral security I offered was to (Bahia governor) Antonio Carlos (Magalhaes) and the second to (Rio governor Leonel) Brizola. Why? Because they had their finances in order.

Then you profited from the crisis?

Do you think a strong government would allow you to do this? Do you think he ministers would allow that? When (President) Itamar dismissed all his ministers, and it wasn't something that I suggested, I said, "Great." Because there was always talk among ministers that we could not do this, we could not do that.

"There is no government," some people have said. If there were, we wouldn't have done what we have done. (Finance Minister) Cavallo was only able to do what he government was ending. The main concern of the economic team was with the political instability. And I told them, "If there were no crisis in the Budget Committee, do you think they would let us do with the Budget what we

have done? Never." This is something you cannot forecast. These are things that happen, they are accidents, they are moments of luck.

Are you becoming mystical?

No. But you have to be able to detect the circumstances and make them work for you. This is politics. It's not an objective analysis. For example: how many times did Serra say that all that was done was impossible because analytically it was really impossible? Many were saying, "Ah, Congress will never release funds without political connections in an election year. It will never happen."

But until now the President hasn't participated in the plan...

This is for another reason. He is afraid they will ask him a question and that he might answer in a manner contrary to the plan's structure. I don't have the slightest complaint against Itamar. On the contrary, he didn't obstruct the plan in any way, and in his own way he gave it prestige and force. And the fact that the Congress committed so many blunders gave us a certain space to act.

How is the private financial life of the Minister who created the sixth Brazilian currency in the last 10 years?

I have no financial life. I don't use money, credit cards or checks. I spend almost nothing.

How is this magic possible?

No magic.

You have no expenses at home?

Yes, but my daughter manages them. I don't like money physically. When I have some expense, it's my daughter Luciana who pays for it.

Don't you go shopping like everybody else?

This is very rare, only when I'm on a trip, and only when something is on sale. This suit that I'm wearing, for example, was bought for $140 in the United States. In only use my credit card when I'm there, because that's when I can use the money I receive as royalties for the books I have written. I've never used my credit card in Brazil. My relationship with money is very strange.

Why?

It always has been. Many say that I am stingy. I am very frugal. I to these things that old people do, like turning off the lights. Look, I live very modestly.

How about these modern toys that everybody has, such as super sound systems, CD players?

All I have is a portable stereo given to me by Tasso (Jereissati, president of the PSDB).

Why do you behave like that with money? Is this an intellectual thing?

It is. I've never cared about material objects, I never had time for that, I don't get attached to them. Even with respect to books. I have to leave Brazil in a rush in 1964 and I was never able to get back my books Another example: I don't write on a desk, but on a common table. And by hand. I only use a computer as a typewriter. Computers are crazy. You spend too much time just discussing the technology. Why DOS, why Word this or that? I think it is a waste of time in my case, but everybody at home uses the computer in a full fledged way, using all the programs. I also use it, but in a limited way.

Electronic notebook, do you have one?

No. That's because my assistants do it all for me. But my schedule is here in my head. And sometimes I fight with them because they mix up the schedules.

You are not the modern candidate we imagined. But these things make life much easier.

This is not my style. I have no time to play with equipment. For a long time my days have been full of things to do.

Do you take vitamins?

No, because my stomach is very sensitive I only do one thing: I sleep well, for six hours. I recuperate with sleep and I also eat a lot. What I miss a lot is the sun.

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Author: Espinoza, Rodolfo Article Title: MAFIA: Never ending mud Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.101 Publication Date: 05-31-94 Page: p. 15

MAFIA: Never ending mud.

Today's Brazil reminds us of the Bible story in a which Abraham intercedes before God for Sodom. "Will You not spare that place for the sake of the fifty just, if they be therein?," he asks. Abraham pesters the Creator, lowering again and again the number of possible non corrupt in the city until he gets a divine pledge: "I will not destroy it for the sake of 10." We all know the fate of Sodom.

Brazilians have been rocked from scandal to scandal leaving sometimes the impression that the country will not be able to find the minimum amount of righteous people who will save it from imploding. President Fernando Collor de Mello was impeached after it was found that he was the leader of a Mafia of corruption and kickbacks inside the Federal Government. Soon after, an inquiry found more than a dozen congressmen guilty of stuffing their pockets while presumably tending to the federal budget. In between, ministers, judges, politicians from all levels, and businessmen have been found red-handed replenishing their bank accounts with illicit money.

However, in the latest scandal, the dismantling of jogo do bicho (numbers' game with animals) in Rio, the list of names receiving gratuities from the mentors of the game contained that of Herbert de Souza Betinho, a man considered a mother Theresa with pants by the vast majority of Brazilians, Betinho, after declaring that he had committed a political but not an ethical sin, has already been forgiven, even by those who don't like his style. After all, he was able to prove, through a deposit slip from Citicorp-Citibank of New York, that the $40,000 he received was used to fund ABIA, the anti-AIDS organizations that he presides.

The March 30 busting of Castor de Andrade's banca, in the neighborhood of Bangu, Rio de Janeiro, by general-prosecutor Antonio Carlos Biscaia, brought the Justice the riches of 200 account books and 167 computer diskettes.

This should be enough to allow authorities to give a deadly blow to jogo do bicho in the country. After all Castor was the godfather of a huge network of traffic of influence, weapons and drugs that controlled organized crime in five states.

The findings revealed that big names have been profiting from the illegal activities of bicho's Mafia. Among them, former president Collor de Mello, Rio governor Nilo Batista, São Paulo mayor Paulo Maluf, Rio mayor Cesar Maia, seven entrepreneurs, three judges, 12 congressmen and seven assemblymen, 25 police commissioners and 100 Military Police officers. After some doubts right after the seizure of the implicating records, the Police believes now that the information contained in the loot is authentic.

Some of the involved, as mayor Maluf, denied vehemently having received any money from the zoo-lottery. But others seem not to feel any anguish for having received these contributions. Former congressman and singer Agnaldo

Timoteo, for example, confirmed that he accepted more than $7,000 in 1990 and added: "I've received and I'm not denying it. Castor is my white father (Timoteo is black) and he has always helped me."

One of the most intriguing names in the list, as having received 58,000, is that of Nilo Batista. He has just assumed the government of Rio but before that he was Rio's Justice Secretary, the man in charge of punishing the bicheiros. It has been explained that 40,000 of this went to Betinho's cause. But what happened to the difference?

Castor himself has disappeared. He is cited as having said, right after his bunker was busted, "What kind of Police is this. Couldn't they tell at least tell me what was coming?" The phrase can be apocryphal but it's revealing of the way jogo do bicho operates, getting the best Police money can buy.

Commenting on the situation, economist Antonio Kandir, wrote in the daily newspaper Folha de São Paulo: "In the root of this process it is the disintegration of the Brazilian State.

During these years of crisis, while the State was losing its financial and managerial capacity of offering public goods in satisfactory quantity and quality, space was being open to the penetration of other kinds of power organization, in particular organized crime that started to provide public goods and muster increasing prestige among the needy people."

In Bangu, where 10,000 people have been used to live from bicho, the mood is of sadness since Castor disappeared. As if in mourning, people have canceled ceremonies like baptism and parties. Manoel Martins, the owner of a little bar there, is grieving: "He is the man who helps the poor. People would ask for a cachacinha (liquor) and say that they were going to pick up the money with Castor. Minutes later they 'd come back with the money. Castor has arranged security for the train station and there was never any assault again."

Even priest Max Rodrigues, who has received many contributions from the bicheiro for São Lourenco church, where Castor has always been to Mass, confides, "Castor is very discreet. Somebody else would make the donations for him." "These donations are very common in any parish," he adds.

There are suspicions that Castor and his people have a partnership with Colombian Cali Cartel. Preliminary findings show Rio bicheiros responsible for transporting cocaine in Brazil and shipping it overseas.

That's why agents from the American DEA (Drug Enforcement Administration) embarked to Brazil as soon as they heard about these connections.

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Author: Tifleur, Darly Article Title: ECONOMY: Fast draw Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.101 Publication Date: 05-31-94 Page: p. 17

ECONOMY: Fast draw.

It was the recent assassination of Mexico's presidential candidate Luis Donaldo Colosio that brought to light how powerful Brazil has become as a producer of guns. The weapon used by the alleged assassin Mario Aburto Martinez was a 38 Taurus manufactured in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. The revolver started its trail in 1977 in a San Francisco gun shop when it was bought by a reluctant security executive who was against arming his company guards.

Forjas Taurus S.A. is not a late comer to the gun market. The factory was founded by a German immigrant in 1937. Its big push, however, started in 1977 when Carlos Alberto Murgel and Luis Fernando Estima, two executives who were already working at Taurus, bought the interest of the American group Bunger Punta, which had been controlling the company since the early 70s. That's when the massive investment in the firm, which would amount to $30 million, started. More than 40% of the equipment was modernized and new technologies were introduced to eliminate waste and increase productivity.

Murgel and Estima started by buying Ifestel, a tool factory (Taurus has 15% of the Brazilian tool market), followed in 1980 by the acquisition of the Brazilian subsidiary of Italian giant Beretta. The Taurus International Manufacturing Inc. was created three years later with headquarters in Miami. It was supposed to be the beachhead of the company in the U.S. serving as the intermediary between the Brazilian factory and the American consumer. Since then, however, the American branch has grown into the third biggest weapon factory in the States.

Taurus is the third biggest manufacturer of handguns and pistols in the world. About 60% of the $85 million made by the firm in 1993 came from the United States. After all, 26% of all handguns being sold in the U.S. have the Taurus imprint. Americans annually buy about 150,000 of these handguns. And why the popularity? First, the price. The Taurus is cheaper than its legendary competitor, the Smith & Wesson. Besides, the companies give a life guarantee to its products. Among the American clients are the Police who have a love affair with the Magnum 357, a weapon of great power and precision that can cost from $260 up to $390. Another bestseller is the more expensive PT 101 whose price can go as high as $600.

Until 1990, exports accounted for 50% of Taurus's business. Today, this has increased to 74%, while the company exports to 78 countries. Without that, most of its 2,200 employees would e out of a job, since according to Taurus vice-president Estima, "the recession has paralyzed the Brazilian market and our sales in Brazil were cut in half in the last two years." While in normal times the American market is 10 times bigger for Taurus, nowadays this disparity has increased to 20 times.

Taurus president Murgel doesn't like to boast about his company success and even less now after all the macabre publicity that the firm has been

receiving. "Guns are not the problem," he repeated to more than one reporter calling from all over the world after the Mexican national tragedy. "We cannot choose who buys our product," he recently declared to weekly Magazine IstoE. "This is a task that belongs to the authorities of each country." As part of its public relations, Taurus refuses to export arms to areas in conflict like Bosnia and promotes safe shooting classes in Brazil.

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Author: Luis, Emerson Article Title: ECOLOGY: Dying of thirst and neglect Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.101 Publication Date: 05-31-94 Page: p. 19

ECOLOGY: Dying of thirst and neglect.

The transformation of vast stretches of land into desert is a planetary phenomenon that affects six million hectares of land in more than 100 countries involving at least 140 million people. Sometimes this occurrence, known as desertificacão in Brazil, is a manmade event brought upon the land by mismanagement of natural resources through deforestation. Sometimes the ground itself is too poor to survive a prolonged drought. In the Brazilian Northeast this mutation into a desert is a combination of natural and manmade causes.

Infamous for its chronic problems with drought, Brazil's Northeast received last March a dramatic wake-up call. If something isn't done, and fast, half of the area will turn into a desert in 10 years. According to study by DESERT (Nucleus of Research and Control of Desertification in the North-east), the nine states of the area are losing 55.2% of their territory to desertification. The portion affected, 666,000 square kilometers, represents an area equivalent to six states of Rio de Janeiro.

DESERT, a group from University of piaui, presented its findings during the recent National Conference on Desertification which was held in Fortaleza, capital of Ceara state. The paper, called Evaluation of Brazil's Situation of Desertification - Diagnostic and Perspectives, concluded that the country loses $7 a year for each hectare that becomes desert. There's a solution to the problem: a massive investment of $2.5 billion during the next 20 years. That would mean $125 million every year. But where to find this kind of money in a region persistently poor?

The Ceara conference is a follow-up to Eco-92, the ecological summit meeting that happened in Rio two years ago, and a preparation for the World Convention on Desertification which will be held in paris next month. Brazil doesn't have any program that addresses the problem of desertification, even though the so-called Agenda 21, developed during the Rio summit, talked about the matter. The Paris convention will have legal force and might compel Brazil to try to something about this problem.

Right now the government is more worried about finding a way to keep almost two million people working in job programs that have already consumed $200 million in the last 12, months. When the rain started to fall in the area recently, the Ministry of Regional Integration decided to suspend the work in the programs, starting March 31. The justification: the families should go back to cultivate their own land.

But it's not that simple. For one thing, according to CONTAG (Confederation of Workers in Agriculture) there's not enough seed. Another problem is that the next harvest will happen only in July and people might starve until then, without some government help. To complicate the situation, the half-salary (around $30) paid to the laborers in some cases arrive more than two months late. SUDENE (Superintendency of the Northeast Development) has proposed the

continuation of the program until the end of May in 477 of the 1155 municipalities being served.

These job programs were created as an emergency measure, after looting of warehouses and markets started to become common throughout the Northeast in recent years. It seems now that the program was a good investment. These workers have left 80,000 miles in roads and water-mains, besides building 35,000 units that included houses and wells.

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Author: Darnel, Laurel Article Title: SOCCER: The dream team Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.101 Publication Date: 05-31-94 Page: p. 21

SOCCER: The dream team.

The opening game for Brazil in the World Cup will be against Russia on June 20 and the official list of draftees to integrate the Brazilian national soccer team will not be announced before May 10; but in September of last year, head coach Carlos Alberto Parreira gave notice that our team would be the same that won the last game in the qualifying phase, with a few adjustments. That's new. Not even in the so-called better times of the Selecão Brasileira has the basic team been chosen so far in advance.

In theory all might change just until few days before the first match. In reality, Parreira not only knows who is going to be wearing a blue-yellow shirt, but also has decided that the tactical scheme will be one represented by the equation 4-4-2, meaning four players in the defense, four in mid field and two in the attack.

Not everybody likes these numbers. And to those the coach responds: "This doesn't mean we are going to be locked in a defense mode. We are going to put pressure against the opponent all the time. However, only in specific cases we will have three player in front."

At least eight players seem to have a guaranteed spot on the national team. They are the goal keeper Taffarel; Jorginho and Ricardo Rocha in the defense; Dunga, Mario Silva and Zinho in mid-field; Bebeto and Romario in the attack. The small changes would have to do with Rai, Dunga and Branco. The first one went in few months from great hope of the French team Paris Saint-Germain to the reserve bench. Rai is still out of shape and possibly will not make the final cut.

Since he was supposed to wear the all powerful number 10 shirt his bad shape represents more than a passing headache. Branco, even though playing badly against Argentina in the friendly game with that team, continues with CBF (Brazilian Soccer Confederation) officials' backing. Two names that have risen quickly during these last few weeks are those of Muller and Mazinho. They could still guarantee a place on the team as first choice. Dunga might lose his, since he continues with the team only because Parreira is behind him.

"It's been said that Brazil has 160 million coaches, meaning that all Brazilians are ready to criticize the official choice and to present its own ideal selecão. This time all this populace of experts seems to be in tune with Parreira. In March, the daily Folha de São Paulo gave the chance to 50 personalities linked to soccer so they could choose their own ideal national team. The list they prepared was very similar to the one defended by Parreira with only four differences.

Then there's Romario. Nobody has doubts about his virtuosity in the field and he is considered the best player that Brazil has today. The problem is his tremendous capacity for creating gigantic messes off the field. He has a big

mouth and has forced CBF to issue a good manners' manual in which players are forbidden to criticize colleagues and officials. The book, clearly with Romarioin mind, asks all players to use moderation and care when talking in public.

After the friendly game against the Paris Saint-Germain April 20, in Paris, the selecão will have only one more chance to practice together in a real game before the Cup: it will be the May 5th match that will happen in Florianopolis, Brazil.

While the Brazilian team prepares to come to the U.S., a little crowd of fans who have won tickets and all expenses paid for the trip will not be allowed to embark for the States. Talking to weekly magazine IstoE, a representative of the American embassy in Brasilia showed no sportsmanship, declaring that no prize winner will have better chance of getting inside the U.S. than any other common Brazilian. "If someone wins a trip and doesn't conform with our requirements, this is not a problem of the U.S. or the consulate."

Among the promotions awarding trips to the U.S., there is one by Nestle (through its Maggi product) in which the winners in different phases can choose either the trip to the States or a car, a house, or two years' worth of shopping in a supermarket. Nobody has chosen the trip. Knorr, another soup, is offering as a prize 47 packages for two to participate in the Cup. But those who cannot qualify to enter the U.S. can opt for a 30 day stay in Italy.

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Author: Quintanilla, Edgardo Article Title: IMMIGRATION: Your lottery visa kit Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.101 Publication Date: 05-31-94 Page: p. 23

IMMIGRATION: Your lottery visa kit.

On March 30, 1994, the Bureau of Consular Affairs of the U.S. state Department described in a Visa Bulletin what the requirements of the DV-1 Immigrant Visa "Lottery" Program were. This article attempts to summarize the information found in such bulletin. Since every immigration case is different and unique, I strongly urge anybody interested in participating in the lottery program to seek competent legal assistance regarding his or her case.

Who qualifies to apply for a lottery visa?

The Lottery program apportions 55,000 DV-1 immigrant visas among six geographic regions in the world. For South America, Central America, and the Caribbean, only 2,589 immigrant visas will be available. Anybody, whether in the U.S. or abroad, who wishes to have a legal immigrant status in the U.S., and who has a High School diploma or its equivalent may apply for a lottery visa.

However, the natives of Canada, Mexico, Jamaica, El Salvador, Dominican Republic, China-mainland born, Taiwan-born, India, Philippines, Vietnam, South Korea, Great Britain are NOT eligible to apply for a visa lottery, unless they are legally married to a spouse who qualifies for a lottery visa, are a dependent minor child to someone who qualifies for a lottery visa, or they were born in a country at a time when their parents were not natives of such country.

For example, take a person from El Salvador who is legally married to a Brazilian. Because the Brazilian can apply for a lottery visa, the Salvadoran spouse also can apply as one who is "to be charged" to the Brazilian spouse's region. A husband, wife, and qualifying minor children may each apply separately for a lottery visa.

What's the procedure to apply for a lottery visa?

There are no pre-printed application forms or application fees. An applicant may prepare his or her application or have somebody else do it for him or her. A person who qualifies to apply for a lottery visa must send only one lottery application. Failure to follow this instruction results in automatic disqualification. An applicant may be disqualified at the time of the application registration or at the time of the visa interview.

On a plain sheet of paper, the lottery applicant must include only the following information: 1. Underlined last name, surname, family name; 2. Date of birth and place of birth: city/town, district/country/province, country; 3. Full names of spouse and children; 4. Applicant's complete mailing address in the U.S. or abroad; 5. Applicant's native country, or the native country of relative for whom the application is "to be charged" as in the above example of the Brazilian-Salvadoran couple, followed by a short explanation of relationship.

