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Avant-garde Enigma

Avant-garde
    Enigma

Despite the moralistic streak at Globo, the network is not abandoning its lewd
characters. Already on the air or waiting in the wings there are four roles for
prostitutes, for example. It is a hooker the woman who lends its name to Hilda Furacão
(Hurricane Hilda), a very successful miniseries that has just had its run. For novice
actress Ana Paula Arósio it was a chance of a lifetime to play Hilda, a married socialite
from Minas Gerais, who makes some pocket money in a whorehouse. As a whore, gorgeous model
Arósio has become the toast of the country and proved to have the right interpreting
stuff.
The next Globo miniseries, Labirinto (Labyrinth), to première on October 20,
will have three girls selling their bodies for a living. Once again, two beauties expect
the role to work wonders for their careers, even though they are already two
global—who work for Globo—high-magnitude stars. They are Malu Mader, who will
play Paula, and Christine Fernandes, who will be Dora. Paula will be one of the few to
defend a businessman accused of a crime he did not commit. A third lady of the night will
be interpreted by Brazilian sweetheart Cláudia Abreu on a cameo appearance.
Labirinto is inspired by the Yankee TV series The Fugitive. In the
Brazilian version, André (Fábio Assunção), a man unjustly accused of murdering a
businessman during a New Year’s Eve party decides to go on the run. He will be helped by a
prostitute (Paula) with whom he will fall in love. Hollywood is the clear inspiration for
the series, which will have plenty of car chases and car crashes.
Christine is not worried that she will be often seen in bras and panties or even less.
Curiously, however, she declined the title role on Brida, a novela
premiering August on Manchete network and that is based in the work of worldwide
bestseller Brazilian author Paulo Coelho. She refused the role, the actress said, because
she did not want to appear naked. And she explains: "It doesn’t make any sense to
take my clothes off in that plot. I have no problem with nudity, but it seemed gratuitous
in the scenes I read. Yet as Dora, everything would fit."
Used to play fairy-like characters, Luana Piovani is all fired up since she was given
the opportunity to be Patrícia in "A Professional" (The Professional), an
episode of the Mulher (Woman) series. "This role was a gift," she said
recently and explained where she was getting the inspiration to compose its character:
"Every woman has a prostitute inside herself." Patrícia, a 22-year-old
communications college student, sells her body to pay the school. She has seven fixed
johns. "It’s as if she had seven sweethearts," said Piovani.
Why are prostitutes recurring characters in Brazilian TV shows? "The idea is to
show the prejudice society holds against these girls," says author Sérgio Marques,
who is writing Labirinto together with Leonor Bassères and Gilberto Braga. In an
interview with Rio’s daily, O Globo, Marques declared: "We are not taking a
deep dive in social problems, but we want to show how people condemned by society may have
a stronger and more righteous character than others who are more respected."

