Where
the Sun
Never Sets

The Northeast is a land of contrasts: the very rich and the very poor, the luscious jungle and the barren desert, the traditional and the avant-garde. In these nine states live close to 50 million Brazilians, one third of Brazil population. We start in Bahia, Brazil's most historic state, where the African heritage has been kept alive and thriving.

The Northeast region, known in Brazil as the Nordeste, covers more than 18% of the country's land area and contains 45 million inhabitants—nearly 30% of Brazil's population. The region is divided into nine states: Bahia, Sergipe, Alagoas, Pernambuco, Paraíba, Rio Grande do Norte, Ceará, Piauí and Maranhão. The archipelago of Fernando de Noronha lies over 500 km east of Recife and was placed under the political administration of Pernambuco state in 1988.

The many attractions of the Northeast include: historical cities (São Luís, Olinda and Salvador); colonial villages (Alcântara, Lençóis, etc); national parks (Lençóis Maranhenses, Chapada da Diamantina, Sete Cidades, etc); and the region's fascinating African heritage.

The geography of the Northeast is characterized by four divisions. The zona da mata (forest zone) covers the coastal area and extends up to 200 km inland. The forest, known as the Mata Atlântica, now exists only in tiny pockets—the rest was destroyed to make way for sugar-cane cultivation during the colonial period. With the exception of Teresina in Piauí state, all the major cities of the Northeast were established in this zone.

Further west, the agreste forms a transitional strip of semi-fertile lands, which merges into the sertão. The sertão (backlands) is characterized by a dry and temperate climate. Droughts, sometimes lasting for many years, have been the bane of this area for many centuries. The land is commonly referred to as caatingas because the landscape is dominated by vast tracts of caatinga (a scrubby shrub). The largest towns of the sertão are dotted along the Rio São Francisco, which provides irrigation. The bleak and brutal life of the Sertanejo (inhabitant of the sertão) has received literary coverage in Os Sertões (published in English as Rebellion in the Backlands), by Euclides da Cunha, and the novel Vidas Secas (Dry Lives), by Graciliano Ramos. The Cinema Novo films of Gláuber Rocha portray violence, religious fanaticism, official corruption and hunger in the sertão.

The state of Maranhão and the western margin of Piauí state form the meio norte, a transitional zone between the arid sertão and the humid Amazon region. The social problems of the Northeast include poverty, underemployment, housing shortages, a decaying educational system and an absence of basic sanitation. For example, in the state of Bahia, many towns and villages lack basic sanitation, infant mortality rates are high and half the population is illiterate. The number of unemployed in the state has been estimated at around 30% of the adult population.

Superintendência do Desenvolvimento do Nordeste (SUDENE), the official government agency for development in the Northeast, has attempted to attract industry and boost the economy of the region, but these efforts have been hampered by the lack of energy sources, transport infrastructure, skilled labour and raw materials. Many Nordestinos (inhabitants of the Northeast) have emigrated to the Southeast and Central West in search of a living wage or new land for cultivation.

The economy of the zona da mata depends on the cultivation of crops such as sugar and cacao, and on the petroleum industry which is based on the coast. The inhabitants of the agreste make their living from subsistence farming, small-scale agriculture (vegetables, fruit, cotton and coffee) and cattle ranching (beef and dairy). In the sertão, the economy is based on cattle ranching, cotton cultivation and subsistence farming, which puts the carnaubeira, a type of palm, to a multitude of uses. The meio norte is economically reliant on babaçu, another type of palm, which provides nuts and oil. The latter is converted into lubricating oil, soap, margarine and cosmetics. São Luís has become a major center for the production of aluminum.

BAHIA

Bahia is Brazil's most historic state, and has retained strong links with the African heritage of many of its inhabitants. Its capital, Salvador da Bahia, was also once the capital of colonial Brazil, from 1549 to 1763, and was the center of the sugar industry, which sustained the country's prosperity until the 18th-century decline in international sugar prices.

The state of Bahia divides into three quite distinct regions: the recôncavo, the sertão and the litoral. The recôncavo is a band of hot and humid lands which surrounds the Baía de Todos as Santos. The principal cities are Cachoeira, Santo Amaro, Maragojipe and Nazaré, which were once sugar and tobacco centers and the source of wealth for Salvador.