The above completed sheet of paper must be sent in an envelop between 6 inches and 10 inches (15 cm. to 25 cm.) in length, and between 3 1/2 inches and 4 1/2 inches (9 cm. to 11 cm.) in width.

The envelope must have in the upper left corner the following information: 1. Applicant's native country (or country to which application is to be charged as in the above example); 2. Applicant's full name; 3. Applicant's mailing address (which must be the same as shown on the application);

For people who are natives of the qualifying countries in the Americas an the Caribbean with the exception of the Bahamas, such as natives of Brazil, the complete application should be sent by mail to: DV-1 Program - National Visa Center- Portsmouth, NH 00211 - U.S.A..

The correct zip codes of the National Visa Center for other regions are the following: Asia (00210), Europe (00212), Africa (00213), Oceania (00214), and Bahamas (00215). The correct zip code for each region must be used.

Please note that the application must arrive at the processing center no earlier than June 1st, 1994, and no later than June 30, 1994, to avoid disqualification.

What happens after the application period for the visa lottery closes?

After June 30, 1994, a computer will randomly choose the lottery visa winners or persons registered under the DV-1 Lottery Program. This means that there is no guarantee that anybody who send his or her visa application will be selected.

Only the lottery visa winners will be notified about their selection. There will be only one notification with appropriate visa application instructions that will be sent at the mailing address shown on the application.

The lottery winner should not delay in following the visa processing instructions. More selection or registration as a DV-1 lottery applicant does not mean that the person will be able to immigrate legally to the U.S..

For those lottery winners who are in the U.S. as undocumented aliens or non-immigrant visa aliens, they will have an opportunity to adjust their status. Adjustment of status should be done promptly and in accordance with the instructions that the National Visa Center will provide.

Because every immigration case is different and unique, I strongly urge any visa lottery winner to seek competent legal assistance in having their cases processed.

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Author: Jardim, Alberto Article Title: OPINION: Can we prevent chaos? Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.101 Publication Date: 05-31-94 Page: p. 31

OPINION: Can we prevent chaos?.

It these times when the Brazilian political mainstream seems to be once again engaged in another decisive and historical turning point, to may be worth casting some light on a thoughtful and interesting essay, Brazil in the Third Millennium (Editora JB, 246 pg.). With an introduction by noted sociologist Gilberto Freyre, the work was drafted back in 1983 by a relatively obscure "northeasterner," an engineer named, João Ricardo Mendes.. At this juncture in our history, with the presidential race, elections for all legislatures; constitutional reform; currency stabilization, and many more issues at stake, the ideas of professor Mendes merit revisiting.

We can begin by taking a look at the above map, which illustrates a proposed division of Brazil into 35 states, all of them roughly comprising an average area of about 250, 000 sq. km. This scheme, as suggested by Professor Mendes, consists of regrouping the Brazilian population across a net of already existing medium to small-sized urban communities. Each community would maintain control over its immediate adjacent geoeconomic area, and these areas, would in turn be scattered throughout a much larger portion of our territory.

Along with this plan, Mendes proposes an entirely new federative system, more equally balanced and implying anew pattern of economic bonds among regions. Among the goals of such a system would be a reduction, of industrial concentration, innovative agricultural initiatives linked to specific determinisms of each area, and, in the end a new social fabric. Considering the context in which day-to-day Brazilian business is presently conducted in relation to politics, such a monumental task hardly seems feasible.

Mendes believes that Brazil as a society has not yet realized the importance of taking full advantage of its geographic potential. Since the majority of population is cramped along a tiny range of coastline, much of Brazil's hinterland is left unoccupied. That, asserts Mendes, structurally hampers the prospects of balanced development.

Mendes finds that major demographic trends, persist in this direction: In 1940, the rural Brazilian population constituted 69% of the total. This number subsequently felt to 55% in 1960 until, in the absence of corrective measure, Brazil emerged as a predominantly urban environment, with more than 75% of its population now living in urban areas. The cities, meanwhile, sustained a level of such disorganized growth that they are incapable of supporting adequate infrastructure.

In addition to this, let it be stressed that his projection of a population growth of 3% per year - which could lead us to deal with a total of 600 million people by the year 2100 - remains unchallenged. According to Mendes, if we apply this figure to the belt along our coastline, where the population is currently approximately 120 million (1994 estimate), we could come up against a population density worse than that of Bangladesh (666 inhab./km).

Professor. Mendes goes on to conclude that since this population is not well distributed along the coast and tends to be concentrated in particular areas of the Northeast and Southeast, we could find life almost impossible in some centers by the middle of the next century. "All this," the engineer reminds us, "while we have a population density of around 16 inhabitants per sq. Km (1994 estimate)." That places us 19th among the world's most populated countries, and even presupposes setting aside the whole territory of the Brazilian Amazon (40% of the total).

Although many of its essential features were not clearly defined (Mr. Mendes proposes for construction of new cities and heavy participation of the state in the process - all impractical in the present context), a balanced administrative redivision of Brazil would bring a new dimension to the economic and social development of the country. It could, for example, provide the opportunity to redress some of the negative aspects of our national heritage, such as problems stemming from the colonial past that continue to plague our culture - large uneconomic properties; artificial urban and economic environments erected upon cycles of monoexploitation; mercantilist mentalities associated with colonialism; the consequences of slavery and its innocuous and unplanned abolishment.

Equally important, such a redivision could enhance the potential for a more just federative system, the decentralization of power would take place with in a more balanced environment, whose new unities would be capable of reaching a real level of autonomy. We might find ourselves marching towards municipalism, the ultimate goal, where effective government, accountable to its population, could be attained. For such a result, we would have to reduce by at least three times the present number of our "counties", and provide them with more jurisdiction over larger areas.

The present model of concentration along the Rio-São Paulo axis not only constitutes an enormous attraction to impoverished populations, it represents a suicidal tendency. In the not-so-distant future, these "megalopolises" will be home to millions and millions of people. This will bring about insoluble energy problems, not to mention waste, pollution, and the bankruptcy of public services. On the political level, urban concentrations will demand the solution to urgent and complex problems, impossible to achieve in short-or even medium-term prospects, providing a fertile terrain for all kinds of demagogic proposals, which will flourish in an environment of political and social instability.

Clearly, it is of the utmost importance for the young generations to struggle with History in hand and Geography in mind.. The task which lies ahead may be overwhelming and full of dangers; but the lack of a geopolitical strategy could plunge the Brazilian state into chaos. In its wake our society will follow. The elements that threaten our political unity, that could even lead to civil war, are all there - waiting like a Pandora's box to be irremediably unleashed.

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Article Title: MUSIC: For ever young Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.101 Publication Date: 05-31-94 Page: p. 36

MUSIC: For ever young.

Last March the Justice of Rio de Janeiro condemned singer Roberto Carlos to pay damages and reparations to part-time crooner Sebastião Ferreira Braga, who had accused the composer-interpreter of plagiarizing his song Loucuras de Amor, released in 1983. After a judicial battle that lasted four years, five judges concluded that Roberto Carlos and his partner Erasmo Carlos had stolen 12 measures with a total of 43 identical notes from Ferreira Braga's tune and used it in O Careta, a song against drugs, recorded in 1987.

The fine could be as high as $3 million, since the LP in which the song was included sold almost four million copies. Prevented from appealing at the state level, the singer's lawyer says that he is going all the way to the Supreme Court.

Being accused of or condemned for plagiarism is nothing new for artists. Michael Jackson, Julio Iglesias, the Gypsy Kings, to name a few, all have been accused of intellectual pilfering. British rocker Rod Stewart, when condemned for having stolen the introduction of Jorge Ben Jor's Taj Mahal to use it in his song Do You Think I'm Sexy, decided to donate the record's royalties to charity.

No matter how unfortunate the news might sound for Roberto Carlos, it probably won't get more than a footnote, if that, when the singer's definitive biography gets written. After almost 30 years as indisputable record-selling champion, Roberto, 52, is having a revival, if we can say that about a crooner whose LPs, year after year, never sell fewer than one million copies. It happens that his latest release, helped by Coisa Bonita (see the complete lyrics below), a hymn to the chubby woman, which has agreed with the taste of the public, has sold one million copies in just one month. He is more used to selling this amount during a whole year.

There are other signs that it's Roberto Carlos's time all over again. During his traditional Christmas special on TV, he was joined on the stage by Chico Buarque de Hollanda, a very reserved popular composer and singer whose lyrics are so inspired that they are used in language classes for literary analysis. Even though Roberto has always had big numbers to present, he had scared away in the last decade the so-called classes A and B, which are composed of the best educated and most influential and richest Brazilians. He has been considered by these people as someone campy and melodramatic who has lost his touch with modernity.

And then there is Caetano Veloso, another fifty something, who has never lost his appeal with the younger and hipper population. Veloso, one of the founders of the Tropicalismo musical movement at the end of the sixties, continues at the forefront of the evolving Brazilian pop music. He has included in his latest show, which toured the nation and was eventually made into a record, Roberto's song Debaixo dos Caracois de seus Cabelos (Under the Curls of Your Hair), a composition written by Roberto and dedicated to Caetano when the Baiano tropicalista was in exile in London after a clash with the

military censorship in Brazil.

Finally, another Baiano, singer Maria Bethania, Caetano's sister and another cult star in the Brazilian pop firmament, released an album with songs exclusively by Roberto and his partner Erasmo Carlos. In this case, the undertaking seems to have benefited more the homage giver than the homage receiver. Bethania, who hadn't been able to sell more than a few thousand of her releases in recent years, saw her last effort, As Cancoes que Voce Fez Pra Mim (The Songs You Made for Me) become a hit, with more than 200,000 copies sold, and half a million being expected to be sold by Polygram in a few more months. The Bahiana singer had the ability to perform Roberto's songs with a sophisticated arrangement which added a lot to the romantic banalities of the so-called King of the Young People.

The King gained his regal title at the beginning of his career. In 1959, Roberto Carlos was an unknown, singing Bossa Nova songs at the Plaza Nightclub in Copacaban a la João Gilberto. He even imitated the Pope of Bossa Nova as the masked singer in a tropical Star Search-like program called Buzina do Chacrinha. His first record, a double with João e Maria and Fora de Tom (both from Imperial) never made any impression.

His big break came when he had a chance to replace young singer Sergio Murilo who had left CBS (bought later by Sony). In 1965 he would have his own program on TV, the Jovem Guarda, a show that was invented in a hurry by São Paulo's Record TV when the soccer clubs decided to prohibit the live broadcast of their teams' games. The show became the first pop phenomenon of the country. The 23 year old singer-composer, already the King, would influence how young people dressed, behaved and talked.

He used to say phrases like; "E uma brasa, mora, uma lenha." ("It's hot, you dig, a fire."), creating a very personal slang that survived many years. The Jovem Guarda, with ie-ie-ie (the Beatles' yeah, yeah, yeah) songs, was seen live by 3 million people in São Paulo. The videotape was shown later all over the country. The tune Calhambeque (Jalopy) became a hit in 1966, not only in Brazil but all over Latin America. In Paris, it became the second best-selling record. Calhambeque was also the name of a label selling clothes, shoes and jewelry. Roberto and his handlers (he has the last word on everything) have always known how to sell his product.

When Jovem Guarda ended in 1968 Roberto was already the best seller singer of the country, a distinction that he would keep until now. Despite his image as a rebel without a cause, Roberto Carlos since the beginning was also what he later became more famous for: the romantic balladeer. One of his first hits was Não Quero Ver Voice Triste Assim (I Don't Want to See You Sad Like That), a syrupy love poem recited white a plangent tune was heard in the background.

Roberto is a money-making machine today. He is presently commemorating a 35-year career with a national tour called Luz (Light). His only project that didn't work was a record in English. RC has released 36 titles, having sold 70 million copies of his records in Brazil and in Latin America. In 1989 he won a Grammy and reached first place on Billboard's Latin chart.

He makes at least $2.5 million annually with shows (his fee goes from $35,000 to $120,000 per presentation). With the sale of records he gets another $2, $2.5 million. Some of this money is invested in his RC Participacoes holding company. The umbrella enterprise includes artistic firms, three car dealerships, a car rental concern, a transportation company, a real estate

company and a radio station.

Roberto, although incapable of being rude, continues to be a very private person. For two years he has been sharing his apartment in Urca, Rio de Janeiro, with Maria Rita, a teacher 20 years younger than he is. Only recently he allowed both of them to be photographed together for the first time. In this case, the reason is not only because the singer wants to protect his beloved from nosy reporters.

He still likes to let his female fans fantasize that he is a bachelor and available and that his romantic songs are written exclusively for her who is listening.

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Author: Adams, Scott Article Title: MUSIC: Brazilian Notas Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.101 Publication Date: 05-31-94 Page: p. 38

MUSIC: Brazilian Notas.

Continuing in the fine tradition of the Brazilian supergroup Zil and Teo Lima's Batacoto comes Terra Sul's debut release on Mojazz, Kindness of Strangers. As a staple of San Francisco's club scene, Terra Sul combines its Brazilian roots with a pop sensibility that makes it a natural choice for your music collection.

This marriage is made possible by the production talents of Peixoto and co-producer Robert Margouleff, the man who introduced Stevie Wonder to the world of electronic keyboard. Can lighting strike twice with Terra Sul?

I believe it can. "Matatlantica" and the opening track "Lands" flow with seamless passion guided by singer Mauro Saldanha's wordless vocals. Instrumental gems like "Debra Ann", "Heavenly Bodies" and the title track avoid popish musical cliches with a refreshing confidence. Saldanha's stirring lyrics on "Deus Dara" underscore Terra Sul's diversity as the tombo rhythms push the song along. From beginning to end, Kindness of Strangers delivers a musical masterpiece.

Although the process of finding a US label to release Rita Peixoto and Carlos Fuchs self-titled CD has yet to bear fruit, the Leblon (Brazil) release has received critical acclaim on both sides of the equator. Centered on the sensitive interplay between Fuchs acoustic grand piano and Rita Peixoto's emotive voice, and duo literally reshapes these ten songs in a dramatic, introspective fashion.

Chico Buarque's "Desalento" is transformed from its original samba into a powerful statement of lost love. Others, like Gilberto Gil's "Requiem para Mae Menininha do Gantois" and Cartola's "Rolam nos Meus Olhos" receive the same reverent makeover. Rita Peixoto & Carlos Fuchs is a memorable album that I suspect will be talked about for years to come.

We'll be talking about Milton Nascimento's Angelus, too, but not for the same reasons. Heavily promoted both here and in Brazil, Angelus has received mixed reviews for this mixed bag of new and old, with a star-laden guest list: Peter Gabriel, Flavio Venturini, James Taylor, Wayne Shorter and Yes's Jon Anderson to name just a few. Talent of this type is testament to Nascimento's uncontested stature in the musical universe but Angelus does fall short of its promise.

The best moments are reserved for his resurrection of "Clube da Esquina" and "Vera Cruz" where Nascimento rises to the occasion, propelled by Pat Metheny, Ron Carter, Herbie Hancock and drummer Jack DeJonette. But his collaborations with Taylor ("Only A Dream In Rio") and Gabriel ("Qualquer Coisa a Haver com o Paraiso") fall flat in an attempt to accommodate the guests.

Recently, Nascimento has found the need to attach himself to causes. First it was with the Indians in Txai and now Angelus suggests that the world will end

in 10 years, urging us all to conserve, abstain and recycle. However, I'd be willing to bet that there's no recycled paper or plastic in this CD. Nascimento would do better to concentrate on his music, but I guess it's tough to be a politically correct singer these days.

Gal Costa has no such problems, but her search for consistent production quality has led her to some interesting unions. None have been more provocative than with cutting edge producer Arto Lindsay, whose background with the Ambitious Lovers brings an unusual perspective to his projects.

As with his work on Caetano Veloso's Circulado, his production technique with Gal Costa's O Sorriso do Gato de Alice (The Smile on Alice's Cat) takes a decidedly Spartan approach for her 20th career album.

Costa turned to Lindsay with the idea of concentrating on the work of four composers: Djavan, Jorge Benjor, Caetano Veloso and Gilberto Gil. "Basically an acoustic album, O Sorriso do Gato de Alice was put together by Arto, after listening to all of my albums, where I recorded several composers of different tendencies and styles," said Gal at a recent BMG interview session surrounding the album's release.

"Gratitude", written by Veloso and Lindsay with English lyrics, is a good example of the producer's direction. A wandering melody with lyrics to match delivers a confusing tribute to Gal's early mentors from the U.S..

"I've always liked the great American singers; Sarah Vaughan, Ella Fitzerald, Billie Holiday. My greatest teacher was João Gilberto, but I still listen to Sinatra and Nat Cole. In fact, I used to mimic Nat at parties with any friends," said Costa. "Caetano and I have a great musical identity. We like the same things and he appreciates my singing. When he composes for me, it's as if we're talking to each other."

Having just recently completed a year-long road show honoring Chico Buarque's celebrated career, Badi Assad has become the latest member of this talented family to turn her creative energies towards the popular Brazilian songbook. Her Chesky release Solo showcases this guitar virtuoso, and as with her famous brothers Sergio and Odair before her, Badi stretches the boundaries of musical form with 14 beautifully crafted songs from the hands of Buarque, Egberto Gismonti, Villa-Lobos & Gonzaga and Edu Lobo.

Ralph Towner's "When The Fire Burns Law" takes on a classical face, as do many of the selections on Solo. And while songs like "Fuoco" burn with an unrestrained energy, Assad's gentle vocals and thoughtful playing set the tone for the album. Badi Assad's music compels you to really listen.

Chesky Records makes that easy to do, and its reputation of recording excellence gains points on Solo. The subtle nuance of her vocal inflections, mated to her acoustic guitar work is remarkable considering her range and sheer ability.

The great financial success of Salvador's Carnaval season (over 700,000 tourists pumped $200 million into the local economy) has heralded yet another musical style for Bahia, which seems to change quicker than the Pelourinho district's reconstruction.

The new dance trend, called requebra after a song by Ze Paulo notwithstanding, is perfect for Timbalada's self titled CD on Polygram Brazil. Voted one of the

best albums of the year for 1993, this banda has gained a solid reputation for energetic music and penetrating lyrics.

Colorfully outfitted in African-Indian greasepaint and costumes, and backed by the musical presence of Carlinhos Brown with a powerful percussion group, Timbalada pushes through a crowded collection of 13 songs including "Toque de Timbaleiro" and "Mulate do Bunde". Move over, Olodum. Make room for Timbalada.

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Author: Dalla Dea, Ariana Article Title: TRAVEL: What a surprise! Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.101 Publication Date: 05-31-94 Page: p. 40

TRAVEL: What a surprise!.

Alagoas is a small state of the Northeastern region of Brazil with 29,106.2 km. Diversity can be seen in various aspects of this surprising place. From its historical discovery in 1501 by Americo Vespucci to the beauty of the poetry produced by Graciliano Ramos and Djavan, both sons of the land, Alagoas does not hide its grandeur, which can be appreciated in its people, in its beaches, in its food, in its crafts, and in its history.

A good way to begin your adventure in this exotic tropical paradise would be in Maceio. The state's modern capital is located in a green belt marked by a colonial architecture that carries history in every tile and brick. You might witness this rich history in the Bom Jesus dos Martirios church with its lovely Portuguese tiles; in the Jaragua architectural complex, where Maceio was born; in the houses of the Dom Pedro II Plaza; or still in the Museum of Anthropology and Folklore.