Half Century
in the Tube
Brazilian TV will be celebrating its 50th birthday on September 18, 2000. Despite of
what many people think, TV in Brazil started in São Paulo and not in Rio. "The Globo
network came later," says Yara Lins, 68, the first face to air on Brazilian TV saying
Tupi’s call letters.
The first station was PRF3-TV Tupi, channel 3, belonging to the Diários and Emissoras
Associados (Associated Dailies and Broadcasters), then a powerful media conglomerate owned
by legendary and folkloric Assis Chateaubriand (1892-1968), Brazil’s own citizen Kane.
Rio’s branch of Tupi was born four months later in 1951. Only in 1953 would appear the
first competition to Tupi, TV Record, also in São Paulo.
Imagens do Dia (Images of the Day), the first news show on Brazilian TV,
premiered the day after Tupi broadcast its first images. By 1953, Repórter Esso started
a brilliant career as the main news program in Brazil, a position it would keep until the
end of the ’60s, when under pressure from the military dictatorship the program lost its
independent voice and gave place to news shows more to the taste of the generals who
governed the country. Globo’s slick and offend-no-one-in-power approach would thrive and
reign supreme during the next three decades. The powerful network has been criticized for
being a mouthpiece for the military during the most repressive times of the generals’ stay
in power. The Jornal Nacional, Globo’s prime-time news show, created in 1969, is the
station’s most enduring first-place winner on its time slot.
Chateaubriand brought the RCA TV equipment from the US that started television in
Brazil more as a curiosity. It is believed that only five people had a TV by then and
everything was improvised at the beginning. As in the U.S., television in Brazil started
by imitating radio. There was no videotape, and programs as well as ads were shown live.
Initially some of the successful live programs were famous plays and educational and
kids shows. The videotape would be introduced only in 1962 in Brazil. It took a little
more than one year after the 1950 start for a kiss to be shown on the little screen. It
was an exchange between Vida Alves and Valter Foster on the teledrama Sua Vida Me
Pertence (Your Life Belongs to Me). It was a scandal.
By 1961 Tupi was producing a series called Vigilante Rodoviário (Highway
Patrolman), which obtained better ratings than Yankee enlatado (canned stuff) like Rin-tin-tin
and I Love Lucy. It was also Tupi, which revolutionized at the end of
1968—the novela premiered on November 4—the language of the soap-opera
with Beto Rockefeller in which Beto, the main character, was a contemporary
scoundrel who drew more laughs than sighs from an audience that knew only syrupy,
melodramatic soaps up to then.
Curiously some of the people who were part of the first TV images aired in the country
are still on the top. Hebe Camargo, then a popular radio singer, was turned into a TV
hostess. She has become and still is up to this date the queen of live TV interview shows.
After being featured on different TV networks through the years she is now a fixture and
one of the leaders of audience at SBT. Lolita Rodrigues, a ballerina and soap-opera
heroine in the pioneer days, and a colleague of Hebe, still works in novelas
although in smaller parts. As for former radio presenter Lima Duarte he is still today the
star of the Globo novelas he works in.
For all its power, Rede Globo only joined the competition late on the game. The network
started small in Rio in 1965. In the ’60s it was TV Record that became the catalyst for a
revolution in the MPB (Música Popular Brasileira—Brazilian Popular Music) promoting
extremely popular song festivals that launched singer-composers like Caetano Veloso,
Geraldo Vandré, and Gilberto Gil.
It was in 1973 that playwright Dias Gomes authored for Globo O Bem Amado (The
Well-Beloved One), a classic of soap that introduced memorable characters with a
distinctive language and touches of fantastic realism. The revolutionary novela
also became a microcosm and sounding board of the world. Soon after the Watergate scandal
broke in the news, the mayor in the novela wired the local church confessional for
sound.
Dias Gomes’ Roque Santeiro (Roque the Saint Maker) was vetoed by the military in
1975 and only had a chance to be aired in 1985 with the end of the dictatorship. In 1976,
prolific Gomes, who more than anyone used the concept of novela as an open work to
introduce characters, situations and dialogues reflecting the news or the public’s
reaction, went even further with Saramandaia. He incorporated here a series of
elements from the Latin-American magic realism including a man who sneezed ants, a fat
lady who exploded, and a werewolf.
In 1992, author Gilberto Braga in recreating the past in the miniseries Anos
Rebeldes (Rebel Years) inspired a new generation of students to go to the streets and
demand the resignation of then President Fernando Collor de Mello, who had won the
election thanks to the personal commitment of Roberto Marinho to this candidacy.
During these five decades, among the most celebrated novelas there were O
Direito de Nascer (The Right to Be Born), Tupi, 1964-1965; Redenção (Redemption),
Excelsior, 1966-1968; Beto Rockefeller, Tupi, 1968-1969; Irmãos Coragem (Brothers
Courage), Globo, 1970-1971; Selva de Pedra (Stone Jungle), Globo, 1972-1973; O
Bem-Amado (The Well Beloved One), Globo, 1973, the first novela in color; Mulheres
de Areia (Sand Women), Tupi, 1973-1974; Gabriela, Globo, 1975; Escalada
(Escalating), Globo, 1975; Saramandaia, Globo, 1976; Escrava Isaura (Slave
Isaura), Globo, 1976-1977; Dancin’ Days (original title in English), Globo,
1978-1979; Roque Santeiro (Roque, the Saint Maker), Globo, 1985-1986, and Pantanal
(Swamp), Manchete, 1990.
According to the 1996 yearly book Grupo de Mídia, Brazil has 257 TV stations
that broadcast their own signal and 7,497 that only rebroadcast other stations’ material.
Rede Globo has the most extensive number of repeating stations, placing the TV network in
99.84% of the county’s municipalities. Then comes SBT covering 81.74% of the territory,
Bandeirantes (62.99%), Manchete (45.80%), Record (22.42%) and CNT (Central Nacional de
Televisão—Television National Hub) (6.61%).
The total hegemony of Globo TV during the ’70s had a few cracks—nothing too
serious—during the 80s and 90s, challenged—not to seriously—by Bandeirantes
network (created in 1969), SBT (1981), Manchete (1983), and CNT (1993). Pay TV started in
1990, but instead of making room for more participants at the media’s table it has simply
distributed the new reaches to the already powerful players. Globo became a major
stockholder on Net Multicanal, and publishing giant April has joined American ABC and
Hearst media conglomerates to launch TVA.

