Brazil Can’t Make Its Mind on Transgenics


Brazil Can't Make Its Mind on Transgenics

Marina Silva, Brazilian Minister of Environment is calling for a
definitive ruling on transgenetic
crops. The minister says that
her position is one of caution since Brazil is a member of the

Biodiversity Convention and the Brazilian Congress is
examining ratification of the Cartagena agreement.

by:
AB

 

Minister of Environment, Marina Silva, saying that she is concerned that a temporary measure (MP) on transgenetic
crops may be limited to the state of Rio Grande do Sul, declared that there should be broader, more definitive legislation on
the issue. She cited a study now underway by various ministries which will be sent to congress in the future.

Silva called for a responsible discussion of the issue within the government, bearing in mind that whatever is done
must have a legal basis. She added that her ministry’s position is one of caution on the issue, pointing out that Brazil is a
member of the Biodiversity Convention and congress is examining ratification of the Cartagena agreement. "Over the last eight
years there has been patchwork legislation that did not resolve the problem. We need a long lasting solution," she declared.

The Minister cited the decree signed by President Lula making labeling of transgenetic food mandatory. The
Brazilian law is similar to European legislation, requiring that food that is one percent transgenetic be labeled as such.
"Consumers deserve reliable information on the food they purchase," she said.

Silva said that one idea being examined was the distribution of conventional soybean seed by the Brazilian Farm
Research Corporation (Embrapa), which has developed a first-class seed.

The Minister declared that her ministry’s position is not political-ideological against scientific or technological
knowledge, but one of caution regarding the use of such knowledge. "This is not something it is easy to resolve. If it were we
would not be doing all this work," said Silva. She concluded by saying that the presidential Chief of Staff, José Dirceu, was
working together with the ministries involved to find a solution.

On September 4, President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva received a report containing the results of the discussions in
the Interministerial Work Group, and, based on this document, he should examine the conclusions and then announce
the Administration’s official position on this question. Lula received the document during a meeting with 13 ministers who
are involved in the discussions about transgenics.

The pressures are intense. Agricultural sectors defend the cultivation, but environmentalists are fearful of the
consequences for human health and the environment. In the midst of the discussions, technical impasses also delay a decision. One of
the items that is still pending is related to whether the mandate of the National Biosecurity Technical Commission
(CNTBio) empowers it to conduct the environmental impact studies required prior to authorizing the cultivation of genetically
modified food crops in the country.

Moreover, the composition of the organ itself has still not been defined. "After receiving the report prepared by
the Interministerial Work Group on transgenics, the President will examine its conclusions and then make a decision on this
matter," summed up Presidential spokesman, André Singer.

Royalties

Brazil is on the eve of the soybean planting season (it officially begins on October 1). In Rio Grande do Sul farmers
say they will be planting a genetically modified (GM) strain known as "Roundup Ready" Further complicating the situation,
the multinational Monsanto, which developed the Roundup Ready seeds, has placed ads in local newspapers warning that it
will demand royalty payments when the crop is sold.

In response, the president of the Rio Grande do Sul Agricultural Federation, Ezidio Pinheiro, declared that GM soybean
seeds have been planted in the state for five years and there is no reason for farmers to pay Monsanto anything. The only
payments Monsanto has a right to, says Pinheiro, are for seed purchases.

Surplus

Brazilian agrobusiness achieved a record surplus of US$ 16.15 billion between January and August of this year, with
exports of US$ 19.25 billion and imports of US$ 3.1 billion. This represents a 38.4 percent improvement over the performance
of the sector during the same period last year.

Between January and August, 2002, exports totaled US$ 14.7 billion, and imports, US$ 3 billion, earning the
country US$ 11.7 billion. The soy complex (beans, meal, and oil) was responsible for 23 percent of this activity. These data
were released by the Brazilian Confederation of Agriculture and Livestock (CNA).

Export revenues in general grew 31.2 percent over these eight months, which means that agrobusiness plays an
increasingly important part in Brazil’s trade balance. Foreign sales of agricultural goods increased from 39.7 percent to 42.3
percent of overall exports, when the January-August periods of 2002 and 2003 are compared.

According to CNA technical adviser, Paulo Mustafaga, agrobusiness is expected to export US$ 27 billion and
import US$ 4 billion this year, producing a surplus of US$ 23 billion. The growth in the trade surplus was stimulated by the soy
complex, with total exports of US$ 5.43 billion in the January-August period, 73.6 percent more than the US$ 3.13 billion
registered during the same period in 2002.

The performance of the sector, according to the CNA, is due to a set of favorable factors, such as the new record
harvest, estimated at 52 million tons, improvement in the exchange rate, and the increase in world prices, as a result of the
expansion in global consumption, which should attain 174 million tons this year.

Soybean prices rose 18 percent, from an average of US$ 179.6 per ton, in the January-August period in 2002, to
US$ 211.7 per ton, in the same period in 2003. The increase amounted to 33.6 percent.

Meat also performed well during these first eight months. Sales attained US$ 2.;44 billion, 29.7 percent more than
export proceeds during the same period last year (US$ 1.88 billion).

Imports, although far less expressive than exports, also experienced a slight evolution, of 3.2 percent, during these
eight months, compared with the same period last year. The items that had the greatest weight were wheat, cotton, and rice.

 

The material for this article was supplied by Agência Brasil (AB), the official press agency of the Brazilian
government. Comments are welcome at lucas@radiobras.gov.br 

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