An attraction you can't miss are the beaches (Alagoas has 150 km - 93.2 miles - of coastal beauty) where palm trees, coconut trees, and banana trees decorate the sand and serve as a trim for the ocean. The best one is Pajucara with its picturesque jangadas (sail rafts) whose enormous white sails are a kind of poetry in the wind. On Saturdays, after a visit by jangada to the natural pools formed by the low tides, you will discover that all over Pajucara there is a delightful party going on with the traditional folklore dance forro and lots of typical food.

It's true that Sobral and Avenida, two beaches which are a short walk from downtown, are polluted. But if you head north, you'll be able to enjoy some of the best beaches the Northeast has to offer. Among other enchanting beaches there are Cruz das Almas, Jatiuca, Trapiche, Pontal da Barra, Ponta Verde, dos Franceses, and Sete Coqueiros.

To enjoy a panoramic view of Maceio go to one of these mirantes (belvederes) São Goncalo or Santa Terezinha. In the outskirts of the capital you'll find great options for relaxation, fishing, and fun. At Barra de São Miguel, located 34 km. (21 miles) from Maceio and visited the year arround by fishermen and tourists, you will be delighted by its primitive Gunga beach and its fresh and salt waters. There you can double you fun either swimming, fishing or jet skiing.

If you want to give yourself a treat while you relax you can taste barbecued shrimp with beer in one of the rustic huts along the beach. There are several unspoiled beaches in the area. The Paripueira beach, for example, has crystal blue waters, besides being a great place for people to fish at night and participate in some street carnaval. At Ipioca you will be able to enjoy the tropical feeling in the middle of an ocean of coconut trees and endless fields of clear sand.

The historical route of Alagoas shows many houses and churches of the colonial

and baroque periods. Penedo, 173 km. (107.5 miles) south of Maceio, displays the baroque style in its churches (more than 20), convents, and houses, which turns this city into an open air museum. Marechal Deodoro was the first state capital, and is the birth place of Marechal Deodoro da Fonseca, Brazil's first president. From this city came also another celebrity: renowned writer Graciliano Ramos, who in the 1920s was its mayor.

The popular arts and crafts represent another high point in Alagoas. The production of hand made lace, is not only a local craft, but an art of unspeakable beauty, and it is the main source of income for many local women. Pottery, straw works (as hats, bags, baskets, belts, sandals, and mats), and wood works are some other fields in which Alagoanos excel.

The area typical food comes from the sea. Lobster, shrimp, oyster, and all kinds of fish are prepared in a variety of ways. But there is also the regional food, as sun dried salted beef with green beans, chicken stews, barbecued corn, pamonha (a type of sweet polenta), and many sweets like canjica (a larger version of the American grits), pe-de-moleque (peanut candy) and tapioca. The drinks are also as exotic as the food. The tangerine and passion fruit juices, as well as the violet essence, and the genipapo (fruit from the tannin tree) liqueur are only some samples of the variety of flavor that you can try.

The dazzling sunset amidst jangadas and coconut trees is a perfect closing for a magical day. But the fun doesn't stop there. The night comes filled with promises of parties in which forr¢ is king.

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Author: Mello, Rodney Article Title: RECADO Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.102 Publication Date: 06-30-94 Page: p. 5

Recado.

Eating the ball! What do you mean? This is the literal translation of a very Brazilian expression: comendo a bola. It's the same as saying jogando um bolão. Still not clear? It means playing soccer exceptionally well. And that's the dream of 150 million Brazilians, including more than 20,000 that are expected in the stadiums where Brazil is going to play, that their national soccer team will win, win, win, up to the final in the Rose Bowl, in Los Angeles.

Victory is a scream that's stuck in our throats since our voice became hoarse from the 1970 celebrations, when we won in Mexico the World Cup for the third and last time. Since then the fasting has been harsh on us. It's been a long two and a half decades. No wonder our players and we ourselves are starving and ready to eat this ball without further ado.

With the country in a mode of despair and hopelessness compounded by the sudden and untimely departure of Formula One champion Ayrton Senna, the Brazilian collective souls is pining for a compensations. We can anticipate the batucada, the rooting songs and the shouts of Brazil, Brazil, that will echo from San Francisco to Detroit and then to Los Angeles.

Shouts that will be heard in every American corner and that will resonate across the planet, while Brazil washes its soul with tears of joy. Let Brazil dream the very possible dream. E at‚ bem breve.

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Author: Getchell, Marcos Andre Article Title: COVER: Go, go, goal! Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.102 Publication Date: 06-30-94 Page: p. 7

COVER: Go, go, goal!.

What is most remarkable about Carlos Alberto Parreira is his sense of tranquillity as he dwells at the center of what must surely be a tremendous hurricane of expectation advice, criticism, controversy and demands. Yet, this is something which just as assuredly comes with the territory of being the coach of the selegão brasileira, the Brazilian national soccer team, in its bid to make Brazil the only nation to win a fourth World Cup.

Pressure was especially intense when Brazil could show only one loss and two ties in its first in its first World Cup qualifying matches, as virtually a continent asked for the coach's head and for a new team on the field. The qualities of coolness and perseverance, by Parreira and his team, were again stretched to their limits in May when the team's most important attacking player. Romario, had his father kidnapped by a sang of extortionists.

With the sudden loss of Brazilian race car driver and national idol Ayrton Senna, a failure in the World Cup could be too much tragedy for a nation reeling from the ongoing drama of economic disasters and political corruption - and therefore needing something not so much to distract, but to feel proud of.

Having qualified for each World Cup final since the advent of this tournament, the most important sporting event on earth. Brazil's national team is one of only three teams to win the contest three times, while also having the most prolific scoring offense and the most successful defense in World Cup history - this last point being the single most overlooked characteristic of the Brazilian team by its critics.

Of course, for the harshest critics - Brazilians themselves - the only statistic that counts is whether or not the team "wins" the World Cup. Brazil has not won the Cup since the reign of Pele and Company in 1970, a victory which was witnessed and felt by the young Parreira who served that generation of the Selecão as a trainer. Today, what is expected of the 56 year-old coach is that Brazil win the World Cup. Anything less would be failure.

Preceding the team's arrival on North Americans soil in late May. Parreira was in the San Francisco Bay Area on two separate occasions, once for speaking engagement meeting contractual obligations with the team's equipment sponsors and again for a final review of the Lodge at Villa Felice, the team's head-quarters in the Bay Area. Villa Felice is located on the edge of Vesona Lake between Saratoga and Los Gatos, a short drive from Brazil's training facility at the University of Santa Clara and from Stanford stadium in Palo Alto where they will play at least twice.

Brazil's Group B schedule has them playing at Stanford in their June 20th opening match against Russia, and then again on June 24th against Cameroon. Brazil will next play Sweden in Detroit on June 28. Should they win their group, Brazils round of sixteen match would be played on July 4 back at

Stanford, while a second place finish in the group sends Brazil to Dallas for their round of sixteen match, which would then be played on July 3.

A third place finish in the group puts Brazil in either Chicago (July 2) or Boston (July 5) for their round of sixteen confrontation. Depending upon successful results in that round. Brazil could play quarter- finals in either one of the four scheduled venues: San Francisco (July 10), New York (July 10), Boston (July 9) or Dallas (July 9), Semi-finals are to take place in New York and Los Angeles (July 13) and the final will be in Los Angeles (July 17).

In one Bay Area appearance, Parreira was self-assured and disarming by his warmth and forthcoming responses. He gave in-depth explanations and candid glimpses into the workings of the Selecão and the journey it is on.

Parreira's Journey - A veteran of one World Cup as a coach, in 1990 with the United Arab Emirates, and of another as a trainer for Brazil in 1970 with Pele, Tostão, et al., Parreira has also coached the national team of Qatar. Amidst the recent drama over the kidnapping of Romario's father, the poor play of star players, and the usual criticism of the coach's player selection for the World Cup, it is useful to remember that this coach and most of his group of player's have been living with this same pressure intensity for nearly a year now.

Parreira laughed as he recalled the numerous cartoons in the papers which belittled him and joined in the public calls for his firing. "At one point," he said, "I became the most important man in Brazil Every newspaper, every T.V. and radio station, and nearly every person had some criticism or advice to give me." Nevertheless, the coach points to an exception, recalling the warm reception given him and the team in Recife. He said there was a "great atmosphere in Arruda Stadium" (Recife) for Brazil to run over Bolivia "in its first convincing victory of the qualifying series." This experience led Parreira and CBF, the soccer governing body in Brazil, to award the fans in that city with another Selecão match, Brazil's friendly World Cup preparation game against Argentina on March 23, won 2 x 0 by Brazil in impressive fashion.

So, even after the convincing victory over Bolivia, the Brazilian players faced an intense pressure build-up on them and their coach, as the media now were referring to "a ghost of 1950," in reference to Uruguay's upset of Brazil in the World Cup final that year before a stunned 200,000 Brazilian fans in the newly constructed Maracana.

Parreira noted that "this fantasma has long been buried, as Brazil has won several important games against Uruguay over the years, including at Maracana," but that this did not preclude the media and the superstitious from worrying about the outcome. Again, Brazil was playing its last elimination round game with the possibility of being kept out of the World Cup with a defeat. It was this scenario, together with the way his players reacted and dominated the Uruguayan team, that made this match what Parreira called "the greatest game ever played by one of my teams."

After appearing to be on the edge of disaster (with Parreira insisting he knew otherwise), something of a metamorphosis had occurred with the team. Uruguay, a major opponent, in a deciding final which it needed to win in order to qualify for USA 94, was held to not a single shot or corner kick against the Brazilian goal, "defended" that day by goalkeeper Taffarel, who may have been mistaken for a spectator. Parreira voiced his confidence in the line-up that slowly took apart the Uruguayans in that pressure-filled final, repeating that

the opposition had an unheard of "zero corner kicks and zero shots against Brazil."

Confidence - The resolute belief in his players which Parreira has shown, is precisely the way the coach is now dealing with a growing volume of editorials and opinions criticizing the "weak midfield which is producing no goals," the "apathetic play of Rai," the failure of Parreira to "replace Branco, Taffarel" and other, the "final list of players" for the World Cup, etc., etc. Several months ago, Parreira felt that the line-up on the field against Uruguay, in the last qualifying match, would be the base team for the Cup Parreira had no problem saying this. The players he eventually selected reflect this long-term preparation, as the only doubts and surprises surrounded two or three back-up positions.

Parreira has long claimed to know exactly the kind of players he wants on the field when the pressure is greatest. For instance, he said that while he "heard the public cries for Zetti" (of São Paulo, the recent Intercontinental Clubs Champion) in goal and "in place of Taffarel, who actually had been playing poorly," he would favor the more experienced of the two. He explained that "Zetti has only played four times for Brazil, because I put him in. Taffarel has over 80 games for Brazil if you include the under-23 national team, where he was world champion twice for Brazil."

He also felt that Taffarel's "slump," preceding and during the qualifying matches, could have been related to his being benched for much of the 1993 season in Italy, where he played for Parma A.C., as part of a tactical decision so that the club could use another foreign field player and still remain under the foreign player quota (three) in Italy's first division. In 1994, Taffarel has been the full-time goal keeper for Reggina, also in Italy.

Parreira's Vision - Arguably, the more one listens to Parreira and the more one sees of his team, the clearer the connection becomes between his cool demeanor and that version of the Selecão which literally gave a clinic in how futebol should be played in defeating Uruguay in the must win final. The national team has been through a lot during the qualifying rounds and Parreira has ample reason to be weary of the media and the infinite list of critics pressuring him to return the World Cup to "its rightful resting place: Brazil." Nevertheless, this is a man who seemingly refuses to be disturbed and is not afraid to be publicly straight-forward about his players.

Besides experience, Parreira said he also looks for "creativity and talent" in the players he chooses, qualities in abundance in the Brazilian tradition of futebol. This preference is symbolized by his faith in the controversial Romario, who had even been banished by CBF after having a serious argument with Parreira's assistant, ex-head coach Mario Zagalo, an issue which Parreira did not discuss here. The high esteem Parreira holds for brashly creative forwards may also explain his occasional use of the irreverent and talented (if inconsistent) winger Renato in so many friendly games, something which frequently confounds Brazil's critics but also opposing defenses.

Parreira clearly never intended to use Renato on a World Cup team, but his point was not missed. Today, his willingness to take chances and emphasize the true nature and qualities of the Brazilian athlete is also perhaps demonstrated by his selection of the show-boating but effective and opportunistic center-forward Viola, from Corinthians, who has a new choreographed celebration and dedication for each goal he scores (he has dedicated his selection to the Selecão to the memory of Ayrton Senna).

Similarly, the choice of the "boy" Ronaldo, a 17-year old from Cruzeiro, is another sign that this coach values skill and a willingness to attack a defense, even above international experience of course, it should be understood that Parreira has a strong precedent for this bold move: After all, isn't a pillar of our soccer tradition the lesson inherent in the wisdom shown by veterans Didi and Nilton Santos, who insisted that coach Vicente Feola insert the young Garrincha, and the even younger Pele, into the line-up in the 1958 World Cup? As they say, the rest is history Should anything happen to veterans Bebeto or Romario this time, who knows...?

Secrets of Success -Parreira promises that he will field a team "that is fast, that still dribbles, that is creative," vowing to use a group that reflects an "exciting and traditionally Brazilian style of play." Of course, this is what the entire world wants to see, and what apparently it will get. The coach's preference for experienced and talented players will focus on a powerful defense and midfield arrangement geared to creating time and space for diminutive stars Bebeto and Romario, whose dramatic and triumphant return to the starting line-up is what most fans recall about that last match against Uruguay and what the media in fact focused on. After all, who could forget that the eccentric hero scored both goals of the match - brilliant goals by the way - and then stood by the sideline getting a drink of water, his task completed, while the game was winding down.

But don't be deceived. Recognizing the changes which have revolutionized the game in the last three decades, making soccer "much quicker, with closer marking by world class athletes" and an increased level of violence, Parreira prescribes a combination of creativity and power. He told of how the demands of the game today require players to play "in one or two touches all over the field," adding that "anyone holding the ball soon loses it or is fouled."

Parreira is a modern coach who understands that today everybody on the field must "mark," and used the example of the newest European soccer giant, Norway, "which qualified in first place in a group that included England and Holland." Describing Norway's alignment on the field, from back to front, Parreira said that "the Norwegians used a one, two, six, one system which at times gave them as many as nine players in the midfield. Against Norway, no one can hold the ball there."

Relying on an alignment which may not be as different from the Norwegian team's as it at first may seem, Parreira's field arrangement uses the traditionally Brazilian combination of side-by-side central defenders ("beque central e quartozaqueiro") with two defensive midfielders just ahead of them ("com dois volantes"), while shunning the use of the sweeper ("libero"), preferred by European teams and by Argentina. This strategy for using space on the field, while refined by Parreira's use of Mauro Silva and Dunga together in central mid-field, is what closes the middle of the field against Brazil's opponents, but also what historically has freed the Brazilian forwards to create and their outside full-backs to attack from the wings.

Beginning with Nilton Santos in 1958, Brazil has a long tradition of super-star attacking wing-backs, who arguably owe their freedom to attack to the customary coverage strategy of side-by-side central defenders protected by one or more central midfielders ("volantes"), all of whom cover the open the spaces left by the attacking wing-backs - something much harder to do with only one sweeper/libero who has to cover both sides and the middle by himself.

In the footsteps of Nilton Santos, our cast of wing-backs is well known: Carlos Alberto, Marinho, Nelinho, Junior, Leandro, Josimar and Branco, all defenders who are remembered for spectacular goals and consistent forward movements. But perhaps more significantly, this approach has made the "attacking" Selecão the team with e lowest goals against average in World Cup history. For those who noticed, the strategy is also what helped to close down Uruguay (with "zero shots" and "zero corner kicks") in that qualifying round final, Parreira's greatest moment.

Currently, Brazil's more regular players also prefer this system and recognize its success. When the team veered away from the double defensive midfield approach in Paris on April 20th, against the combined teams of Paris Saint Germain/Bordeaux, due to the absence of Mauro Silva, they experienced an obvious decline, drawing the match at zero goals apiece and creating very few opportunities for scoring. Comments by the players after the game focused on the lack of time and space to attack and create from the midfield, due to the increased defensive responsibilities given to offensive midfielders Rai, Zinho, and Rivaldo (who was later replaced by Paulo Sergio and then dropped from the team).

When volantes Dunga and Mauro Silva have been lined up together, the other midfielders and the wing-backs have much more freedom to move forward and be creative, translating into greater opportunities for the forwards. Perhaps most importantly, this also dictates that most of the attacks will come from the wings (as the central spaces are taken by Mauro Silva and Dunga) - something which is absolutely necessary in the modern and defensive nature of world class soccer today. Not surprisingly, Parreira has brought along five attacking wing-backs he can make use of: Jorginho, Branco, Cafu, Mazinho and Leonardo.

Parreira did not hesitate in practically telling the world what his preferred team was, well in advance of the final selections. At one point in this interview, he said "give me Jorginho, the two Ricardos and Branco, Dunga and Mauro Silva, Rai and Zinho, then Bebeto and Romario, and it will be very difficult to beat Brazil." Indeed, this line-up was the base of the team he eventually selected for the tournament. While most of us remember the brilliance of Romario against Uruguay, perhaps that final match was a roadmark which had a lot more to disclose about the potentially historic journey of Parreira and the Selecão.

As the character of this team and its coach began to register among supporters and doubters alike, a semi-traditional and typically Brazilian soccer formation has made itself worthy of challenging the modern, defensive and fast game. Simultaneously, the cool experience of a group of athletes is poised to take its place in history and shoulder the burden of an expectant nation that is hurting for satisfaction. Arguably, these are the major revelations about this generation of the Selecão, about Parreira and, hopefully, about what is to come in World Cup '94.

The Selecão - True to his words, Parreira's choice of players for the World Cup contained few surprises and the expectation now surrounds only the possible minor last minute alterations which generally impact each team's starting line-up just before the tournament begins. Long-standing friction between coaches and the CBF politicos has always been the subject of debate when it comes to the Selecão, such as the recent CBF firing of Parreira's friend and preferred goalkeeper trainer for the national team, Nielsen Elias. But, if there were strong pressures bearing down upon the coach attempting to

dictate or influence the final selection, its effects were minuscule, as the player list basically reflects the players he has already relied upon to get this far.

If there were any surprises at all in the coach's selections, they would have to be considered small ones. These were the inclusion of the 17-year old forward Ronaldo, and the way that attacking midfielder Paulo Sergio (Bayer Leverkusen) and striker Viola played themselves onto the team, while Rivaldo (Corinthians) played himself off. The case of Viola is also a special success story, in that he was not even in the CBF's fifty-four name player pool a couple of months ago and had not been used by Parreira in test matches lately, until coming on in Paris last May and providing Brazil with its best scoring opportunity in a dull match, and then playing well in Florianopolis one month later against Iceland, a 3 x 0 victory. Viola had also been having a below average season for Corinthians in that he was not scoring as often as he did in 1993, until a recent burst immediately preceding the selection in May.