The sertão is a vast and parched land on which a suffering people eke out a meager existence raising cattle and tilling the earth. Periodically, tremendous droughts, such as the great drought of 1877-79, sweep the land. Thousands of Sertanejos pile their belongings on their backs and migrate south or anywhere they can find jobs. But with the first hint of rain in the sertão, the Sertanejos return to renew their strong bond with this land.

The littoral south of Salvador, with beautiful, endless beaches, is a cacao-producing region, and there are important cities like Valença, Ilhéus and Itabuna. North of Salvador the coast is only sparsely populated with a few fishing villages. The southern beaches are calm, while the northern beaches are often windy with rough surf.

Salvador is a fascinating city loaded with colonial relics—including many richly decorated churches, one for every day of the year according to popular belief. You should also take the time to explore outside Salvador and visit the smaller cities, towns and fishing villages in Bahia, where life is unaffected by tourism and even less affected by the 20th century.

If beaches are what you want, the only difficulty is choosing. You can go to Porto Seguro for beaches with fancy hotels and restaurants or cross the river to Arraial d'Ajuda, Trancoso and Caraiva for a hipper, less developed beach scene. To really escape civilization, you can go to the beaches up north around Conde, or to the south along the Península do Maraú.

The inland regions of Bahia are less well known, but are worth a visit if you want a change from beaches. Cachoeira and Lençóis are both interesting colonial towns and Lençóis provides a handy base for hiking trips in the Parque Nacional da Chapada Diamantina. Travellers might also like to explore the bizarre moonscapes of the sertão, where the Sertanejos have maintained a rich culture despite the poor environment.


Capoeira

Capoeira originated as an African martial art developed by slaves to fight their masters. Capoeira was prohibited by the oppressors and banished from the senzalas (slave barracks). The slaves were forced to practice clandestinely in the forest. Later, in an attempt to disguise this dance of defiance from the authorities, Capoeira was developed into a kind of acrobatic dance. The clapping of hands and plucking of the berimbau, a stringed musical instrument that looks like a fishing rod, originally served to alert fighters to the approach of the boss and subsequently became incorporated into the dance to maintain the rhythm.

As recently as the 1920s, Capoeira was still prohibited and Salvador's police chief organized a police cavalry squad to ban Capoeira from the streets. In the 1930s, Mestre Bimba established his academy and changed the emphasis of capoeira, from its original function as a tool of insurrection, to a form of artistic expression which has become an institution in Bahia.

Today, there are two schools of capoeira: the Capoeira de Angola, led by Mestre Pastinha, and the more aggressive Capoeira Regional of Mestre Bimba. The former school holds that Capoeira came from Angola; the latter believes that it was born in the plantations of Cachoeira and other cities of the recôncavo region.

Capoeira combines the forms of the fight, the game and the dance. The movements are always fluid and circular, the fighters always playful and respectful. It has become very popular in recent years, and throughout Bahia and the rest of Brazil you will see the roda de capoeiras (semicircles of spectator-musicians who sing the initial chula before the fight and provide the percussion during the fight). In addition to the musical accompaniment from the berimbau, blows are exchanged between fighter/dancers to the beat of other instruments, such as caxixi, pandeiro, reco-reco, agogô and atabaque.


Folk Art

Bahia has some of Brazil's best artisans, who usually have small shops or sell in the local market. You can buy their folk art in Salvador, but the best place to see or purchase the real stuff is in the town of origin because so much of the production is regional and specialized.

The main materials used in Bahian folk art are leather, wood, earth, metal and fiber. Feira de Santana is known for its leatherwork: the best examples are in the city's Casa do Sertão folklore museum. Maragojipinho, Rio Real and Cachoeira produce earthenware. Caldas do Jorro, Caldas de Cipó and Itaparica specialize in straw crafts. Rio de Contas and Muritiba have metalwork. Ilha de Maré is famous for lacework. Jequié Valença and Feira de Santana are woodworking centers. Santo Antônio de Jesus, Rio de Contas and Monte Santo manufacture goods made of leather and silver.