The
Auditorium
Wars
The success of TV hosts has created a new class of nouveaux riches in Brazil. Besides
considerable paychecks these hosting stars fatten their bank accounts with merchandising
and getting a percentage from the ads sold during their programs. Maria da Graça
Meneghel, better known as Xuxa, the Queen of the Shorties, working at Globo, has become a
multimillionaire industry and the richest of them all. But other emerging names are
catching up fast.
In the same area as Xuxa, TV program for kids, there is Angélica and Eliana.
Angélica, who also is a hostess at Globo, has become the leader in products licensing in
all of Brazil. There are already more than 400 products bearing her likeness or her name.
She makes $4 million a year. Working at SBT, Eliana gets a $70,000 monthly salary. She
also has licensed more than 100 products, does other shows and has CDs with her songs.
Annual income: $4 million.
Gugu Liberato ($14 million a year) is the wealthiest of the emerging stars. He has 41
products licensed and is the owner of Gugu Produções, a company that promotes
entertainment events. Gugu, who presents Domingo Legal (Cool Sunday) on SBT, the
number one program on Sunday afternoons, would like to have his own TV station and has
been trying to buy one for some time. A big chunk of his earnings comes from the 12
minutes he gets in the show to sell as he pleases. A 30-second spot on Domingo Legal
costs $90,000, just a little less than on the Jornal Nacional, Globo’s daily
prime-time news show, where the same ad would cost $110 thousand.
Competing with Gugu at Globo on the same Sunday time slot is Fausto Silva, the host for
Domingão do Faustão (Big Fausto’s Big Sunday). Faustão also derives his money
from a salary plus merchandising added to his program. He is worth $4.5 million a year.
The competition among Gugu and Faustão last year ended up in an all-out war that only
finished when Faustão provoked a national scandal by showing in his program a sushi bar
where the food was served on the bodies of naked women. The long live scenes shot from
every angle while three actors ate and talked about the experience was shown on a Sunday
afternoon and provoked a deluge of indignant letters to the editor, comments and
editorials. The top brass at Globo—so much for the highly touted Globo standard of
quality—had to intervene and demand some cleaning up. Since then, at least at Globo,
the titillation decibels have lowered on live shows.
A lesser-known character, but who is already earning $6 million at SBT, is Celso
Portiolli. The 30-year-old show host has just signed a contract for three years
guaranteeing him a $100,000 monthly salary. If he is already earning an estimated $6
million a year is due to a clause that allows him to sell every day 1 minute and a half of
publicity in the show he presents. On Sundays he hosts Tempo de Alegria (Joy Time).
Earlier this year Portiolli’s salary was a mere $8,000. His value shot up, however, when
Globo showed interest in getting him. SBT is so fearful of losing the rising star that the
network introduced a $30 million penalty to be paid in case he wants to jump the boat.
Thriving in mondo cane, Ratinho (Little Mouse) has become a media phenomenon disputed
by different TV networks, including Globo, which reportedly wanted to tame him a little.
Now at Record but with a serious offer to jump to number-two SBT, host Carlos Massa, gets
a salary of $200,000 and earns some $6 million a year. He arrives at this amount by
getting 5% of all the 900 toll calls dialed during his programs. For the networks these
crowd-pleasing shows are a cash cow. While a novela might cost about $100,000 per
chapter, Ratinho’s program, for example doesn’t cost more than $25,000.
Colleague of Ratinho at Record, and also appealing to some lower instincts, hostess Ana
Maria Braga makes $3 million a year. Among other items bearing her name, Braga has already
released a recipe book, an engagement book, and a Christmas CD.