Deciding not to include midfielders Cesar Sampaio and Valdo on the team which has now traveled to California for the World Cup, Parreira's only "pure midfielder" backing up usual starters Mauro Silva, Dunga, Rai and Zinho is the relatively untested offensive midfielder Paulo Sergio, making the Selecão appear thin in this sector. However, Brazil's final selection actually reflects thee coach's confidence in a short list of players who share the important quality of being able to play at a world class level in at least two distinct sectors of the field, a prerequisite in the modern game.

Four players who once distinguished themselves as wing-backs at the club level, have also become midfield veterans in their careers and will probably be called upon by Parreira to fill the midfield before he relies on the less experienced Paulo Sergio. These are Mazinho, Cafu, Branco, and Leonardo.

Thus, Brazil's midfield actually boasts of at least eight world class players to choose from. But of course, each World Cup usually brings new revelations such as when the young Pele and Garrincha were first pressed into service, at the insistence of their team mates.

Brazil's Opponents - According to CBF records provided by Administrator Americo Faria, Brazil has a winning record in friendly and tournament competition against fifteen of the twenty-four nations represented in World Cup USA 94, if we also consider the matches against the disbanded USSR, Brazil has a losing lifetime record against Holland and an even record against both Italy and Argentina in friendly and tournament plays. According to these same records, Brazil has never played against five of this year's World Cup participants: Morocco, Nigeria, Greece, South Korea and Group B opponent Cameroon.

Parreira said he felt that the World Cup draw actually gave Brazil the "hardest and most competitive group." When a reporter opined that every coach says that about their own group, Parreira took exception and briefly discussed each of his known opponents.

He felt Sweden would be the strongest opponent and remarked about the recent history of World Cup encounters and Brazil's difficult win over them in the 1990 and the 1982 World Cups. Like many of the stronger teams in this year's tournament, Sweden boasts of forwards and midfielders who play in the competitive Western European leagues, most notably their main scoring threats, Brolin.

Given the scenarios of internal crises afflicting both of Brazil's other Group B opponents, Cameroon and Russia, Sweden may well be Brazil's most challenging opponent in the early round, just like Parreira predicted.

Winning On and Off the Field - In spite of his successes thus far, Parreira remains humble in recognizing that "to win the Cup you need experience, talent, physical and psychological conditioning, but you also need to be lucky."

Recalling his days as a young trainer with the glorified 1970 team, Parreira said that "there used to be constant difficulties in even raising the money needed for travel and lodging at World Cups."

This often led to the team's lack of adequate isolation during tournaments, something which he partially blames for Brazil's subsequent defeats in the World Cup. Often referring to his experiences with the Brazilian media, Parreira spoke of the importance of "not losing the Cup outside the grounds, where the demands from the media and fans could distract the players."

He repeatedly stressed the importance of keeping the Brazilian players isolated from the media and the onslaught of fans who undoubtedly will want to come in contact with them in California.

His chances of training in peace" may be increasing, because for the CBF "times have changed." The coach explained that "for the feat of qualifying for World Cup 94, each team received $US 1 million from FIFA," adding that "we will receive another million for each of the three first round matches." This means at least $US 4 million for each qualifying team, with what he called "increasing amounts given to each team for additional matches that they play in the tournament."

So, this figure being added to CBF's regular budget gives the team "quite enough" to sequester itself nearly anywhere it chooses in the U.S. during the Cup. Nonetheless, Parreira said that "the emphasis is on privacy, not on luxury," a sentiment well reflected by his choice of the semi-isolated and modest resort on the edge of Vesona Lake.

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Author: Oakar, Jeff Article Title: MOURNING: Say it ain't so! Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.102 Publication Date: 06-30-94 Page: p. 13

MOURNING: Say it ain't so!.

May 1st is an ordinary day here in the United States but in Brazil, it is a day that will live in infamy. I was at home watching the NBA playoffs when the phone rang and at the other end was a long distance phone call from Brazil. My mother-in-law's voice three pitches higher than normal rattling off something about my adopted hero Ayrton Senna. I speak basic Portuguese but what I heard and understood had to have been wrong. There was no way I was hearing what she was telling me. For once I wanted to misunderstand her. She was telling me that Senna was dead.

My initial reaction was shock. Just earlier that morning. I had read about Austrian Formula One race driver Roland Ratzenberger's fatal crash and how Senna in grief refused to drive in a qualifying round. Then denial struck. I began to hope that this was what my sogra was reporting to me. Then I became angry and I declared I would never care about race car driving again.

Ironically, when I got that call from Brazil I was in the middle of a cheerful letter to mu in-laws. In the emotion of is all I ended that letter semi-irrationally by writing that it's hard to imagine North Americans crying in the streets mourning the death of a "national hero". That, of course, is simply not true. JFK's and Martin Luther King's assassinations were a major blow to the nation in a volatile time. John Lennon's murder caused a national depression as well. But as the May 10 Los Angeles Times so aptly put it, it's the way a people mourn that tell much about a nation's character.

That over half a million people, many covered in rose petals, others with their faces painted black, showed up in grief to the funeral says a lot. That it was for a race car driver says much, much more. Senna, who was 34, was one of Brazil's bright points of light. He was the country's extension to the world, high above the deceptive media painted images of a land where children were being killed in the streets of Rio and politicians were stealing millions right out of the very pockets of the poor.

He stood for much more than patriotic pride. Ayrton Senna was a pain killer for the people. He helped them forget the woes of the county. How else to explain the outrage that seethed out of Brazilian newspaper columns. Some went on to accuse Formula One officials of murder. Others, shouted out that at the very least some injustice had been committed. The pain even exposed itself in the suicide note of a Curitiba woman who declared: I'm going to join Senna."

Interestingly enough, for years Senna was remembered for his feuds with other drivers as much as his exploits on the track. The barbs he traded through the press with French world champion Alain Prost were legendary. In fact his moodiness and his stormy relationship with the press hardly painted an image of a man of the people. He was private, introspective and a man of the people. He was private, introspective and a mystic. A man who would close his eyes and put both hands on his car before each race. But he was a winner

and Brazil cherished what so few it had.

For the rest of the world he was one of the best Formula One race car drivers of his day. Many have said he was the greatest of all-time, winning more races quicker than anyone before. In 1991 he became the youngest pilot to win three world championships. This was a driver in his prime. His peak was still on the way and everybody knew it.

But now Senna has become myth. He has always been admired and now he will always be adulated. I began to follow him soon after I met my wife and I was fascinated by the way all of our Brazilian friends spoke about him as if he was the best thing to happen to Formula One since the invention of the wheel. For Brazil, he was.

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Author: Ravello, Carlos Article Title: SOCIETY: Macabre dance Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.102 Publication Date: 06-30-94 Page: p. 15

SOCIETY: Macabre dance.

Jails overcrowded beyond belief, riots rampant AIDS and understaffed facilities manned by incompetents. No, this is not California's corrections system, although it may see, like it. This is Brazil.

In Minas Gerais State, unofficial data indicates that there are more than 6,000 sentenced prisoner; many of these are lodged - in an irregular manner - at the county jail, awaiting space for their placement at the state Penitentiary.

Space is so scarce in fact, that inmates now play a kind of deadly musical chairs' game called Ciranda da Morte, in which an inmate is chosen at random or by chance by his fellow inmates, and then summarily executed to make space for the others. Some band-aid is always being tried. Like the two new jail facilities built in Minas Gerais that is expected to open up 850 new vacancies.

Brazil's justice authorities calculate that over 70% of inmates currently in jail return back into the system once they are set free. Furthermore, even the newer facilities do not guarantee safety, even for the prison authorities themselves. An example is Contagem Penitentiary in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan area.

Inaugurated in 1985 as a model prison, and one of the best in all Latin America, it nevertheless had one of the highest escape rates in Brazil. So lax in fact, that in 1990 four escapees took a Military Police Colonel and kept him hostage for over four days.

An extreme of how bad things are getting within the corrections system, is seen at the jail facilities in Brasilia, Brazil's capital. According to the United Nations, the proportion be a three-to-one ratio, that is, one corrections officer for every three inmates.

At this time the ratio is actually five to one, which creates a potential for trouble, big trouble. The number of inmates has doubled in Brasilia's prisons, but the number of corrections agents has remained static at 350 officers.

Further compounding the problem is the fact that almost half of all available police vehicles are down due to lack of maintenance. And whenever a prisoner has to be taken out for medical treatment, it implies a reduction of available agents at the prison, since each prisoner has to be accompanied by an agent.

Brazil's Federal District jail system is made up of three jail facilities, each with a capacity for approximately 650 inmate; the truth is, however, that there are at least over 800 prisoners within each of the three facilities.

In Ceara State, the picture is similarly depressing. In spite of the fact

that Ceara seems to have enough available space, the truth of the matter is that there are not sufficient funds to maintain and keep the jails running. It costs the State the equivalent of two and a half minimum wages to keep the inmate in.

Law number 7,210 exempts private investors who choose to invest capital in n-house micro-businesses within minimum security jail facilities, from any sort of income takes. However, few investors have take up the offer. "In spite of the advantages," says Minister of Justice Antonio Tavares, "no one wants to invest in hoodlums."

Of São Paulo's 52,000 inmates, almost seven thousand are HIV positive. More than 900 of them are females in a population of 3,000. The dark shadow of this killer disease mixes with the other sorrows of São Paulo's jail population. And although a brand new hospital facility has been built for AIDS patients in crisis, as soon as the inmate rebounds, he is returned to the general jail population, where a relapse is almost certain.

The problem is not unknown to the penal authorities in São Paulo. Ten mini-jail facilities are currently under construction, which will open some 5,000 spots for the inmates. Furthermore, a Penitentiary Academy will help train directors an corrections guards.

São Paulo's major problem areas are at Franco da Rocha, Hipodromo and Carandiru Jails, the latter quite infamous due to a 1992 massacre in which 111 prisoner were killed after a rebellion. The authorities have given up fixing Carandiru. The facility will be closed and the area transformed into a park. The problems range from over crowding to architectual inadequacy.

The Conselho Nacional de Politica Criminal e Penitenciaria (CNPCP) or National Council for Criminal and Penitentiary Policy has already determined that at least 130 new jail facilities shall have to be built, at a cost of $15 million each, to be able to cope with the explosion of jail overcrowding.

Each will hold an average of 500 inmates, and follow the guidelines recommended by the United Nations. Brazil has a current deficit of about 75,000 cells.

According to CNPCP President Edmundo Oliveira, there is a lack of political will to try and solve the problems relating to incarceration and lack of jail facilities "Each cell costs $40,000 to build," states Oliveira, "which equals the cost of building eight low-income homes."

Of the 297 current jail facilities, about 175 function in a very precarious manner, where promiscuity and violence are the rules of the road. There are 127,000 inmates in Brazil crammed into an area that can house no more than 52,000 people, and it is estimated that over 95% of them are from the poorest social classes.

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Author: Ravelo, Carlos Article Title: Toil for tots Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.102 Publication Date: 06-30-94 Page: p. 17

Toil for tots.

A recent investigation be the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE) has destroyed certain prevailing myths relating to Brazil's labor market. An example: it was always thought that most children that worked were located either in the larger cities or in the northeastern region of Brazil. It has been determined that although legions of children do fall into those areas, the vast number are children who live in rural areas and work with their parents, mostly in the southern part of the country.

Most children in the southern states of Parana, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul between the ages of 10 and 13, living in the rural areas, work. And although most of these children work an average of about 40 hours per week, they are not the hunger-driven, uneducated meninos de rua (street children) or favelados (shanty town dwellers) prevalent in the larger city.

Most do go to school, have decent meals and are well clothed and taken care of by their parents. The research was initiated under the auspices and recommendations of world renowned sociologist Herbert de Souza (Betinho), who guided the "campaign against hunger" in Brazil.

Although Brazil's constitution strictly forbids minors of less than 14 years of age from working, almost 2 million children between the ages of 10 and 13 do work in Brazil. They make up 15% of all children within that age group, and are about 3% of the country's total work force of 66 million. In the larger cities like São Paulo, minors make-up an insubstantial number of the total work force; in São Paulo's case, roughly 47,000 children out of about 1.5 million pre-teens. That is about 3% compared to 36% in the south, 29% in the northeast, and 21% in the southeast.

As presented by Veja, a Brazilian weekly magazine, the Derlam family, in a rural town outside of Porto Alegre in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, is a prime example. Father Geraldo, mother Cloreci, both worked as children. Nowadays, daughters Joseane (12) and Fabiane (14) help the parents collect and load dozens of boxes of oranges harvested by them at their farm. Both daughters produce more than half of the harvest. The bottom line is that the work ethic goes down from one generation to the next, regardless of what Brazil's federal constitution has to say about the matter.

Furthermore, the financial crisis that has whipped Brazil for the last 6 years has turned this option into a matter of sheer survival. But the other statistic - which is also awesome - is that a substantial proportion of these children work without receiving any sort of pay. Of the states that have the largest number of unpaid persons which work, those same three in the south (parana, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul), and Piaui in the northeast, head the list.

Another interesting statistic dug-up by the IBGE has been one relating to differences in salaries depending on the gender and the person's race. Whites

earn more than blacks. Nothing new there, but in Curitiba, for example, the difference in salaries between whites and blacks I substantially less than elsewhere. Curitiba was a city almost entirely populated by Europeans. Bahia, has almost an African city in Salvador, where salaries differ much more. That is, in Curitiba a white male earns 1.5 times more than his black counter-part. In Salvador the difference is more than 3 to 1.

IBGE President Silvio Miciotti says: "In the south, both blacks and whites are more educated than people from the northeast. Education is the most efficient way of balancing and distributing opportunities equally, and that is precisely why the salary differences is smaller in Curitiba than it is in Bahia." Brazil's minimum salary is amongst the lowest in the world, and in fact many people actually work for less than the minimum (around $60 a month) to be able to survive.

And with a 1.8% growth rate in births, the country seems unable to supply a sufficient number of jobs to keep up with the demand. A formal salaried job with fringe benefits is still something scare in Brazil. States Work Minister Walter Barelli, "That is a definite sign of under-development."

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Author: Luis, Emerson Article Title: ECOLOGY: Lula's Rx Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.102 Publication Date: 06-30-94 Page: p. 19

ECOLOGY: Lula's Rx.

The natives from the Amazon forest seem to be able to survive almost on palm trees alone. They use them as food and with them they make weapons and toys, clothes, canoes, houses, fish nets, medicine and fuel. Since Brazil's discovery by the Portuguese in 1500, the five million Indians who lived in the country have been reduced to 200,000. For 10,000 years however, they've been able to practice so-called sustainable agriculture in the forest.

These and other facts and numbers - like the information that every 15 minutes the Amazon loses an are equivalent to New York's Central Park or 50 acres a minute - were repeated during the recent Amazon Week V organized in New York by Amanaka'a (from the Indian words for rain and forest) Amazon Network.

The conference this year included such guests as Indian leaders Davi Kopenawa Yanomami and Martha Silva Vitor Guarani who participated in panel discussions. Brazilian Minister of the Economy, Rubens Ricupero and human rights activist Bianca Jagger also participated as special guests.

The big star of the meeting, however, was Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, the front-runner Brazilian presidential candidate (more than 40% of the likely voters according to May polls) who took a break from his fast-paced campaign in Brazil to participate in the Amazon Week and meet U.S. leaders and media representatives. Mr. Self Assured himself, Lula just before leaving to the States declared to foreign correspondents in Brasilia that he would win the elections in the first round.

In a surprising move to those who accuse the former Union leader of extreme leftist positions and exaggerated nationalism, Lula declared that he considers "totally possible" a link between the preservation of the Amazon and the re-negotiation of the Brazilian foreign debt.

In Washington, the presidential hopeful criticized an agreement signed April 15 by Brazil with the World Bank to reschedule $49 billion of the country's debt. He also reaffirmed his intention of going back to the negotiation table in case he wins.

The candidate, in talk with American congressional leaders, said that he is open to discuss in international forums "a development model for the Amazon region that takes into consideration the benefits of preserving this so-called lung of the world for all mankind."

Da Silva stressed however that the Amazon cannot simply be declared a mankind patrimony to remain untouched from now on. "While humankind seems increasingly worried with the preservation of the Amazon," said Lula, "Brazil has 18 million people living there who want to eat, work and have access to the modern world's conveniences."

If the world is really interested in preserving the region, words and protest

alone won't do any good, according to him. The solution will require massive and costly investment to allow the peoples of the area to survive and prosper without destroying the environment. Otherwise, he concludes they will continue logging, fishing without control and dumping mercury in the rivers.

Lula's Workers' Party (PT) has used the candidate's trip to divulge his platform. The Amazon is mentioned as a matter of human rights and environment in his government program. The PT says that it is committed to protect the rights and the lands of the Amazon's inhabitants with programs to "Establish a new policy by and for the indigenous people. Demarcate land traditionally occupied by indigenous peoples. Survey lands, using agrarian reform to resettle intruders. Empower the native peoples to protect their own environment."

As for the environmental side of it, the PT's Platform reads: "The Brazilian environment is being destroyed at an accelerating pace, with virtually no legal restraints, and no recourse by those most directly impacted. To stop and reverse, this disastrous trend, there is a growing need for agrarian reform and ecologically sound agriculture."

They present measures for four broad areas of the country: throughout Brazil, the caatinga (dry brush lands) and cerrado (savannas), the pantanal (the Mato Grosso state's wetlands) and the Amazon. For this last area, the proposals are: "Reorient investments to environmentally and socially sustainable extractive activities. Designate extractive reserves. Undertake a complete review of current policies on hydro-electric dams and mines. Emphasize river transportation. Respect and enhance traditional medicine an exploit medicinal plants with self-sustaining methods."

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Author: Oakar, Jeff Article Title: PROFILE: Play, Rique, Play Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.102 Publication Date: 06-30-94 Page: p. 22

PROFILE: Play, Rique, play.

Rique Pantoja's incessantly smiling eyes drift around the stage like a butterfly. First they land on the sax player, then they shift to the drummer and finally they spot the bass player behind him only to start the whole process again. During one of his performances, Pantoja plays frontman but also the proverbial fly on the wall content to just sit there watching his bandmates stretch out a bit on the music he loves to write.

It's Saturday night at the Le Cafe jazz club in Sherman Oaks (Greater Los Angeles) but for Pantoja it's like a day at the playground. He loves what he is doing and he likes where he is doing it. Despite the fires, mudslides and earthquakes, the Southern California is where this Brazilian proudly calls home. "I like L.A.," he said. "It's interesting... I've lived in many places like Paris, for example, but Los Angeles is spread out. Everyone is here to achieve success or fame. It's recognized as one of the biggest gates; a door to the planet."

It's a door this Carioca (native of Rio) plans on keeping wide open. Brazilians may know Pantoja from his work with the instrumental group Cama de Gato but although he is known as a jazz fusion keyboard player and songwriter his talents aren't limited to one genre. In fact he grew up like many of his Brazilian contemporaries admiring the Beatles and listening to James Taylor. "I've always had a passion for music, my father played piano and although I listened to a lot of jazz musicians like Miles (Davis) and Joe Coltrane, I also listened to a lot of rock and MPB (Brazilian Popular Music)," he said. "I played guitar when I was eight and I started playing piano when I was thirteen and I learned to write by transposing the chords by ear."