Religion

Much of Bahian life revolves around the Afro-Brazilian religious cults known as Candomblé. To the Christian observer, Candomblé provides a radically different view of the world. It combines African traditions of music, dance and language into a system of worship and enjoyment of life in peace and harmony.

Much of Candomblé is secret—it was prohibited in Bahia until 1970—but the public ceremony, conducted in the original Yoruba tongue, takes place in a terreiro. In Salvador, the Casa Branca on Avenida Vasco da Gama 463, in the Engenho Velho neighborhood, is a center for Candomblé activities.


SALVADOR

Salvador da Bahia, often abbreviated to Bahia by Brazilians, is the capital of Bahia state and one of Brazil's cultural highlights. This city of 2.1 million people has managed to retain its African soul and develop the best of its colonial legacy into a unique, vibrant culture. Ornate churches still stand on cobblestone streets. Festivals are spontaneous, wild, popular and frequent. Candomblé services illuminate the hillsides. Capoeira and afoxé dance through the streets. The restoration of the historic center of Salvador has revitalized areas that were previously considered dangerous and largely off limits to tourists. However, despite the current boom in tourism, Salvador also suffers from social and economic problems, with a great number of citizens who are jobless, homeless, hungry, abandoned and sick.

History

According to tradition, on 1 November 1501, All Saints' Day, the Italian navigator Amerigo Vespucci sailed into the bay, which was accordingly named Baía de Todos as Santos. In 1549, Tomé de Souza came from Portugal bringing city plans, a statue, 400 soldiers and 400 settlers, including priests and prostitutes. He founded the city in a defensive location: on a clifftop facing the sea. After the first year, a city of mud and straw had been erected, and by 1550 the surrounding walls were in place to protect against attacks from hostile Indians. Salvador da Bahia became the capital of the new region, and remained Brazil's most important city for the next three centuries.

During its first century of existence, the city depended upon the export of sugar cane, but tobacco cultivation was later introduced and cattle ranching proved profitable in the sertão. The export of gold and diamonds mined in the interior of Bahia (Chapada Diamantina) provided Salvador with immense wealth. The opulent baroque architecture is a testament to the prosperity of this period.

Salvador remained the seat of government until 1763 when, with the decline of the sugar-cane industry, the capital was moved to Rio. Overlooking the mouth of Baía de Todos as Santos, which is surrounded by the recôncavo, Brazil's richest sugar and tobacco lands, Bahia was colonial Brazil's economic heartland. Sugar, tobacco, sugar-cane brandy and, later, gold were shipped out, whilst slaves and European luxury goods were shipped in.

After Lisbon, Salvador was the second city in the Portuguese Empire: the glory of colonial Brazil, famed for its many gold-filled churches, beautiful colonial mansions and numerous festivals. It was also renowned, as early as the 17th century, for its bawdy public life, sensuality and decadence, so much so that it became known as the Bay of All Saints...and of nearly all sins!

The first black slaves were brought from Guinea in 1538, and in 1587 historian Gabriel Soares estimated that Salvador had 12,000 whites, 8000 converted Indians and 4000 black slaves. A black man was worth six times as much as a black woman in the slave market. The number of blacks eventually increased to constitute half of the population and the traditions of Africa took root so successfully that today Salvador is called the African soul of Brazil.

In Salvador, blacks preserved their African culture more than anywhere else in the New World. They maintained their religion and spirituality, within Catholicism. African food and music enriched the homes of both black and white, while capoeira developed among the slaves. Quilombos, runaway slave communities, terrified the landed aristocracy, and uprisings of blacks threatened the city several times.

In 1798, the city was the stage for the Conjuração dos Alfaiates (Conspiracy of the Tailors), which intended to proclaim a Bahian republic. Although this uprising was quickly quelled, the battles between those who longed for independence and those loyal to Portugal continued in the streets of Salvador for many years. It was only on 2 July 1823, with the defeat in Cabrito and Pirajá of the Portuguese troops commanded by Madeira de Melo, that the city found peace. At that time, Salvador numbered 45,000 inhabitants and was the commercial center of a vast territory.