Babel
Synopsis
Set in São Paulo, the story of Torre de Babel revolves around a tower and a
former inmate who plots to explode it. The ex-jailbird is José Clementino da Silva (Tony
Ramos), a fireworks expert who goes to work as a bricklayer at Torre de Babel when his
business goes belly-up. A good man until then, da Silva becomes a murderer when he finds
his wife in bed with two men. He kills the three of them with an ax. The killing occurs in
1978.
The real action starts 20 years later, after the murderer has ended his prison term and
gets out of jail with all sorts of revenge plans against those who testified against him
during the trial, in special César Toledo (Tarcísio Meira), the owner of the Tropical
Towers shopping mall. All of this happens in the first chapter.
The murderer gets a job as a watchman at the tower and plans to explode it during the
night when nobody is there. The plans go awry, however, and the explosion ends up killing
many people.
The Names
By Brazzil Magazine

At moments of profound introspection about both self and music, composers turn to the
string quartet. It’s odd but composers have always thought, have always functioned this
way. The string quartet is the most serious, most intimate, most significant piece a
composer can write. It is a genre in which the composer holds a mirror up to himself and
to his way of composing. Musical substance, unobscured by orchestral effects, lies open to
view.

Throwing light on some of the most profound philosophical statements in music, this
year’s Kuhmo Chamber Music Festival in Finland has as one of its themes the string
quartet. At Kuhmo, the entire Villa-Lobos string quartet cycle will be performed between
July 19 and August 2. Additionally, Cuarteto Latinoamericano will perform the 17
Villa-Lobos string quartets in five concerts between October 20 and 25 as part of the 26th
Festival Internacional Cervantino in Guanajuato, Mexico. According to Marcelo Rodolfo of
the Villa-Lobos Museum in Rio de Janeiro, these will be the first live performances ever
of the Brazilian composer’s complete quartet cycle.

Cuarteto Latinoamericano is an ensemble that illuminates both the classicism and the
passionate modernism of Villa-Lobos. The players are ardent about emphasizing the changing
moods, tone color, and exotic twists in this volatile music. Reaching into the repertory
of Villa-Lobos with the same attention others give to Mozart, they play Villa-Lobos with
an intense conviction and a rapport that verges on the telepathic, bringing out not only
the nostalgia in the harmony but articulating the rhythm, which is intrinsic to
Villa-Lobos’s avant-garde, nationalist, and folkloric works.

Comprised of Javier Montiel (viola) and the brothers Saul and Aron Bitran (violins) and
Álvaro Bitran (cello), the Cuarteto is a unique fraternity. Since 1987, they have been
the quartet in residence at Carnegie Mellon University and have a similar residency at the
National Conservatory of Music in Mexico. In concert the group has collaborated with such
international figures as flutist Julius Baker, cellist Janos Starker, guitarist Narciso
Yepes, and conductor Eduardo Mata. The group has consistently worked to erode some of the
most enduring cultural misconceptions about classical and string quartet music by
committing themselves to the discovery, performance, and recording of under-represented
Latin and South American composers.

Sharing the ability to stretch the boundaries of classical music, Cuarteto
Latinoamericano is seen by many as the Latin American imprint of the Kronos Quartet. The
group has already recorded most of the existing string quartets by Latin and South
American composers for the New Albion, Dorian, and Elan labels. Their first digital
recording of quartets by Heitor Villa-Lobos, Alberto Ginastera, and Silvestre Revueltas
was selected as Critics Choice for 1989 by The New York Times.

And last year the group was presented the ASCAP-Chamber Music Award for Adventurous
Programming of Contemporary Music. Presently they are recording the entire cycle of
Villa-Lobos string quartets for Dorian. To get the insiders’ perspective on the string
quartets of Villa-Lobos, I interviewed the players one afternoon between World Cup games.

Brazzil—What is the importance of the Villa-Lobos string quartets in relation
to the Brazilian classical repertoire and to the 20th century European repertoire as a
whole?

Álvaro—In a genre that traditionally supplies the classical world with some
of the best creations by its greatest composers: Beethoven, Brahms, Haydn, Mozart,
Revueltas; the Villa-Lobos quartets illustrate the enormous productivity of Brazil’s most
prominent composer. In the context of 20th century string quartets, his
quartets represent the voice of an extremely original composer who wrote string quartets
throughout his life. But ultimately, the importance lies in their quality.

Saul—Also, we have to remember that there were few string quartets being
written in Latin America before 1915. With that in mind, it’s astonishing to realize that
Villa-Lobos didn’t follow the European pattern of composition, but rather, even from the
first quartet, developed a totally new approach to quartet writing.

Brazzil—Can a listener notice the composer’s artistic developments or marked
stylistic periods as the quartets progress from 1 through 17?