His first "gig" in the U.S. wasn't musical but rather to do a high school interchange program in Wisconsin when he was 15. Then in 1975 he studied at the Berklee School of Music and the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston. Studying under Charlie Banacos his composing skills improved enough for him to feel confident to move to Paris four years later. There Pantoja formed a quartet and it's there where he met the late jazz great Chet Baker. One night while playing in a small club called Petite Opportunite, which appropriately means "little opportunity," Mr. Baker joined Pantoja's group on stage and from that moment on Pantoja's career took a prosperous turn.

"The brave new composer from Brazil" as Baker affectionately called him would go on to collaborate with such jazz luminaries as Randy Brecker, Ernie Watts, Lee Ritenour as well as Brazilian giants such as Milton Nascimento, Djavan, Chico Buarque and Gilberto Gil. Early on in his career, Pantoja set aside some goals for himself, number one being to play with some of the best musicians around. He has met that challenge head on but now sees his life going in a new direction. "I've always wanted to play with the best musicians in the world but not in the egotistical sense," Pantoja said. "I feel it's artistically challenging for me to play with the creme de la creme. But now I have many spiritual goals."

Those spiritual goals have allowed Pantoja to bolster his musical repertoire with, as he puts it "songs for kids," but they have also shown him a different light on his life. "I turned myself closer to Christianity, to the Lord," he said. "There's a different angle to my work, my talent is a gift from God and a chance to play and touch people. In this sense, music is a powerful means of communication."

Pantoja said that his idea of communication never meant getting rich and selling millions of records. His strength is the versatility of his composing. "It has a delicate side," he said. "I like composing most because it lasts forever as a statement of your works for the next generation." Bandmate and saxophone player Brandon Fields agreed saying Pantoja writes romantic music. "Rique plays with a lot of love, it's very nice... his vibe is very giving."

For now Pantoja likes the international accessibility Los Angeles offers with the ability to juggle several projects at once, and although many aspiring musicians flock to the West Coast to "hit it big," this Brazilian has always had something else in mind. "My idea is to be able to live anywhere with a network of projects," he said.

"It's not about making money, it's more about having fun." With his "headquarters" based in L.A., Pantoja said he could play a few dates in Brazil, then fly to Europe and then back to California while maintaining his connections everywhere.

Musically and socially, his ties to Brazil are still as strong as ever. He recently returned from a there week trip to Rio and São Paulo where he played a series of concerts with Ernie Watts and Frank Gambale (of Chick Corea fame) in packed jazz clubs.

The trip also included some recording sessions which may come out in a future LP. Although Pantoja has had an audience inside and out of his homeland, other Brazilian musicians continue to struggle. He said the situation in Brazil doesn't lend itself to recording and the club scene, especially stressful to up-and-comers.

"There are a lot of musicians and places to play but when people know they can exist playing in clubs and recording, it's nice," Pantoja said. "But now there's no recording and people are struggling to play and they have to bow to the club owners." Still, according to Pantoja, the situation is better now than it was two years ago when there wasn't much work out there.

With all his dues paid. Pantoja won't have much trouble finding work either here or there. Besides the Brazilian recording sessions, he has a possible tour in Japan coming up and he may even do some work with Ivan Lins this summer.

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Author: Szoka, Elzbieta Article Title: Soccer as a metaphor Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.102 Publication Date: 06-30-94 Page: p. 27

Soccer as a metaphor.

Edilberto Coutinho is an internationally known journalist, literary critic and writer, highly praised in Brazil, Argentina, Venezuela, Cuba, France, Portugal and the United States. He is a dynamic, passionate speaker with absolute control of the English language. Since 1979 he has taught literature at 15 American universities as a visiting professor. In 1978 he was also appointed a writer in residence at the University of Iowa, where he earlier participated in the prestigious international writing workshop.

Besides various important wards in Brazil, Coutinho's collection of short stories Maracana Adeus (1980) was the first Brazilian book to win the prestigious prize Casa de las Americas. It was translated into Spanish and French. The book was also published in Portugal. The French translation also won the important award Prix de la Traduction Cultura Latina Bye, Bye Soccer (1994) published by Host Publications is the first English translation of this volume of short stories.

Maracana Adeus was written and published during the military dictatorship in Brazil. It is regarded as an example of literature of protest against oppression and manipulation to which even sport was subject during those turbulent times. The choice of soccer as a theme was motivated by various factors, soccer as an emblem of Brazilian popular culture, on one hand and the soccer game as metaphor for the complex social and political battles that took place on Brazilian soil at that time.

Even though the immediate context of these short stories is Brazilian, the final message, that of determined participation in the "game" and resistance can be extended beyond the Brazilian reality. The gritty style of the stories, the use of graphic, sometimes kinky images, cuss words and aggressive, often colloquial language were at that time another weapon aimed against the rulers and the strict censorship in Brazil. Fourteen years after its first publication the ninth edition of the book came out in Brazil in the Spring 1994. The game seems to be going on.

The 11 short stories in Bye, Bye Soccer are an allusion to the 11 players on a soccer team. Each story can be regarded as "game" of a different player and each player's story refers to a different aspect of soccer and life in Brazilian society. In the collection the author mixes the characters of fictional players with the characters of real players, such as Pele, Kempes or Garrincha, a device that adds more verisimilitude to the archetype of the soccer player, regarded as a hero by the society and presented by Coutinho as a struggling and often abused professional.

One of Countinho's main concerns in this collection is to show the evolution of soccer, from an elitist pastime of Brazilian upper class through a popular form of entertainment, to the only means of survival for the players, who often come from the most destitute groups of the society. Another purpose of these stories was to show how the popular sport whose main go was to entertain

became an object of manipulation and the players became instruments in the hands of the businessmen and politicians. In this sense soccer undergoes a similar process of institutional abuse and deformation as the famous Brazilian Carnaval. Like Carnaval, soccer also means for many Brazilians the way out and often the escape from harsh reality.

Many references to various aspects of Brazilian every day life and popular culture contribute to the book's educational value. One can learn a great deal from this book not only about the universal mechanisms behind professional sport but also about the fascinating and unjustly underrated Brazilian culture. The book is also regarded by the critics as a literary masterpiece and the reader can enjoy Coutinho's style of narration, thrilling and sophisticated at the same time.

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Author: Wyszpolski, Bondo Article Title: BOOK: Welcome new voice Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.102 Publication Date: 06-30-94 Page: p. 33

BOOK: Welcome new voice.

After many years in southern Brazil, the female narrator of Milton Hatoum's Jabuti Prize-winning novel returns to her family home in Manaus to attend her godmother's funeral. She takes notes, and records conversations. Hatoum's book can thus be regarded as a collage of reminiscences loosely stitched together from other, and older, family members, as well as from family friends like the German photographer Gustav Dorner and the odorous Hindie Conceicão. The intended recipient of these pages, which the narrator assumed would be succinct and clarifying, is a younger brother who has lived in Spain for an undisclosed period of time.

The Tree of the Seventh Heaven (Relato de um Certo Oriente, in the original), is not an easy novel to write about, but it should be. Because his work explores the impact of the past on memory, and shows that we can, at best, salvage only fragments, it is hard to know if Hatoum is deliberately compounding the confusion (and miscalculating, as a result) or if he was simply careless or negligent.

The present is as vague as the past, and it's possible to read this book assuming that the narrator is male and that his sibling in Europe is female. The opposite (I think), is true. It is difficult to situate other characters in both time and place, and to discern ages as well as when key incidents occur. Is this obfuscation necessary? The book jacket tells us the narrator has just returned from a long sojourn in Barcelona but I found nothing to support this; likewise, it tells us that the husband of Emilie, the matriarch of the family, is named Hanna.

Hanna was the husband's uncle. As we read, we assume that what puzzles us will later be understood. No; much remains unexplained.

A focused and even straightforward preface would have aided The Tree of the Seventh Heaven, and the reader suffers by its absence. For example, the narrator and her brother in Barcelona are apparently the children of a former family maid, Anastacia Socorro. They are, however, accepted by Emilie and raised with her own offspring, even though the four children of her marriage are 15 or 20 years older. This, of course, is not spelled out, and the dimwits among us may wonder how Uncle Hakim also seems like an older brother while Emilie is both mother and grandmother - and in truth neither.

The narrator and her brother in Barcelona are not given names, and since - for better or for worse - all people in this world are also referred to as `him' or `her', we have another stumbling block the author could easily have pushed aside. Furthermore, Anastasia, the mother, remains sketchy; while the omission of the identity of the father of her children is intentional and has parallels elsewhere, it doesn't do much to flesh her out as a real and viable person.

The parents-foster parents, godparents, whatever - are Lebanese emigrants from

Beirut, and the book is flavored with middle eastern custom. The father is a merchant, his first shop, the Parisian, being the front rooms of the family dwelling. He seems to be a stern Muslim patriarch who broods over the suras (the 114 chapters of the Koran), and yet he has been tempered slightly by the way of his adopted country and his strong, faithful Christian wife. We learn of Emilie's two brothers; Emilio who is something of a stable fixture, and Emir, a man who seems a forlorn stranger to this world, to this life, and who reminds me of Fernando Pessoa in his The Book of Disquiet.

Of the four children, Hakim is the eldest, and Emilie teaches him Arabic. There are two more sons who are in equal parts heartless and indistinct. And there is a daughter, Samara Delia, who at 15 or 16 becomes pregnant and bears Soraya Angela, who is roughly the age of the narrator and her brother. With the latter two, she is raised as a `grandchild.'

Soraya Angela is long dead by the time of Emilie's funeral. A deaf-mute from birth, the little girls is an embarrassment on all levels, and yet - considering the five or six years of her life - one of the more tragic heroines in modern Brazilian literature. Hatoum's descriptions of her, conveyed through Uncle Hakim's eyes, are superbly realized. These are wonderful passages, and they do much credit to the author.

Pages of the book are handed over, so to speak, to the ruminations of Uncle Hakim, the German Dorner, and to Hindie Conceicão. As in many works describing a portentous homecoming, the revelations that emerge contain further riddles. What we realize, and the narrator realizes this too, is that memories are a kind of shop inventory that over the years not only pile up on shelves put extend backwards through time. Categorization becomes impossible; confusion is inevitable. Life, perhaps, is comprised of detached and free-floating memories, like the swirling eddies of the river that accepts the despondent Emir, Emilie's brother. Strangely, the disconnections, the unraveling, are what carry us along on this journey on earth.

By the end of the book the narrator seems to be in retreat, and the story now clearly reflects - even too well - "the dead space that undermines the consecutiveness of ideas." The narrator's bid for a summing up, implicit in the notebooks and tape recorder brought along for just this purpose, has failed, and her last words to Barcelona smack faintly of apology. The past, it seems, has asserted its right to evade a tight and tidy summation- Truly, we cannot go home again. We are, however, left with a few stirring, sharp pictures of our own.

The Tree of the Seventh Heaven resembles other novels in that its basic plot, a reflective survey of one's extended family on the occasion of a transforming event, is far from uncommon. Nelida Pinon's The Republic of Dreams is one contemporary example, the granddaughter Breta preserving the story of her immigrant forebears, and that book also commences with the passing of a central matriarch.

Despite what to this reviewer is a kind of heedlessness, in that clarity early on would have freed the reader to explore the more important issues of the novel, Hatoum's voice is a welcome addition to our library of Brazilian works in translation. His imagery and his descriptions are uniformly commendable, precise and vivid where they need to be; evocative and suggestive also, when required. The sentences have an even, measured flow, and much of the effect, I'm sure, can be traced to Ellen Watson, who has translated other novels from Portuguese to English and preserved their integrity and their grace.

The Tree of the Seventh Heaven is not, I hope, the last we'll hear form Milton Hatoum.

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Author: Dalevi, Alessandra Article Title: MUSIC: The prince of tides Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.102 Publication Date: 06-30-94 Page: p. 36

MUSIC: The prince of tides.

It's been said that the real Baiano (native of Bahia state) is lazy, or, as Brazilians say nowadays, have malemolencia. But even this laid-back attitude has its shading in the land of writer Jorge Amado, composer Caetano Veloso and singer Daniela Mercury. In Bahia you go about your life in three different rhythms: slowly, very slooooooowly, or dorival caymmily.

Even though Dorival Caymmi has lived in Rio since he was 23, he never stopped being a Baiano. When some people meet him on the streets of Copacabana today, they to shake their heads in disbelief: "Are you sure you're that Dorival Caymmi? Every body knows he lives in Bahia."

It was in Rio on April 30 that he celebrated his 80th birthday. And he continues to be active. His way. After 60 years of work, he has produced only 98 songs (compare this for example, to the almost 600 of the younger Tom Girl of Ipanema Jobim).

It's true that the big companies in Brazil were more interested this year in linking their names to the national soccer team that is in the United States for the World Cup than to a national patrimony, and therefore the big parties planned to celebrate Caymmi didn't get enough sponsors. The occasion, however, was very much on the mind of the whole nation. Newspapers and magazines created special sections to commemorate the event.

Dorival himself and his friends - a firmament of the brightest stars of the Brazilian intelligentsia - have been very talkative, He, who has never mixed politics with his music, has been a little dejected about being Brazilian these days, after president Color de Mello's impeachment and the continuous uncovering of corruption in politics: "I have concluded that to act as a citizen in Brazil today is to live a joke. It's the same as playing the lotto, dreaming about nonsense, trying to get rich when you are 80."

The greats of Bossa Nova have confessed that Caymmi's songs such as Marina (1944) have influenced them. Carlos Lyra recognized that the beginning of his career "had everything to do with Caymmi, mainly his have suave and romantic colloquialism." Roberto Menescal said that despite some early reservations about the poet-composer he learned guitar by playing Dorival's music.

Jobim, in the introduction to the composer's Songbook, released at the end of April, didn't spare adjectives: "Dorival is a universal genius...He picked up the guitar and orchestrated the world. He navigates in the wind, in the mind...The sea of Bahia takes him from Venezuela to Argentina, from Alaska to Patagonia. From Paris to Los Angeles."

In an article in Folha de São Paulo, our most famous writer, another Baiano and octogenarian Jorge Amado, 81, wrote: "Who is this young man with gray hair who shows so much adolescence and mischief in his 80th birthday celebration? I'll tell you he is the youngest of three brothers. The eldest is Cary be (a

painter)...I'm the one in the middle, the scribe who writes this note to the kid brother on his birthday. His name is Dorival Caymmi: Federal University Honoris Causa Doctor, Xango's Oba, singer of Bahia's charms, supreme poet and chief musician."

Behind Caymmi's studied laziness hides the master of conciseness and the precision, the perfect word searcher and the music goldsmith. His "João Valentão" took one decade to be concluded. "When the regional is good it becomes universal," comments Rachel de Queiroz from the Brazilian Academy of Letters. "He has a naive music and his writing is simple as the poetry of the big authors." Caymmi could have become a celebrated journalist. This was his first job, at 16, at Bahia's newspaper O Imparcial. Arriving in Rio, in 1938, once again newspaper work guaranteed him a steady income.

His success came through the help of Carmen Miranda, but it seems also that without his music the so-called pequena notavel (little remarkable on) would never have been discovered by Hollywood. This is according to Aloysio de Oliveira, record producer and former member of Bando da Lua, the band that accompanied Miranda.

Says Oliveira: "Carmen had recorded "O que e que a Baiana tem" ("What is that the Baiana Has) for the film Banana da terra (Banana of the Earth), and after that she took the music to the show she was doing at the Urca casino, accompanied by us. One day American producer Lee Schubert showed up in Rio, went crazy about what he saw and decided to take her to America. If it weren't for Caymmi's music we would never have gotten there."

Many of Caymmi's tunes became classics. For decades now Brazilians have been whistling and listening to new interpretertations of songs like "Eu vou pra Maracangalha," "so Louco," "Saudade de Itapoa," "Peguei um Ita no Norte," "Roda Pião," and "E Doce Morrer no Mar". But the composer often says that he would like to have composed "Ciranda, Cirandinha" or "Atirei o Pau no Gato," child folklore songs that have been transmitted from generation to generation.

Dorival's work can be divided into three phases, starting with the Baiano Caymmi with his beach songs that gave him fame. From the 40s on, then Carioca (from Rio) Caymmi started to compose sambas-cambas-canc•es considered by some critics as his best work. Since the 70's, an Afro Caymmi has emerged with songs like "Oracão de Mae Menininha," celebrating a Candomble priestess.

Today Caymmi is an icon of the family man and a teetotaler. He wakes up with the first light of the morning "But in order not to bother my wife (Stella) I stay in bed till 6," he says. "Then I go to the bathroom to take a pee." The composer has been with Stella (real name Adelaide Tostes Caymmi) for 54 years. But until the 60s he was an active womanizer, a heavy drinker and a barfly.

Stella talks about that time: "One night I went to look for him in a bar. He was surrounded by women. I went in and slammed a table, a glass broke. The bouncer came and I punched Caymmi's face. Then I left cussing. I thought he was involved with drugs but it wasn't the case. He was with the tramps." And she concludes with a sigh: "He was a hard act to follow. But it was worthwhile."

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Author: Adams, Scott Article Title: MUSIC: Brazilian Notas Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.102 Publication Date: 06-30-94 Page: p. 38

MUSIC: Brazilian Notas.

As the MTV generation begins to define itself on the other side of the equator, Brazilian stars will find new opportunities waiting. Such is the case with Acoustic, Gilberto Gil's latest on Atlantic Jazz. Gil, who has walked the line on every conceivable musical style from MPB to Soca-funk, emerges with the full impact of his talent in this live recording from São Paulo's Studio Frame.

"Every now and then I come back to my roots, the acoustic format that I started out with," Gil said. "And I very much like the lighter sounds that an acoustic situation can produce. But it was a challenge to translate some of the heavier electric songs that I originally did in the 70's into milder, more relaxed versions for the Acoustic CD. For example, we included "Palco," "Toda Menina Baiana" and "Realce" for this concert and I think it all worked out extremely well."

Gil's musical leadership combined with a strong sense of direction and careful recording production is what makes this album success. Acoustic contains 16 tracks, centering on his ebullient guitar work and unusual arrangements, including Gil's infamous "Aquele Abraco," Caetano Veloso's "Sampa" and Stevie Wonder's "The Secret Life Of Plants."

Gil's collaboration with Veloso on Tropicalia 2 (Elektra/Nonesuch) is quite possibly that landmark Brazilian release of the year. With a star-studded supporting cast, including Carlinhos Brown, guitarist Raphael Ribeiro, saxophonist Raul Mascarenhas, and flugelhornist Marcio Montarroyos, this superbly produced CD had a lot going for it form the start.

"Oh yeah, Tropicalia 2 was very special," said Gil. "There are some acoustic tracks of this one, too, including two tracks with the Bahian percussion group Timbalada. It's kind of a pluralistic approach to honor our 25 years of working together. There's a little bit of everything in Tropicalia 2, rock and roll, samba, a few bossas.

"My association with Caetano has always been existing for me. He's a like guru, a sort of guide for me, and this is the first opportunity we had to play together again since we recorded Doces Barbaros with Gal Costa and Maria Bethania."