For most of the 19th and 20th centuries the city stagnated as the agricultural economy, based on archaic arrangements for land distribution, organization of labor and production, went into uninterrupted decline. Only recently has Salvador begun to move forward economically. New industries such as petroleum, chemicals and tourism are producing changes in the urban landscape, but the rapidly increasing population is faced with major social problems.

Orientation

Salvador sits at the southern tip of a V-shaped peninsula at the mouth of Baía de Todos os Santos. The left branch of the 'V' is on Baía de Todos as Santos; the right branch faces the Atlantic Ocean, and the junction of the 'V' is the Barra district, south of the city center.

Finding your way around Salvador can be difficult. Besides the upper city and lower city, there are too many one-way, no-left turn streets that wind through Salvador's valleys and lack any coherent pattern or relationship to the rest of the existing paved world. Traffic laws are left to the discretion of drivers. Gridlock is common at rush hour. Perhaps most difficult for the visitor is the fact that street names are not regularly used by locals, and when they are, there are often so many different names for each street that the one you have in mind probably doesn't mean anything to the person you're asking to assist you—the road along the Atlantic coast, sometimes known as Avenida Presidente Vargas, has at least four aliases.

Street-name variations include:

Praça 15 de Novembro is popularly known as Terreiro de Jesus.

Rua Dr. J J Seabra is popularly known as Bairro do Sapateiro (Shoemaker's Neighborhood). In early colonial days, this street was the site of a moat, the first line of defence against the Indians. Rua Francisco Muniz Barreto is also called Rua das Laranjeiras (Street of Orange Trees).

Rua Inácio Accioli is also known as Boca do Lixo (Garbage Mouth)!

Rua Leovigildo de Carvalho is known as Beco do Mota. 

Rua Padre Nóbrega is commonly referred to as Brega. The street was originally named after a priest. It developed into the main drag of the red-light district, and with time, Nóbrega was shortened to Brega, which in Brazilian usage is now synonymous with brothel!

A steep bluff divides central Salvador into two parts: Cidade Alta (Upper City) and Cidade Baixa (Lower City). These are linked by the Plano Inclinado Gonçalves (funicular railway), the Lacerda Elevator, the Plano Inclinado Liberdade/Calçada and some very steep roads (ladeiras).

Cidade Alta

This is the historic section of Salvador. Built on hilly, uneven ground, the site of the original settlement was chosen to protect the new capital from Indian attacks. The most important buildings—churches, convents, government offices and houses of merchants and landowners—were constructed on the hilltops. Rational planning was not a high priority.

Today, the colonial neighborhoods of Pelourinho, Terreiro de Jesus and Anchieta are filled with 17th-century churches and houses. The area has been undergoing major restoration work since 1993, which continues today. The result is that Pelourinho has been transformed into a tourist mecca, packed with restaurants, bars, art galleries and boutiques. Although it's lost some of its character in the process (many of the street vendors and local residents have been shunted off), the area is now much safer and tourist police are posted on just about every other corner.

Just around the corner from Praça da Sé and the Lacerda Elevator, you'll see a large cream-colored colonial building, which houses Bahiatursa, the state tourism agency. A few blocks further is Praça Castro Alves, a major hub for Carnaval festivities.

From here, Avenida 7 de Setembro runs southwards (parallel to the bay) until it reaches the Atlantic Ocean and the Barra district, which has many of the city's top-end and mid-range hotels and bars.

Heading east from Barra district, the main road along the Atlantic coast, sometimes called Avenida Presidente Vargas (at least on the maps), snakes along the shore all the way to Itapoã. Along the way it passes the middle-class Atlantic suburbs and a chain of tropical beaches.

Cidade Baixa

This is Bahia's commercial and financial center, and port. Busy during working days, and filled with lunch places, the lower city is deserted and unsafe at night. Heading north, away from the ocean and along the bay, you pass the port and the ferry terminal for Ilha de Itaparica, and continue to the bay beaches of Boa Viagem and Ribeira (very lively on weekends). These are poor suburbs along the bay and the further you go from the center, the greater the poverty. Watch for the incredible architecture of the algados, which are similar to favelas, but built on the bay.

CIA, the Centro Industrial de Aratu, is three times the size of Salvador and sprawls around the bay of Aratu, which empties into Baía de Todos as Santos. It's the first rationally planned industrial park in Brazil and over 100 firms operate there.