But where the first Tropicalia was all unrestrained non-conformity, Tropicalia 2 is decidedly more mature and worldly, doing for Brazilian music what classic rock stations accomplish for baby boomers in the U.S. The focus is different, the magic is the same. Take the samba-rock treatment that Jimmy Hendrix "Wait Until Tomorrow" receives. One listen and you'll love it all over again. Or the true concrete form of "Rap Popcreto," with the sampled layering of a single word as sung by virtually very Brazilian vocalist who ever came near a microphone. That's the essence of Tropicalia 2.

"Tropicalia was a very important moment for ourselves and our pop culture in Brazil. I think both Caetano and I also felt that it was important to expose this music to the next generation of Brazilian teenagers, who are very much into discovering and identifying with use in a historical sense. So there where at least three good reasons to do that album." And countless good reasons to add it to your collection.

Keyboard wizard Cesar Camargo Mariano is another searching for success in the increasingly crowded arena of Brazilian Instrumental Music with his latest from PolyGram Brasil, entitled Natural.

Mariano continues his recording trend with a wonderfully balanced package of new material and bossa gems such as "O Nosso Amor (Our Love)" or the medley of tunes form Black Orpheus. And his understanding of the pop instrumental idiom has increased, too. Witness his clever approach to the melodic introduction on "Curitiba," or the masterful arrangement of "Zazueira," capturing all of the spark and playfulness of his former wife, the late Elis Regina. Natural is a tropically smooth winner.

The same can be said for Leo Gandelman's import Made In Rio (also on Poly Gram), only more so. Building on the success of his Visions release in 1993, the saxophonist alternately swirls and glides through 11 tracks, including "Daum Tempo," Ary Barroso's "Na Baixa do Sapateiro" (with Leo's 12 year old son Miguel) and "Calcado" with it's super accelerated Brazilian rap and Tower of Power horn lines. Lennon and McCartney's "The Long and Winding Road" is covered with reflective grace and his treatment of Rio's unofficial anthem "Cidade Maravilhosa" is spectacular. Currently searching for a North American label, Gandelman is clearly Brazil's contemporary instrumentalist, and Made In Rio merely underlines this fact.

The CD reissues came across our desk recently. George Duke's A Brazilian Love Affair was the result of a three week visit to Brazil in early 1979, and featured the U.S. debut of Simone. You might also want to pick up on I Love Brazil!, a compilation of Sarah Vaughan's best Brazilian recordings on Pablo /Fantasy. Of all the various great jazz singers, only Sarah was able to properly capture the Brazilian saudade, and the dozen tracks are priceless, including two tracks never before released on this side of the border.

Flattery by comparison seems to be the calling card for singer Leny Andrade's first domestic release on Cheskey, entitled Maiden Voyage. With a voice and style favorably compared by many to Sarah Vaughan, Andrade has been ripe for a well produced recording. On most counts, Maiden Voyage his the mark, but longtime fans of this talented Brazilian will struggle to find the missing ingredient that keeps this CD from fulfilling its promise.

While her English has improved greatly, Andrade still sounds better when singing in her native Portuguese. Pianist Fred Hirsch doesn't swing like Leny does, and the choice of material is puzzling: "My Funny Valentine" and "Ribbon in the Sky" seem out of place in this collection. Others fare better: "This Can't Be Love," "Cantor da Noite" and Ivan Lins's "Tarde" exhibit the full range of Leny Andrade's talent. Maiden Voyage is a good first effort, and hopefully Andrade's next production will allow her to move beyond the looking glass comparisons to Sarah Vaughan.

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Author: Espinoza, Rodolfo Article Title: TRAVEL: The Rio Thing Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.102 Publication Date: 06-30-94 Page: p. 40

TRAVEL: The Rio Thing.

In spite of all the counter-propaganda stressing dangerous levels of air and ocean pollution, increasing criminality and the maddening and chaotic traffic, Rio is still the number one destination for the foreign tourist. More than 41% of them stayed or at least passed through the former Brazilian capital during 1993. Of those traveling on business, 40.8% also went there, as did 39.3% dropping by only to participate in a congress or conference. Not such good news when we consider that the flow of foreign tourists has been cut by half in the last 10 years.

According to the World Tourism Organization, Brazil's share of the world tourist traffic fell from 0.6% to 0.3% at a time when international travel was going up 6% globally. Last year the country was still able to real $1.5 billion from tourism. Way too much say, some critics, pointing out the lack of effort the country has put forth to promote itself. The Brazilian government doesn't invest more than $2 million a year in advertising Brazil. Compare this with the minuscule Caribbean island Aruba, which spent $25 million on promotion last year, or Mexico which spent $45 million just to lure the Americans.

In this year of the World Cup, things might be changing. Flavio Coelho, the man responsible for Embratur (Brazilian Company of Tourism) since February, declared that "Rio is priority number one" of his job. His promise: "We are going to launch a media campaign domestically and internationally to show that Rio is not worse than any other big city in the world concerning violence." TurisRio has recently reopened its office in New York, but its $480,000 budget doesn't seem enough even to pay rent and staff salaries.

The new Rio has been becoming a reality since before the Eco-92, the summit conference on ecology that happened in the city on June 1992. For that occasion, the place got a $100-million face lift that included the resurfacing of the sidewalks on the beaches, the fencing and policing of four parks that have recovered their young crowd after having been taken over by the homeless. Today civilian and military police constantly patrol the beaches, and foreign tourists have even gained their own security department.

A group of Rio's promoters, led by Copacabana Palace Hotel general manager Philip Carruthers, came to New York in March to talk about this new clean-cut image. "The perception of Rio as a dangerous place for tourists is a misconception," said Carruthers, brandishing some statistics. According to him, crime against tourists in the South Zone, where most tourists stay, dropped by 40% from 1992 to 1993. During the latest Carnaval, there were only two complaints made by Americans to the Police. And from the 88 complaints registered during 1993, none involved personal injury.

The main entity responsible for this turnabout is the DEAT (Delegacia Especializada em Atendimento ao Turismo - Tourism Aid Specialized Department), a 1,100-member force offering multilingual assistance.

Rio is making a new pitch to the world - $100 million more will be used for leisure improvement in the coming months - when Ipanema is celebrating 100 years. Ipanema, naturally, is a Rio neighborhood that doesn't need presentation. Its garota (girl) as in Garota de Ipanema has been immortalized by bossa nova genius Tom Jobim and partner Vinicius de Morais, and vies with the Beatles' Yesterday for the title of most played song in the world.

Contrary to what we might think, life in Ipanema is getting better. The presentation last April 9 of the Saint Petersburg Philharmonic Orchestra brought 40,000 people to the sands to listen in a trance to classical music, a fact unheard of in the history of that piece of beach and sea between Copacabana and Leblon.

Copacabana can be more famous and may be even prettier, hip Barra da Tijuca, to the south, can have more peace and cleaner water, but no one can beat Ipanema in charm and in news making.

It was there that Leila Diniz scandalized the nation by in the 60s showing her glorious pregnancy in a diminutive bikini. It was there that the celebrated tanga was born. There Patricia Case became famous by being the first topless sunbather on a crowed Brazilian beach. There also was the refuge for so many intellectuals and musicians - Caetano Velloso and Gal Costa for example - during the military dictatorship that started in 1964.

Some legendary bars like Jangadeiros, Varanda, Mau Cheiro, Veloso (where Garota de Ipanema was created and whose name has been changed to Garota de Ipanema) helped to give the place its aura of a tropical Greenwich Village.

From Ipanema and its bars came also O Pasquim, an underdeveloped (in technical resources not in ideas) Spy-like magazine that defied censorship and criticized government, enjoying a dedicated following all over the country in the 70s.

In one of these dangerous and implausible liaisons that only can happen in a Jorge Amado romance, Helo Pinheiro, the muse of Garota de Ipanema, was the daughter of a general whose work was to censor O Pasquim before it went to press.

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Author: Mello, Rodney Article Title: RECADO Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.103 Publication Date: 07-31-94 Page: p. 5

Recado.

Following the expectations, Brazil started its participation in the World Cup on a high note. So much so that the national soccer team coach Carlos Alberto Parreira was giving an anti-pep talk to his players, insisting that they be humble and that they run from the nobody-can-take-this-one-from-us attitude.

Despite some anticipation to the contrary, the feared Brazilian rowdiness and American rudeness haven't materialized. Our soccer fans have been making friends and admirers wherever they go. The San Jose Mercury, for example, has decided to adopt the whole Brazilian team. After the green-yellow victory against Russia, the paper headlined, "Home players do well." The USA Today got also carried away by our fans, saying that they were the hottest group to invade the U.S. since the Beatles.

But the Cup is coming to an end in a short two weeks, and even if a possible victory can place a huge smile in one hundred and sixty million faces, the rest of the year what will make a Brazilian happy or unhappy will be the changes happening right now in the economy and in politics.

The country is embarking in a new, hopefully strong and inflationless, currency and monetary policy while we get ready to go to the polls to choose a new president. You will see, inside, that we didn't forget all this. Ate depois do Copa.

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Author: Ravelo, Carlos Article Title: COVER: Back to Plato Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.103 Publication Date: 07-31-94 Page: p. 7

COVER: Back to Plato.

Nilton Barbosa Cabral is the son of a truck driver and his mom works at home. She helps him read Pimpa, a book in which the main character encounters philosophical issues. At various points in the text, issues such as the philosophy of language and reasoning are touched upon, but never mentioned in that sense. Metaphysical, ethical and logical aspects reign. Questions are asked in class and open for discussion: topics such as fear, anger, and reason.

"Is being right something that is inside of us all?" asks Lea Bonfim Meneguello, a teacher. "No," answers Priscilla Galati. "A person who steals or kills thinks that they are correct; nevertheless, other people know that he is wrong. You can feel that you are right, and not be." The subject can be discussed ad infinitum. "If you let it roll, it will last forever," adds Meneguello, smiling. Priscila says she is afraid of ghosts. The teacher asks her if a soul has a body. The class, in chorus, answers, "No, if they do not have bodies, then what can they do to you?" The program has been successful in helping students to be more open, to ask more intelligent questions by following a logical sequence in their thinking patterns. The curious aspect of this discussion, however, is that Cabral and Galati are not in the university or high school but have just learned their ABC.

School curriculums are taking a turn for the better in Brazil. Philosophy is making its way back into the classroom, not at the university level, but rather in... first grade! Brazilian educational methods have been joined by a new philosophical trend originally conceived by American philosopher Matthew Lipman in late 1968.

January of this year became a new turning point in São Paulo's educational history. São Paulo State Education Department issued Resolution SE-7 which mandates the study of philosophy, psychology and sociology within the grammar school curriculum. This, almost 23 years after these subjects became electives, and which eventually caused them to disappear altogether.

Lipman in Brazil - The trend is confirmed through the recent publication of Introducão a Historia da Filosofia (Introduction to the History of Philosophy) by Brazilian author and philosopher Marilena Chaui. Her book, departing from traditional didactic methods of the teaching of philosophy, circumvents the standard questions and instead "updates" those interpretations, relying upon subjects and issues taken from current day-to-day questions and events.

Another merit of the book is that it takes several and diverse perspectives into account, thoroughly examining each individual philosophical doctrine, without curtailing any of them to simplistic black-and-white reductionism. The book does not however, purport to be an in-depth treatise on the subject; after all, it is geared towards grammar school kids. In any case, with the scarcity of good textbooks in Portuguese, it is nothing less than a blessing.

Lipman's methods and ideas have been successfully implemented in Iceland, Germany, Egypt, Taiwan, Nigeria and now, in Brazil. Seventy year-old Lipman holds a Doctorate from Columbia university and has authored several books on the subject, including Discovering Philosophy (1977), Growing up with Philosophy (1978) and Philosophy in the Classroom (1978). He also founded the Institute for the Advancement of Philosophy for Children (IAPC), at Montclair State University in New Jersey.

Lipman himself, together with his assistant Ann Margaret Sharp, are going to Brazil this month to participate in the First Education for Thinking National Encounter to be held in Florianopolis, capital of Santa Catarina state. Sharp will be giving refresher courses for teachers who are already teaching philosophy to children. Teacher training is the backbone of the program worldwide. One of the Brazilian monitors, Ismael de Oliveira, 31, praises Lipman's method, "He uses philosophy as a tool. Teachers don't need to be philosophers. They don't need to know who are (American philosopher Charles Sanders) Pierce or (Austrian philosopher Ludwig) Wittgenstein."

Parallels with Paulo Freire - Preparing for his trip to Brazil, Lipman has restated the main goal of his method. "To help people to think by themselves, following a certain number of steps. It's not enough to tell children to be rational. We have to show them how to do it. One way is to tell stories in which we present the behavior of national children, how they behave and how they talk to each other."

To those who say that's impossible to teach children philosophy, Lipman says, "They are wrong. We don't try to make children memorize Aristotle. We don't want them learning philosophy, but making philosophy. This involves dialogue, reasoning. Children can talk about things philosophers discuss, such as truth, justice. Some would say they are unable to discuss these matters. The reality is that they do it."

The American educator, who knows internationally renown Brazilian pedagogue Paulo Freire, sees some parallels in their work. "His interest in forming work communities that promote literacy is very close to our interest in forming investigative communities in order to lead children to a social solidarity that would help improve their education."

Written 20 years ago, Paulo Freire's Pedagogy of the Oppressed has been re-released in the United States this year by New York's Continuum Publishing Company. In it, Freire, an intellectual who was persecuted by the military dictatorship in Brazil and had to ask France for political asylum, talks about a liberating education in which we have "acts of cognition" and not "transferals of information". For him, in a perfect setting, "the teacher is no longer merely the one-who-teaches, but one who is himself taught in dialogue with the students, who in turn while being taught also teach. They become jointly responsible for a process in which all grow. Here, no one teaches another, nor is anyone self-taught. People teach each other, mediated by the world."

While Lipman is developing right now a program adapted to street children, in Brazil his method has been confined to schools which are more open to experimentation. The method is presented in seven fiction texts that lead the children from preschool to the second grade. The themes for discussion are varied, dealing with such subjects as science, ecology, world perception. Elfie (from preschool to first grade) deals with reality and thought; IsSão e Guga (from first to third grades) talks about nature questions; Pimpa (from

third to fifth grades) is interested in the meaning of language; A Descoberta de Ari dos Telles (for fifth and sixth grades) deals with logic. Luiza, Suki, and Mark, dealing with ethics, aesthetics and social and political philosophy respectively, are reserved for high-school.

Only three of the books have been adapted by Brazil until now. They are IsSão e Guga, Pimpa, and A Descoberta de Ari dos Telles. The adaptation was made by CBFC (Centro Brasileiro de Filosofia para Criancas - Brazilian Center for Children philosophy) and published by Yazigi, a name that in Brazil is also synonymous with English schools. The lack of illustrations in these books is deliberate. "Pictures and drawings end up stifling creative thinking," says Ana Luiza Falcone, CBFC'S director. "In this method the teacher is not the one who owns knowledge. The children give reasons for their thinking and their colleagues in the group check if the reasoning is good. In philosophy there's not only reason. We need to create children who don't passively accept what the teachers say."

Aristotelian changes - While the debate relating to philosophy courses at the second grade level is still continuing, some schools - particularly public ones - have chosen to implement Lipman's program at the first grade level. His method has been a hit in schools from north to south, from Cuiaba, capital of Mato Grosso State, all the way to Florianopolis in Rio Grande do Sul.

The program, although in existence since the late 60's, arrived in Brazil in 1985 through the auspices of Professor Catherina Young Silva of CBFC, located in São Paulo. The Center has graduated more than 2,000 teachers since 1988. By 1991, more than 30 schools within the São Paulo school district had adopted the methodology; and in Santa Catarina 16 schools have encompassed it as well. Nevertheless, due to attrition rates and transfers, less than 10 schools - mostly in the São Paulo suburbs - have kept the curriculum in philosophy active.

Lipman's procedure is fairly straight forward. Students learn to reflect and have group discussions - called "research communities" - after reading short children stories which delve into subjects and concepts propounded by the great philosophers. Their names, however, are never given. The content is generally presented within normal day-to-day situations which are familiar and easily recognizable by the student.

Aristotle, for example, becomes Ari dos Telles, a curious and bright little boy who, through a mistake in a science class, by a simple twist of words, is able to discover the rules of logic. "The text deals with syllogisms and other aspects, without however, ever mentioning them as such. We are not giving lectures about the history of thought, but rather teaching children how to think for themselves," said Luiza Falcone, who manages the Centro Brasileiro de Filosofia para Criancas, in a recent interview to Folha de São Paulo newspaper.

The experts speak - A proponent of decentralizations of school curriculums, jose Arthur Giannotti, a nationally respected philosopher who teaches at University of São Paulo (USP), has many misgivings about the introduction of philosophy as an obligatory course in the second grade. He doesn't even see such a measure as beneficial for the philosophy teachers as a class. He doubts whether the country has enough good teachers in the subject, and asks, "Aren't we just opening the door for all sorts of drifters to teach philosophy? We are running the risk of creating another course that produces parrots talking about Aristotle or Descartes, if that much."

A census carried out by the Ministry of Education indicated that in 1991, there were 1,307 who graduated with a degree in philosophy in Brazil. São Paulo State's Education Department figures show that there are 14,803 available classrooms. Giannotti questions, however, not the quantity but rather the quality of the teaching. "My question is: Are we capable of forming good teachers of philosophy at the second grade level?"

Maria Isabel Papaterra, who also teaches philosophy, thinks that there is always a hidden risk in the teaching of this subject. According to her, group discussions can easily become therapy sessions in which the students end up talking problems of puberty, or just the opposite, fall into discussions centering upon abstract and far-removed subject areas. "In either case," she says, "making it mandatory only contributes to the opinion that philosophy is chitchat for putting cattle to sleep."

Renato Janine Ribeiro, another USP professor, has an opposite opinion, and thinks that teaching the subject at the second grade level is a justifiable goal, particularly when it entails preparing people who shall be the citizens of the future. He proposes, however, that Portuguese, history and philosophy teachers join hands in order to help students acquire a more critical vision of society, in all its aspects, "theoretical, remembered and imagined," as he philosophically puts it. However, it will be hard to reverse years of neglect and degradation of education brought about by the military dictatorship, and hardly taken into account by subsequent governments," says Ribeiro.

To the head of the philosophy Department of the University of São Paulo, arguably the finest superior school in all of Brazil, Pablo Ruben Mariconda, there are three reasons why philosophy should became mandatory in the second grade level. First, philosophy is an exercise in what is called "critical reflection." In this sense, it raises a proper attitude in the students geared towards their intellectual and democratic development, and can also prepare them to become ethically responsible, according to Mariconda.

Second, western civilization has always maintained a close relationship between science and philosophy. The study of the latter subject would help students when they are introduced to science classes. Finally, philosophy has a prevalent role which unifies students; "cultural vision," thereby helping them to better comprehend conceptual, historical, social, scientific, technical and esthetic concepts into a whole.

Kid stuff - Contrary to widespread perception, children's literature is a flourishing industry in Brazil. The market is open and very receptive to that genre. In fact, the Camara Brasileira do Livro (Brazilian Book Chamber) (CBL) indicates that over 45 million books were published and distributed to book stores in Brazil. Says Ione Miloni Nassar, editor for FTD publishing house: "Children, more than adolescents, easily accept literary works geared towards them. This in spite of the fact that they are more limited, surrounded by their parents, and are more dependent," she adds.

Isis Valeria Gomes of Editora Melhoramentos is now preparing a new series of books specifically focused on children and teen agers, aptly named Sinal de Alerta (Warning Signal), which deals with subjects such as hunger, alcoholism, drug addiction and racism. The idea is to help to educate and alert children on subject matters and issues that touch their emotions.

According to Isis, children have a natural tendency to want to know and learn

more about those emotions that they feel. "They want to know about emotions and relationships within the home and in school with their friends." She indicates that her decisions are also based on marketing research results.

School and education seem to be a frantic race towards goals in the future. To many, teaching philosophy seems to be a total waste of time and minds. And for many teachers who are striving to justify its importance, it seems to be a task above and beyond their means. Many find philosophy to be a beautiful subject, they praise its purpose and promote its teaching. Others only seem to see confusion.

In any case, the subject has been left out in the admittance exams for university level students for the past 25 years. The key point, however, is not that the subject should be mandatory, but that those who will be teaching it must be properly trained to do so. And furthermore, it is utterly impossible to teach the subject in a vacuum, without connecting with other subjects such as literature, the arts, and humanities. Brazil is poised at the starting point.

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Author: Espinoza, Rodolfo Article Title: ECONOMY: Real Storm Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.103 Publication Date: 07-31-94 Page: p. 13

ECONOMY: Real Storm.

Since June the Armed Forces in Brazil have been in a state of alert. More than 60,000 men and women in uniform from the Army. Navy, and Air Force as well as the Federal Police have been mobilized and in the streets. Their mission: guarantee that by July 15 all 160 million Brazilians, have in their hands the real, a new currency linked to the dollar, that the country hopes will help stem definitely the growing and incessant tide of inflation that reached 45% just for the month of May.

This is believed to be biggest operation of this kind in the history of mankind. Brazil itself is no novice when it comes to changing its money. The real is our ninth currency. Since 1942 the country has changed its money seven times, but never on such a mammoth scale. Brazilians were used to trimming three zeros from their currency every time there was a change of money, starting with the change from the imperial real (reis in the plural) to the cruzeiro. The latest currency, however, is a totally new concept.

Brazil had in June three billion cruzeiro real notes, representing around $3.2 billion. By July 1, the country was planning to have 1.9 billion of real bills, what means around $27 billion. To spread all this money around, the Banco Central was using cargo Boeings 707 and trucks. In less hospitable regions, however, as in vast areas of the Amazon, the only viable transportation is the boat. The Banco Central is anticipating that the volume of money in circulation will grow to $9 billion, betting that people, thanks to a strong currency will start carrying it around more.

To make the transition from one currency to another as smooth as possible, the banks planned to deliver the real on June 30 to places like supermarkets, shopping centers, bus companies, post offices, pharmacies and bakeries. The idea is that the consumer would be able to receive his change in real starting July 1. The banks were authorized to open new service stations where there are no bank branches. Banco do Brasil and other big banks have also prepared trailers to be placed in places with great concentrations of people. The monetary authorities have never seriously considered the use of the vast network of post office branches in the country, alleging that they didn't offer enough security and, besides, couldn't be properly monitored.

For those living on minimum wages the real is not the best news, at least initially. Salaries were converted into URV last March, using the average payment from November 93 to February 94. These values are being transformed automatically into reais. They were fixed n 64,79 URVs and should remain frozen. The plan for a $100 monthly minimum salary has been postponed once again.

Economists and businessmen agree that the real should keep its parity with the dollar at least till the end of August, in order to guarantee the credibility of the new currency. After 60 days, however, the belief is that the relation between the dollar and the real would be one of stability and not of equality.

The government has prepared a primer to help people understand what to expect from the new currency. But this effort to disseminate information is not casy in a country where almost 30% of the houses don't have a TV, and 15% don't have a radio. Even those who should know better are scared. In Pernambuco, ex-councilman and businessman Jose Bardosa has been telling friends, "Let's buy land and cattle with the money. Last time the government froze our money, this time I heard they are gonna burn it."

The old cruzeiro will really be burned to the tune of 20 million bills a day in special ovens in Rio. Part of it, however, will be recycled into less noble paper. The destruction of the new bills, according to Banco Central will cost $64 million.

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Author: Borges, João Article Title: Just peanuts Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.103 Publication Date: 07-31-94 Page: p. 14

Just peanuts.

Do you know how many dinheiros (money) will you have in your pocket or bank on July 1? How many dinheiros the movie ticket, the soft-drink, the chope (draft beer), the sandwich will cost? And how much is the ophthalmologist going to charge you to look at your eyes and to check if they are seeing well? Some examples. Things of the real. The shock is coming.

There will be no confiscation, freezing, or seizure of cattle on the pastures. But it will be a shock to wake up and find out that the millions from the day before have been reduced to chicken feed. Whether the plan is going to work or not, we'll see later. For now, machine on hand, all we can do is to start the speculation (argh!) on how many dinheiros we are going to have and how many we are going to spend in order to buy or use each one of those products or services.

On June 30, the government will released the conversion factor, which would be the URV (Real Value Unit - the transition from cruzeiro real to real) for July 1, but what in reality will be from now on the real. According to the speed of the inflationary carriage, the conversion factor will be around 3,000. Maybe a little less. But, in order not to complicate things even more, let's admit for argument's sake that it will be exactly 3,000. Then, taking the amount of money that you have on June 30, and dividing it by 3,000, the result will be the amount in reais to which, on July 1, you'll be entitled to.

If you received a salary of CR$ 500,000 (half a million cruzeiros reais) on June 30, you'll have R$166,66 (166,66 reais) on July 1. That's it, one hundred and sixty six reais and sixty six centavos. A bill of $100 (one hundred reais), one of R$50 (fifty reais), one of R$10 (ten reais), one of R$5 (five reais), one of R$1 (one real) and one five centavo coin plus another one centavo coin.

It will be with this small change that you are supposed to pay your bills and do your shopping for the entire month of July. Do you make more than that? CR$3 million? You will have then R$1,000 (one thousand reais) on July 1. With 10 bills of R$100 (one hundred reais) the bank will give you all you're entitled to.

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Author: Luis, Emerson Article Title: NATION: House of the Dispirited Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.103 Publication Date: 07-31-94 Page: p. 15

NATION: House of the Dispirited.

Right after passing the new Brazilian Constitution in Congress, on October 1988, each member of the Parliament, in a touching and symbolic ceremony, planted a little tree behind the Congress building, close to the Praca dos Tres Poderes. (Three Powers' Square). Almost six years after its creation, the socalled Bosque da Constituinte (Constituent Grove) is an abandoned field where the few and spindly trees left are being over-whelmed by thriving weeds. Something very similar has happened to recent efforts to revise the Constitution.

The new Constitution had established that the Magna Carta had to be revised in five years. The work of fulfill that requirement started in October of last year and ended on May 31, after 273 days of what weekly magazine Isto E called "the most depressing soap opera ever staged by the Brazilian legislature." During seven months of discussions, all the legislators could agree upon was the creation of an Emergency Social Fund that would last two years, and five little changes in the Constitution that didn't contribute any solutions to the urgent problems of the country.

One of the decisions, reducing the presidential mandate from five to four years, ended up creating a new problem when the amendment that came with it - allowing the reelection of the president - wasn't approved. Analysts have been busy trying to explain why the revision was such a failure. "They [the legislators] are simply lazy and incompetent," some concluded.

"Not so easy," says congressman Miro Teixeira (Rio's PDT). He calls "absurd" most of the explanations for the flop. According to him, the Revising Congress was stillborn. "The revision has no popular appeal," he explained, "and therefore it's evident it's not necessary." To representative Nelson Jobim (Rio Grande do Sul's PMDB), the revision's chairman, most of the reasons presented for the failure, such as the discredit of Congress due to a Parliamentary Inquiry on corruption, were just excuses. "The determining factor," he declares, "was the proximity of the elections."

On October 3, Brazilians are going to the polls for the most weeping national elections ever. Voters will be choosing candidates for offices that range from the presidency to city council seat, including state governors and state and national legislators. Due to this fact, "nobody wanted to show his face" at the sessions, said Bahia's PFL (Liberal Front Party) leaders Luis Eduardo Magalhaes. According to him, the legislators were afraid to make any change lest any voter group would be displeased.

During the eight months the revision work lasted there were 117 sessions planned. In 28 of them there was no quorum; another nine were simply canceled. From the 29,890 proposals presented, 25.692 were studied by the chairman who prepared 76 reports, 23 of which were considered by the constituent body, 13 being approved. Another unlucky number for the taxpayer: $5.5 million. That was the amount paid workers by the government for overtime

during the voting and discussion of the reforms.

The paralysis that attacked the revisions seems also to have affected the Congress at large. In 1993, when elections were still on the far horizon, legislators were much more productive, creating important legislation such as a law for patents and agrarian reform.

Besides the creation of the Emergency Social Fund (the only change that has already been implemented) and the change of the presidential term's duration, the revision representatives and senators have also approved measures that allow double citizenship for Brazilians, that forbid legislators from resigning when involved in criminal processes to avoid indictment, that make ineligible those same lawmakers, and that allow the summons of public workers to testify on federal cases. Since June, the Congress has been in a so-called white recess that should last till the end of the year. The men and women who couldn't find the time or courage to reform the Constitution are very busy now finding ways to get reelected.

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Author: Ravelo, Carlos Article Title: Mean sex Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.103 Publication Date: 07-31-94 Page: p. 16

Mean Sex.

Many people in Brazil visit the Pantanal. Beauties of nature are supposed to be found there. In fact, the Pantanal is located in the northern part of Rio state. However, don't even bother to look at your map, because the Pantanal that we are talking about is a cat house, a house of ill repute. And nature's beauties are garotinhas (young girls) turning tricks for hard currency.

The Pantanal and other hundreds of businesses like it, have been popping up lately. The are a sign of the times in Brazil. It is one of the end results of an extremely long recession that has plagued the populace of low income cities and towns in Brazil for several years now. Hundreds of garotas de programa are clocking out of Rio and into the smaller backwood cities and resorts. Gone are the days of hitting foreigners for a quickie on the streets of Copacabana or Ipanema.

Gone are the days in which the nicest looking girls stampeded into Rio for fame, fortune, and a quick retirement after a few years in the call-up circuit. Furthermore, the pattern of remaining fixed at a semipermanent business spot or city for prolonged periods of time is also gone with the wind and the changes brought by time. In fact, a sort of an amateur informal network has sprung up, in which the working girls tip each other as to which localities and towns are the best for their trade.

Divorced or separated, with kids, and no trade or profession. This seems to be an increasingly common profile amongst as gatinhas (pussycats) who hustle for quick reis (the new Brazilian currency) to survive. Many have to make some hard decisions on short notice. Where will they go to work, with whom shall they leave their children? In fact, many decide to go into prostitution because they need to sustain themselves and their dependents. Many a time they leave the minors in the hands of relatives, but more and more often, due to prejudices of fears, they choose to take them to friends or even strangers.

Valeria, a 19 year-old divorcee from Pernambuco state, was separated from her husband. In need of money for herself and her kids, she went south of Barra Mansa, after an unsuccessful search for her relatives. And Barbara, a 26 year-old Baiana (from Bahia state) who had also left her husband back in the sertão, took the advice of some of her girlfriends and left for Angra dos Reis. These she went to Casa da Tia Linda, the most famous whorehouse in the city. The very first night there, she lined up three clients.

Easy targets - In the hustling profession, the younger you are, the better your asking price. "I worked as several (whore) houses in Rio, but not only young girls get a break," says 27 year-old Sandra. "What am I going to do now?" Head for the back woods, that's what!

It's the truck drivers who are responsible for transporting most girls from one place to another. They all seem to know where the cat houses are in each small town. Somehow, a sort of symbiotic relationship exists between the

girls and the drivers: sex for transportation, food and a roof; even if it's just the cabin of a trailer-truck.

In any case, the profit motive is not limited to the girls alone. Even people who might otherwise seem out of place are dipping into this lucrative market. A case at hand is Maria das Gracas Barbosa, a school teacher by profession. She is the iron hand behind the famous Pantanal, a cat house located between the towns of Rio das Ostras and Macae, where she still teaches twice a week.

She herself is not a prostitute, but being a 46-year old doesn't prevent her from starring in her own "nude review". She handles the business under strict rules: none of the girls can leave without permission; beach bathing only in pairs, on certain days and at certain times; no boyfriends visiting during business hours, and other draconian rules. The girls who work there have to be available by three in the afternoon. They don't pay rent or food, but breaking any of the rules will palace them in jeopardy of being "find" by Maria, the owner.

New kids on the block - Each year the "working pool" seems to get younger and younger. Furthermore, the pattern and motivation of the girls are not always the same within the various parts of the country.

For example, in the Northeast juvenile prostitution is due in part of the drought, lack of education and the hunger which permeates the area. Girls aged 13 to 16 are sent out, many times with the consent and knowledge of their parents, to earn their keep and help their relatives. In Recife and Rio, there is a strong demand for them by waves of tourists coming to Brazil explicitly for sex. In Rio there is also a large pool of young males (aged 11 to 17) which cater to native homosexuals or bisexuals, mostly from middle or upper class background. In Porto Alegre, many of the girls are "hired" to "work" in the larger cities; they're mostly from a poor rural background. In some cases, neither the girls nor their parents know what they are actually getting into until it's too late.

A recent inquiry by the CPI (Parliamentary Investigative Committee) has brought forward some shocking details in relation to sex-for-drugs prostitution rings in which girls - some as young as eight years old - are sexually enslaved and then booked on crack, the better to control them. They do not get paid in cash by the client, but rather "in kind" (crack) from their pai (father) or pimp. The investigations have been carried out by Deputies (Congresspersons) Marilu Guimaraes (PFL-MS) and Moroni Torgan (PSDB-CE) who initially looked into sex enslaving of minors in the Amazon region. One of the more morbid aspects of these investigations determined that many of the girls are sold out or placed into the "profession" by their own relative. Furthermore, whenever a caring social agency or the Catholic Church gets involved, its representatives wind up threatened or hurt by business owners or pimps. Few people are willing to come forward and testify, fearing for their very lives.

Violence seems, in any case, to be the most common bond in the whole scheme of things. The girls and whoever try to help them are the most likely victims. Worse yet, the investigations have revealed that civil and military police officers as well as soldiers are actively involved in the kidnapping, transportation and trafficking of minors in the prostitution business.

Porno-tourism - Northeastern Brazil has become one of the most popular sites for what has been identified as "porno-tourism" Previously Singapore, Bangkok

and Manila were world-known spots for organized sex-tours. Thousands of Japanese, Australians and some Americans flocked in packaged tour combining business and pleasure - not necessarily in that order - paying a single price.

Recife and Ceara have now been added to that list. Thousands of Germans, Dutch, French and Swiss flock to the emerald-water shores of Northeastern Brazil for sex and fun in the sun.

Some girls are even recruited and taken back to Europe. The investigations also discovered one incredible fact: that lack of public hair and small breasts - sings of immaturity or pre-puberty - brings in a higher price. In addition, many of the girls have also know violence and sex at home, sometimes at the hands of abusive fathers, brothers or relatives. And cases of incest are more common than many are willing to admit.

In spite of the fact that the CPI has identified the sources and problems relating to child prostitution, they also recognize that there are no short-term solutions.

Some proposals though, are forthcoming: increasing health programs, assisting families and educating them to gain control of their children, countering any negative advertising overseas which might promote Brazil as a sex-tour magnet, extending services and shelters for abused kids, and actively using investigative and research tools (such as IBGE - Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics) to identify and provide statistics relating to child prostitution.

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Author: Pfister, Chuck; Ripper, J.R. Article Title: INDIANS: No land No hope Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.103 Publication Date: 07-31-94 Page: p. 19

INDIANS: No land No hope.

The dire situations of Brazilian Indians only makes the news in North America when some spectacular event is picked up by the media, such as the August 1993 massacre of 16 Yanomami Indians by renegade gold miners. In reality, the situation of many Brazilian Indigenous groups may be a daily struggle for survival along a series of crises, any of which may lead to the extinction of an entire culture.

When she spoke before the U.S. Congress on May 10, Martha Silva Vitor Guarani, President of the Kaguateca Association for Displaced Indians from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, was hoping that Americans familiar with their country's tragic history of Indigenous Peoples could help her own people in Brazil avoid a similar fate. Martha is a Guarani Indian, whose 35,000 member nation in Mato Grosso do Sul represent well over 10% of all Indigenous Brazilians.

A week after her visit to Congress Martha described the plight of her people to an audience in Berkeley, California. Wearing a pink sweat shirt and sweat pants, with a necklace and bracelets made of seeds from her native land, Martha Guarani blended effortlessly into the "campus look" of this university community of students from all over the world. Yet for the audience her description of the hardships faced by her people was hard to imagine.

She described now 9,000 of her people had been expelled from their native lands, how these people lived a life of abject misery, surviving in shacks along highways, in the slums of cities, or on large ranches at the mercy of landowners who had expelled them. Many had been forced into near-slavery working conditions or even prostitution in order to survive, she said.

Photojournalist João Ripper of Imagens da Terra (Earth Images), a working group of progressive Brazilian journalists, showed slides from his photographs of the Guaranis and other displaced Indians.

One of his images was of a Guarani graveyard, where some of the dozens who have committed suicide are buried. Just in 1993, 34 mostly young Guaranis committed suicide rather than live without their homelands.

Ripper reported that 220 Guarani-Kaiowa Indians from the village of Jaguapire threatened to commit suicide after the First Federal Court in Campo Grande issued an order to expel the Guaranis from their legally recognized land. The lawsuit was brought forth by two local ranchers who have deforested most of the Guaranis' lands for pasture.

Since the Brazilian constitution was revised in 1988, Indigenous Peoples have been guaranteed exclusive use of their lands and protection from loggers, miners, and slash-and-burn farmers and ranchers.

However, the claim of each Indigenous group must be verified by the government in a long process known as "demarcation" before legal protection is in force.

All of the claims of 526 potential Indigenous territories should have been demarcated by late 1993, but in fact only 10% had gone through the process when the deadline came.

According to Beto Borges, director of the Brazil Program at the San Francisco Rainforest Action Network, the legal process allows capitalists who have invaded Indigenous land within the past few years to compete with Indians for their traditional land in the local judicial system.

According to Borges, the demarcation foot-dragging by the government has caused 90% of Indigenous groups to become exposed to this type of legal maneuvering.

But, Borges points out, according to the law the government should instead be protecting the Indigenous groups until demarcation is complete. "Since the National Congress has already agreed to protect territories of Indigenous peoples, they have an obligation to conserve Indigenous territories until demarcation is complete and to forbid unsustainable activities, such as logging, gold mining, that threaten the land," he explains.

The only hope the Indians have in many cases is an appeal to a higher, federal court more sympathetic to their constitutional rights. But after numerous defeats in the judicial system, some Indians have given up hope that their legal rights will ever be enforced.

Martha Guarani told the Berkeley audience that the fate of her people will also have global ecological implications. If devastating land use practices continue, she said, serious damage could occur to one of the most important biological regions on earth.

The Guarani land is within an area in Brazil known as the Cerrado. According to ecologists, this dry Savannah-like region is crucial to the preservation of the Amazon rainforest.