Information

Tourist Offices

There is an ongoing feud between Emtursa, the tourist authority for the city of Salvador, and Bahiatursa, the state tourist organization. As a result, neither authority is keen to tell travellers about information available from their counterpart.

Emtursa's main office (Tel.: 243-6555) is at Largo do Pelourinho 12, and there's a small information post inside the Museu da Cidade across the street, open Tuesday to Saturday from 10 am to 6 pm.

The main tourist office of Bahiatursa (Tel.: 241-4333) is in Palácio Rio Branco, Rua Chile 2. The office is open daily from 8 am to 6 pm. The staff are helpful and provide advice on accommodation, events, and where and when to see capoeira and Candomblé. The notice board inside the office has messages to help you find friends, rent houses and boats, buy guidebooks and even overseas airline tickets.

There are also Bahiatursa offices at Rua Francisco Muniz Barreto 12, Pelourinho (Tel.: 321-2463), open daily from 8 am to 7 pm; Praça Azevedo Fernandes, Largo do Barra (Tel.: 247-3195), open Monday to Saturday from 8 am to 7 pm; Mercado Modelo (Tel.: 241-0242), open from 8 am to 6 pm Monday to Saturday; the rodoviária (Tel.: 358-0871), open daily from 9 am to 9 pm; and the airport (Tel.: 204-1244), open daily from 8.30 am to 10 pm.

Bahiatursa operates an alternative accommodation service to locate rooms in private houses and the like during Carnaval and summer holidays. This can be an excellent way to find cheap rooms. Information on travel throughout the state of Bahia is also available, but don't expect much detail.

For general tourist information or help, you can try dialing Tel. 131 for a service called Disque Turismo (Dial Tourism).

Gay & Lesbian

Information is available from Centro Cultura (Triângulo Rosa; Tel. 243-4903), Rua do Sodré 45, which is close to the Museu de Arte Sacra da Bahia. The center publishes an entertainment guide to Salvador's gay scene, Guia para Gays, which costs $4. You can also contact the center for information on HIV/AIDS.

Money

The main branch of Banco do Brasil is at Avenida Estados Unidos 561, in Cidade Baixa. Other useful branches of this bank are on Terreiro de Jesus, Pelourinho; on Avenida Miguel Bournier, Barra; and at the airport. Banco Econômico also has a handy branch at Rua Alfredo Brito 17, Pelourinho.

Currently, street moneychangers aren't the slightest bit interested in foreign currencies. This situation may change, but it's not advisable to change money on the street at any time.

There's an American Express/Kontik-Franstur SA office (Tel.: 242-0433) in the Cidade Baixa, at Rua da Argentina 1, which holds mail for travellers. It's open Monday to Friday from 8 am to 6 pm, but the mail office often closes for lunch. 

Post & Telephone

The central post office is in Cidade Baixa, on Praça da Inglaterra. There are also post offices at Rua Alfredo de Brito 43, Pelourinho; at the airport; and at the rodoviária. Watch out for price hikes and make sure items are franked.

Many hotels have an international phone service, which is more convenient than running off to a telephone station. If you are not so lucky, some of the convenient Telebahia posts are:

Telebahia Mercado Modelo—Praça Visconde de Cairu, Comércio. Open Monday to Saturday from 8 am to 5 pm, and from 8 am to noon on Sunday. Telebahia Barra Avenida 7 de Setembro 533, Porto da Barra. Open daily from noon to 10 pm. Telebahia Shopping Barra Avenida Centenário 2992, Barra. Open daily from 9 am to 10 pm, and from 9 am to 7 pm on Sunday.

Telebahia Rodoviária—Open daily from 6 am to 10 pm.

Telebahia Aeroporto—Aeroporto Internacional Dois de Julho. Open daily from 7 am to 10 pm.

There are also telephone stations in Iguatemi Shopping Center, Campo da Pólvora and Centro de Convenções da Bahia.

Foreign Consulates

The following countries maintain consulates in Salvador:

France

Travessa Francisco Gonçalves 1, Comércio (Tel.: 241-0168). Open Monday, Tuesday and Thursday from 2.30 to 5 pm.