The Cerrado is the birthplace of important Amazon tributaries and acts as a buffer zone for tropical rainforest plants and animal species. The Cerrado itself claims a biological richness of 166,000 species of life forms - nearly 5% of all species on earth.

Martha left the following words to her audience: "If each of you did something to help our people, we would not have the words to thank you."

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Author: Darnel, Laurel Article Title: SOCCER: WIN OR WIN Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.103 Publication Date: 07-31-94 Page: p. 22

SOCCER: WIN OR WIN.

The American press has been more forgiving of the joyful Brazilian lawlessness and lack of manners demonstrated by the soccer fans congregated in the West Coast coming from Brazil and from all over the U.S., than the Brazilians themselves. While weekly magazine Isto E, for example, berated the Brazilian torcida (fans) for its rowdiness, the Bay Area media, where the National team played its initial games, was cheering the tropical mood.

In a cover story titled "When the World Drops in to Visit", the Palo Alto Weekly, wrote, "If anyone can get Palo Altans and other Americans hyped up about a low-scoring, non-contact sport like soccer, it will be the infectious enthusiasm of the colorful Brazilian fans. An estimated 15,000 Brazilians are expected to converge on Palo Alto over the course of the tournament."

After talking about Russia, Cameroon and Switzerland, the article comes back to the Brazilians. "Brazil is the top seed and has the most fanatical fans, as evidenced by a TV audience that is expected to number 140 million - 93% of the population."

Echoing the 60's when the Bay Area students led a national protest movement that used to scream "the whole world is watching" while being attacked by police, another tabloid, the San Francisco Weekly in an article entitled - what else? - "The Whole World is Watching", wrote, "The World Cup Finals (52 games, 24 national teams, nine American cities, not to mention an anticipated $4 million in the pocket of World Cup czar Alan Rothenberg) are coming here, to what may soon be known as Brazil-by-the Bay." Later in the article, the Brazilian soccer team is described as "flashy and talented"

"Soccer fans are in for a treat," says the paper. Coach Carlos Parreira has abandoned the defensive Europeanisms that served Brazil so poorly in 1986 and 1990, and the promises the flowing, attacking Brazilian style of old that helped name soccer the Beautiful Game. Brazil has a tough opening group, but this is still its best-ever chance of securing a fourth World Cup victory.

An exception among all the major daily newspapers in the U.S., the Los Angeles Times has been publishing a series of reports and special sections on soccer for many weeks. In a 30-page special guide entitled "World Cup '94 - Coming to America", the daily with the biggest circulation in the U.S., presented Brazil as the favorite to win this Cup and gave a generous and enthusiastic portrait of Brazilian soccer fans.

"Planeloads of colorful, uninhibited Brazilian fans will follow their team to 1994 World Cup in the United States, and they will turn first-round games in Palo Alto and Pontiac, Michigan, into festivals." The paper described the Brazilian group "as the finest all-around team in the tournament, with strength and depth in almost every position. Strikers Romario and Bebeto are among the best in the world. Right back Jorginho and his understudy, Cafu, are defenders whose overlapping runs down the wind create numerous chances."

The L.A. Times saw weaknesses, however, in the defense, saying, "The defense is solid but can sometimes be caught because of the players' enthusiasm for joining the attack." The newspaper also pointed out that, despite all the hope, Brazilians are not as sure about a championship as they might be: "Pelted by runaway inflation, political scandal, high crime and the recent death of Formula One champion Ayrton Senna, a national hero, Brazilian have been through too much to be optimistic about their soccer team."

It was also the Times that had the courage to point out that the main enemy of soccer in the U.S. is not the public but the media. In a strongly reproachful article, Grahame L. Jones wrote, "Soccer is not the most popular sport in the United States. Soccer-bashing, however, ranks right up there, with the media leading the way." The reason for the media not to care, says Jones is the "perception that nobody cares -even though more than three million tickets have been sold. The truth is, soccer fans in the United States long ago learned to by pass the mainstream media, both print and electronic, and find what they wanted elsewhere. "Elseshere," in this case, means the Spanish-language newspapers and television networks, as well as overseas newspapers and magazines that can be found on newstands in most major cities."

Fighting against the notion that soccer is "boring" with little or no scoring, Jones notes, "That scoring is more difficult in soccer makes the game more interesting, not less. Soccer is an intellectual game, chess with feet, as it were. Its beauty is in the constant improvisation occurring in the field... More than in most other sports, soccer players have to be nimble of foot and mind."

Just before the beginning of the World Cup, disapproval of Carlos Alberto Parreira as coach of the Brazilian national soccer team was still high. Only 50% of all Brazilians, according to a Datafolha poll, thought the coach should continue in charge. This wasn't worrying Parreira, who, in August of last year, after Brazil was defeated by Bolivia in the qualifying phase, had 72% of the population asking for his head.

Another poll, taken in Rio by Infoglobo, showed that 69.8% of Cariocas believed that Brazil was going to be champion. Answering the question "If Brazil doesn't win, who will win the Cup?" 51.2% of Rio's residents said Germany, 29.5% Russia, 10.1% Colombia and only 8.5% Argentina. There were still some votes for Holland and Cameroon.

And knowing about the passion Brazilians have for futebol, the presidential candidates in the October 3 election didn't know precisely how to behave themselves as fans. They were walking the tightrope between being seen either as taking advantage if the team wins the championship or being pe frio (literally, cold foot, meaning bad luck bearer) if the team loses it.

Leonel Brizola, PDT's candidate, banned all political rallies on the days the Brazilian team plays. PMDB's candidate, Orestes Quercia, decided to watch some of the games at his supporters' homes and to avoid any important meeting on the days of Brazilian games in order "not be called opportunist." Fernando Henrique Cardoso from the PSDB, whose favorite sport is reading, will make a break in his work to watch the games with friends.

As for the favorite in the polls, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, he will try to extract the maximum from an expected Brazil final victory. His party, the PT, has decided to spread big screens all over the country inviting the public to

come and cheer during the games. Senator Guilherme Palmeira, the vice with Cardoso, very undiplomatically for a popular vote-getter, thinks that the PT's idea is senseless, arguing, "If Brazil loses, people will blame you and they will still break your equipment."

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Author: Wyszpolski, Bondo Article Title: BOOKS: Simmering pot Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.103 Publication Date: 07-31-94 Page: p. 25

BOOKS: Simmering pot.

This is my favorite of the three novels by João Ubaldo Ribeiro to appear in English. But because the structure and style of Sergeant Getulio and An Invincible Memory are so different, calling The Lizard's Smile the best of the lot may simply be personal preference.

Here's what it's about:

Although educated in biology, João Pedroso works as a fishmonger on the island of Itaparica, just off the coast of Salvador da Bahia in the northeast of Brazil. On the first page there's an imminent heat front, it's warm and very still, and Pedroso has a disquieting sense of foreboding. This is heightened by the discovery of two lizards, one with an extra tail, and one with a smile; or so it seems.

Ubaldo Ribeiro then cuts away and introduces us to Dr. Angelo Marcos Barreto, the Secretary of Health. At 47, the well-to-do Angelo Marcos is beginning to feel his mortality; and then he's diagnosed as having anal cancer. The reader may sympathize, but the hypocritical side of this man has already been revealed to us.

Angelo Marcos has a second wife, Ana Clara, whom he regards more as a child than as an equal partner. She's somewhat younger than her husband, about thirty years old.

Ominous signs, something rotten in the state of Bahia. A few patients in the hospital where Dr. Lucio Nemesio works are diagnosed as having unusual cysts.

João Pedroso is friendly with Father Olavo Bento da Costa Monteiro - or simply Father Monteirinho from here on out. The latter is so concerned about the possible erosion of his already vacillating faith that he takes long early morning walks along the seawalls to think matters out. Rough weather suits him fine. Clearly, this is a man with a conscience, even if at first he seems too straitlaced even for a man of the cloth.

João meets Ana Clara, as well as her husband and their friends, when circumstances find him in a position to volunteer as their guide for an afternoon of sport fishing. The attraction between João and Ana Clara is mutual, and Ubaldo Ribeiro is now adroitly juggling a love story as well as a mystery and a tale of João's attempt at self-fulfillment. Father Monteirinho, however, sees the word `adultery' loud and clear; and it's grounds enough for him to break off his friendship with João.

We know that it portends an unpleasant event when Angelo Marcos buys an air rifle and practices by killing sparrows. There's a ruthlessness to Ana Clara's husband that we've already seen and will in time see again (as when he discusses killing fish with his friends Nando and Tavinho, and João Pedroso).

Father Monteirinho is led to a meeting with a saint, so-called, one Bara de Misericordia. The latter claims he has seen some horrific children, mutants - but can offer no proof. Although the visit has been unproductive, it leads to the re-establishment of friendship between João and the priest. Their resulting conversations, from both a theological and scientific viewpoint, explore the implications of genetic engineering.

The Lizard's Smile has begun to resemble Alfred Hitchcock's The Birds (a sleepy coastal town besieged by an aberrant nature) and H.G. Wells' The Island of Dr. Moreau.

Like strands of DNA, this novel has threads that weave in and out. The author has learned - perhaps from Brazilian novelist Jorge Amado, the master chef himself - how to keep several pots and pans simmering all at once, the intended result being that everything finishes at the same time.

It's one thing to take control of our own lives, and we see both Ana Clara and João struggling to finally master their own fates; and it's another thing to exercise power for the purpose of subjugating others. Ubaldo Ribeiro conveys - on many levels - the need (or perverse pleasure) that some people take in wielding power.

Of course, while the thrust of the novel is pointedly about the hazards of genetic engineering, it can also be reduced to the eternal conflict between good and evil, or at least that of the ideal vs. the pragmatic.

The final events are precipitous and the denouement keenly felt because our interests have been nurtured and sustained by a careful balance of pacing and crosscutting. A knockout? No. But an impressive achievement, successfully, solidly rendered.

The translation by Clifford Landers is smooth and thoughtful. It helps The Lizard's Smile to transcend its setting; helps it, also, in making clear the moral issues that confront the reader and characters alike. No matter where on earth we may be, principles of humanity are common to all.

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Author: Hughes, L.A.; Duff, Kip Article Title: PROFILE: Brazil on his mind Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.103 Publication Date: 07-31-94 Page: p. 33

PROFILE: Brazil on his mind.

Although born in the state of Louisiana, C. Jerome Woods finds a close, almost spiritual affinity to Brazil. It is a place, he says, that reminds him of his birthplace. It is a place where the influence of Africa and the resulting Diaspora is manifest via the sights, sounds, smells and tastes of the region. Moreover, Woods expresses a love for the people of Brazil, with their acceptance of difference and "live for today" attitude.

Woods is taking his seventh trip to Brazil in five years.

World traveler, author and activist, he will represent International Black Writers & Artists Los Angeles (IBWA) at the Bahia `94 Music and Arts Festival, August 15 through 21. He will present the group's 20th anniversary anthology, River Crossing: Voices of the Diaspora, a collection of poetry and fiction about the international Black experience. Woods, editor of the new work. is also the author of two volumes of poetry, Self Portrait and Love Songs & Heartbreak.

When questioned about his reason to return to Brazil so often over other places he has traveled, one can here the yearning, the intimacy in his voice. "The food, the climate, music, vegetation, ambiance and case - the people's attitude toward life," all beckon. He says personal space is not a problem, touching is O.K.. The heritage and history of the country are part of its charm.

"The open arms of its people make me feel I belong. It's always like coming home - only better. There perpetual celebration is matched only by treasured moments of serenity. I am especially drawn to the free spirited mood of the city." Which he reflects upon in his poetry titled "Rio": I stroll down the avenue: ocean breeze against my body, hot wanton city at my call, shopping bags in hand, orgasming in the pleasures of Rio de Janeiro.

When he thinks back on his inspiration for writing "Rio", he remembers feeling so much at home with the varied, but indigenous peoples and surrounding of the city - feeling "at one with" it, inconspicuous and flamboyant at the same time.

During his coming trip, Woods will stop in Rio de Janeiro to present River Crossings for inclusion in the archives of the Instituto Brasil Estados Unidos. He will then journey to Salvador, capital of Bahia state, where he is scheduled to read at Terreiro do Gantois (Candomble House) in Federacão e Espaco Cultural Caras e Bocas (Federation and Cultural Space Faces and Mouths). His visit culminates with a book signing at the Central Library. "Of course," he pledges, "there will be several unscheduled, personal side tours returning to the U.S.."

He Couldn't leave California, however, before being part of IBWA's 20th Annual

July Convention, July 21 through 24, which takes place this year at the New Otani Hotel, in Los Angeles. Writers and artists as well as avid readers and art connoisseurs from everywhere will come together during this event, in an international atmosphere, highlighted with an appearance by science fiction author Octavia Butler and 14 additional workshop presenters and speakers.

On this occasion Woods will unveil the collection of work for the first time. An active board member with IBWA, the book's publisher, as well as an active member of several other arts and activist organizations, "Jerome is the driving force behind River Crossings. Without his vision and keeping us on track, the book would never be," says IBWA's incumbent president, Larry Newson, who has dubbed Woods "The International Gadfly."

Why a collection about the African Diaspora? To bring attention to 20 years of International Black Writers & Artists, from its beginnings of three or four enthusiasts to its growth of more than 1,000. Woods says he felt it would be a way to continue the group's tradition, but not become stagnant, to maintain their stride and yet step out. "The ideal is to reach out, share, bring others to the fore - to the knowledge that what they have to say is valid and important in a true global sense."

Mr. Woods, the eternal "Brasileiro", is elated about bringing together his two loves - Brazil and River Crossings. For him, the two are infinitely compatible. Like Brazil, the anthology "sings!... The voices are emotional. They touch our souls," according to poet-activist Otis O'Soloman, member of a noted American jazz-rap-poetry ensemble known as The Watts Prophets. In fact Wood's travels especially in Brazil gave birth to the idea for the book - whose focus is the international plurality and multicultural stories of Black people and their descendants.

On his frequent sojourns to Brazil, Mr. Woods is sometimes hosted by Barry Stinson, a friend who lives on Itaparica beach, in the state of Bahia. Woods recalls, "It's a retreat only a stone's throw from the calming ebb of the water - where I can read, write or just reflect (even though the mosquitoes love to suck my blood). There it's so easy to create. It's a spiritual haven. Then at night - into the early morning - I can toast the carnival-like atmosphere of the night life. I love Brazil."

Woods' love affair with Brazil began with his first venture into the enchanted land as a student of dance in Salvador. A consummate artist, perfectionist, and man of many talents, he met others in the arts such as members of Ballet Folclorico da Bahia and artist-painter Terciliano.

In Bahia he lived with a family nurtured by, as he recalls, Dona Vera. No doubt her warm hospitality was another sop which resulted in his fond memories of the community and the country.

No wonder then, that when River Crossings was finally completed, he would want to bring it home - back to its roots. The impetus, inspired by his own international experience, to collect stories about the Black experience would come full circle, as did a rainbow of people who descended from Africa and propagated throughout the globe, the most colorful and cherished of them - in Brazil.

To contact Mr. Woods, the International Black Writers & Artists, or to order a copy of River Crossing: Voices of the Diaspora, write to IBWA, LA - P.O. Box 43576, Los Angeles, CA 90043 or call (213) 964-3721

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Author: Dalevi, Alessandra Article Title: MUSIC: Mellow Lulu Publication Name: News from Brazil News from Brazil Volume & Number: V.6; N.103 Publication Date: 07-31-94 Page: p. 36

MUSIC: Mellow Lulu.

The flirtation of Carioca (native of Rio) Lulu Santos, 41, with rock and some music fads seems to have ended and that return of the singer-composer-guitarist to his roots is being celebrated by his fans and those who have just discovered the former and once again romantic balladeer. After a long hiatus, Santos is being heard on Brazilian radio again and on top 40 stations. His latest album, Assim, Caminha a Humanidade (Thus Humankind Marches) was released n May and the song "Tudo Igual" ("All the Same"), just a few days after being played on the radio had already become one of the favorites in programs in which listeners call to ask for a song.

The anti-establishment singer. Who has already called himself a "Brazilianized rocker," is ecstatic. "I adore this work," he said in a recent interview. "I'm fascinated, in love, even now when I start to exercise my critical judgment. I've been listening to the LP at home as it were somebody else's record." This seemingly lack of modesty, however, is tempered with his praise for the man he thinks is most responsible for the way the work came out. It was Marcelo Mansur, the ex-disco-jockey better known as Meme, who produced Assim Caminha a Humanidade.

"When I invited Meme to produce this record, I was very impressed with his work with Gabriel, o Pensador, and I was tempted to do something along rap and black American music lines. But Meme told me that I should go back to singing those songs which are generous with listeners, and that light an interior flame." This was the kind of music that for 10 years had kept him on the hit parades.

The reinvention of Lulu by himself happened after some painful restructuring of his personal life. In the last few months, he was separated from his wife actress Scarlet Moon, ended the contract with his long-time recording company PolyGram, and went into seclusion in his own apartment in Rio. Life had become a big mess, he recognizes now, and music-making came as a key to solve a series of existential conflicts. It was as if he needed all the pain to get his inspirational juices flowing again.

From the three songs born from this desperation phase - one is still untitled - two made the cut for his latest release by BMG/Ariola (and old friendly recording house for him): the title song "Assim Caminha a Humanidade" and "Tudo Igual" ("All the same"). It's no surprise then that the LP is more than a little personal and brings a strong taste of black humor, starting with the cover: a male skeleton in a love pose before a female skeleton. The work is by Jose Guadalupe Posada, a Mexican engraver who died in 1913.

Noting that the characters are alive and dressed, Santos commented: "I though this was a good way to show how people are vain." The composer apparently loves to start a polemic and knows his sting does hurt. Last year when he criticized the sertanejo-pop duos, the targets countered by saying, "You're envious".

He doesn't need to be. His return to the radio play-list and the show circuit has demonstrated that he needs very little to become once again the teen idol he was in the `80s, even though teenagers now are more interested in axe music than in anything else. Some of them, when interviewed after a (Bahia group) Olodum show, said they liked Lulu Santos's songs. Most of them, however, couldn't cite anything besides "Como uma Onda" (see lyrics below) and apparently only because the song has been converted into a commercial jingle that's being sung by Tim Maia.

By a way, "Tim Medley," another very successfully cut from the LP is a re-reading of samba composer Tim Maia, reuniting two songs by the prince of swing, "Do Lema ao Ponta" and "Rodesia." "I like this daring act of appropriating songs and making them my own playground. I want to be a Romario," he says, in a reference to the indidualistic national soccer team striker.

Assim Caminha a Humanidade can be a return, but it's not a retrogression, according to Santos. Some Brazilian critics have noted that the old fans of the composer are happy to see him back on the road from which he had strayed. The new LP, has completely new version of Neil Young's "Hey Hey, My My", with a bossa-nova tempo and some insidious changes in the lyrics. Where the original says, "Rock is here to stay," the new and improved version declares in Spanish, "Elvis Presley esta muerto" (Elvis Presley is dead).

Don't ask Santos about his political leanings nowadays. Along with many of his colleagues, since the debacle of the Collor de Mello government that feel down under a cloud of corruption, he is not taking any public stand close to the new presidential election.