Germany

Rua Lucaia 281, salas 204-6, Rio Vermelho (Tel: 247-7106) Open Monday to Friday from 9 am to noon.

UK

Avenida Estados Unidos 4, salas 1109-1113, Comércio (Tel.: 243-9222). Open Monday to Thursday from 9 to 11 am and 2 to 4 pm, and Friday from 9 to 11 am

USA

Avenida Antônio Carlos Magalhães, Edifício Cidadela Center 1, sala 410, Pituba (Tel.: 358-9166). Open Monday to Friday from 9 to 11 am and 2 to 4 pm.

Visa Extensions

For visa extensions, the Polícia Federal (Tel.: 321-6363) is at Rua Oscar Pontes, Água de Meninos s/n (no number), Comércio. Take a 'Calçada' bus from the Avenida da França bus stop at the base of the Lacerda Elevator, and get off at the Mercado Popular. Walk back about 100 meters towards the city center and turn right. You'll see the blue and grey Polícia Federal building at the end of the street, near the docks.

Travel Agencies

Tatu Tours (Tel.: 245-9322) is at Avenida Centenário 2883, Edifício Victoria Center, sala 105, Barra, Salvador, CEP 40147-900, BA. The company specializes in natural and cultural history tours around Bahia, including specialist topics such as Afro-Brazilian culture, and is happy to deal with groups or independent travellers.

The following travel agencies sell bus tickets in addition to all the normal services. They can save you a trip out to the rodoviária, but check first, as some agents do not sell tickets to all destinations:

Amaralina Viagens

Barra (Tel.: 336-1099)

Itaparica Turismo

Avenida Manoel Dias da Silva 1211, Pituba (Tel.: 248-3433)

Itapemirim

Avenida 7 de Setembro 1420 (Tel.: 321-6633)

Itapoan Turismo

Campo da Pólvora 21, Centro (Tel.: 321-0141)

Turbahia

Avenida Estados Unidos 60, Cidade Baixa (Tel.: 243-8598)

Bookshop

Livraria Brandão, at Rua Rui Barbosa 15B, is a huge second-hand bookstore with a large range of foreign-language books to buy or exchange.

Maps & Guidebooks

Most news agencies have maps on sale—Planta Turística de Salvador is useable, and Emtursa sells a handy small map, Salvador—Mapa de Bolso. Bahiatursa has a free map and services guide to Pelourinho, and a monthly guide to cultural events, Bahia Eventos & Serviços. The Fundação Cultural puts out a similar, but more detailed guide with reviews, called Agenda Cultural, available at Bahiatursa offices. Bahiatursa also publishes a glossy, detailed guide once a year, Guia Turístico Bahia, which has useful listings. Most tourist offices and hotels have copies of Itinerário, a free monthly listing of cultural events in Salvador. The weekly magazine Veja also publishes a regular supplement containing excellent articles and listings for the latest cultural events in Bahia.

Business Hours

In Salvador, shopkeepers often close for lunch from noon to 3 pm. Work has a different flavor: slow, relaxed and seemingly nonchalant.

The slow pace often frustrates and irritates visitors, but if you can reset your internal clock and not get uptight or unsettled, you are likely to be rewarded with many kindnesses and surprises.

Dangers & Annoyance

Salvador has a reputation for theft and muggings, and tourists clearly make easy targets. Paranoia is counterproductive, but you should be aware of the dangers and understand what you can do to minimize problems.

The following are some general points to remember when visiting Salvador: dress down; take only enough money with you for your outing; carry only a photocopy of your passport; and don't carry a camera outside Pelourinho.

Look at a map for basic orientation before you set out to see the sights. Although tourist police maintain a highly visible presence in the center of Salvador, particularly Pelourinho, this does not apply in other areas. The Lacerda Elevator is renowned for crime, especially at night around the base station, and pickpocketing is common on buses and in crowded places. Don't hesitate to use taxis during the day and especially after dusk.

On the beaches, keep a close eye on juvenile thieves, often referred to as capitães d'areia (captains of the sand), who are quick to make off with unguarded possessions.

During Carnaval, tourist authorities highly recommend that tourists form small groups and avoid deserted places, especially narrow alleyways.

Emergency

Useful numbers include: Disque Turismo (dial tourism) Tel.: 131; Pronto Socorro (first aid) Tel.: 192; and Polícia Civil (police) Tel.: 197. There are several police posts in the city center—for example, near the bus stop on Praça da Sé. In the same area, there are tourist police (identified by an armband) on patrol.

Things to See & Do

Historic Salvador is easy to see on foot, and you should plan on spending a couple of days wandering among the splendid 16th and 17th-century churches, homes and museums. One good approach is to ramble through the old city in the morning, head out to the beaches in the afternoon, and devote the evening to music, dance or Candomblé.

The most important sections of Salvador's colonial quarter extend from Praça Castro Alves along Ruas Chile and da Misericórdia to Praça da Sé and Terreiro de Jesus, and then continue down through Largo do Pelourinho and up the hill to Largo do Carmo.

Catedral Basílica

Starting at the Praça da Sé, walk a block to the Terreiro de Jesus (Praça 15 de Novembro on many maps). The biggest church on the plaza is the Cathedral of Bahia, which served as a Jesuit center until the Jesuits were expelled from Brazil in 1759. The cathedral was built between 1657 and 1672, and its walls are covered with Lioz marble which served as ballast for returning merchant ships. Many consider this the city's most beautiful church. The interior has many segmented areas and the emphasis is on verticality—raise your eyes to admire the superb ceiling. Entrance costs $1. The cathedral is open from 8 to 11 am and 3 to 6 pm, Monday to Saturday, and from 5 to 6.30 pm on Sunday.

Museu Afro-Brasileiro

The Antiga Faculdade de Medicina (Old Medical Faculty) houses the Afro-Brazilian Museum, with its small but excellent collection of orixás from both Africa and Bahia. There is a surprising amount of African art, ranging from pottery to woodwork, as well as superb ceremonial Candomblé apparel. Other highlights include wooden panels representing Oxum (an orixá revered as the goddess of beauty) which were carved by Carybé, a famous Argentine artist who has lived in Salvador for many years. Entrance costs $0.50 and the museum ( Tel.: 321-0383) is open Tuesday to Saturday from 9 am to 5 pm.

In the basement of the same building is the Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia (Archaeology & Ethnology Museum), which is open Monday to Friday from 9 am to noon and 2 to 5 pm.

Igreja São Francisco

Defying the teachings and vows of poverty of its namesake, this baroque church, east of Praça da Sé, is crammed with displays of wealth and splendor. Gold leaf is used like wallpaper. There's an 80-kg silver chandelier and imported azulejos (Portuguese ceramic tiles).

Forced to build their masters' church and yet prohibited from practicing their own religion (Candomblé terreiros were hidden and kept far from town), the African slave artisans responded through their work: the faces of the cherubs are distorted, some angels are endowed with huge sex organs, some appear pregnant. Most of these creative acts were chastely covered by 20th-century sacristans. Traditionally blacks were seated in far corners of the church without a view of the altar.

Notice the polychrome figure of São Pedro de Alcântara by Manoel Inácio da Costa. The artist, like his subject, was suffering from tuberculosis. He made one side of the saint's face more ashen than the other so that São Pedro appears more ill as you walk past him. José Joaquim da Rocha painted the hallway ceiling using perspective technique, which was considered a novelty at the time.

The poor come to Igreja São Francisco on Tuesday to venerate Santo Antônio and receive bread. The Candomblistas respect this church's saints and come to pray both here and in Igreja Nosso Senhor do Bonfim. Depending on restoration work, opening hours are Monday to Saturday from 7.30 to 11.30 am and 2 to 6 pm, and Sunday from 7 am to noon.

Excerpts from Brazil - A Travel Survival Kit, 3rd edition, by Andrew Draffen, Chris McAsey, Leonardo Pinheiro,  and Robyn Jones. For more information call Lonely Planet: (800) 275-8555. Copyright 1996 Lonely Planet Publications. Used by permission.

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Brazil - A Travel Survival Kit

by Andrew Draffen, Chris McAsey,
Leonardo Pinheiro, Robyn Jones

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