Saul—Definitely. Even though all of the quartets share some common features
—a richness of timbre, exacting instrumental writing, an abundance of melodic
material, the nostalgic character of the slow movements—they clearly reflect three
groups, defined both stylistically and chronologically:

Quartets 1 to 6 (1915 to 1938) share the unmistakable influence of popular Brazilian
music, French Impressionism, and the interest for unusual performance techniques and
original sonorities—abundant use of pizzicato, harmonics, mutes, etc.

The second group, Quartets 7 to 9 (1941 to 1945), represents the pivotal part of the
cycle. The depth of their expression, their harmonic sophistication, their contrapuntal
richness, the high level of instrumental difficulty, and sheer length make them an
unparalleled milestone in 20th century quartet literature. The last seven, Quartets 10 to
17 (1946 to 1957), mark a return to a simpler, almost Neo-Classical compositional
approach. The counterpoint becomes explicit—predictable—and the rhythms simpler,
although ever ingenious.

Brazzil—How does the mood, harmonic language, tone color, and rhythm of the
Villa-Lobos quartets compare to those of Bartók and other European composers?

Aron—It is very different to compare these works with Bartók or any other
European works from the same period. All four of the elements implied in your question
differ in Villa-Lobos from his European counterparts. The mood is clearly Brazilian in
that it relates vividly to the landscape of that country in a way that is more than a
subjective appreciation. The rhythms are enormously original, yet the meter seldom
changes, unlike Bartók and most contemporary European composers. And the tone color is
determined, above all, by the lyrical capabilities of the instruments.

Brazzil—What are some of the stylistic considerations a performer needs to keep
in mind when interpreting Villa-Lobos?

Aron—One must never forget that this music, no matter how sophisticated it may
at times be, comes directly from Brazil’s folklore. Rhythmic flexibility in the melody
combined with a relentless pulse in the accompaniment, accounts for that wonderful
combination of energy and freedom that defines these quartets and Brazilian music as a
whole. These two elements must be kept in mind constantly when performing the Villa-Lobos
quartets.

Brazzil—Can you explain some of the distinctive string techniques Villa-Lobos
employs in the quartets?

Aron—Villa-Lobos makes extensive use of harmonics, pizzicato, double stops
(playing two strings together), col legno (playing with the wood of the bow rather than
the bow hair), and the use of mutes. In the third quartet there is an unusual placement of
the mute on the side of the bridge. There is also prevalent use of extremely high
registers, particularly in the first violin part.

Brazzil—Why is it that few of the high-profile quartets—the Tokyo,
Emerson, Kronos—play the Villa-Lobos quartets?

Aron—It is indeed hard to explain. There may be three reasons that partially
account for it. First, until recently there were few recordings available. Second, it is
quite hard to get a hold of scores and individual parts. Villa-Lobos’s music was published
by several different houses, and many have not reprinted the music in years. And third, at
first reading the music appears quite hard to interpret, almost cryptic. It is only after
extensive work has been put into clarifying the balance that the textures become evident
and the music flows nicely.

Brazzil—Has the complete cycle of 17 Villa-Lobos string quartets been recorded?

Aron—Yes. The complete cycle was recorded by the Hungarian group, Danubius
Quartet. And we are presently in the middle of recording the complete cycle as well,
having already released Volume 1 (quartets 1, 6, & 17), Volume 2 (quartets 3, 8, and
14) and Volume 3 (quartets 7 and 15).

Brazzil—When will the recording be complete?

Aron—We expect to complete the cycle by the summer of 1999.

Brazzil—Which is the most demanding quartet to perform?

Aron—Unquestionably number 7 because of its intensity, duration, and enormous
technical difficulties.

Brazzil—Are there any high-profile Brazilian String Quartets who specialize in
the works of Brazilian composers?

Álvaro—No, unfortunately there are none. There was, however, a Brazilian
quartet called Bessler-Reis who recorded many of the Villa-Lobos quartets before splitting
a couple of years ago.

Brazzil—Can you talk about the goals of Cuarteto Latinoamericano?

Javier—I think we can talk about both short and long term goals. In the short
term, we are putting a lot of time and effort into the Villa-Lobos project, which includes
the performances at the Cervantino Festival in October `98 in Guanajuato, Mexico, where as
you know, we will play for the first time the 17 Villa-Lobos string quartets in five
concerts. This project also includes the continuation of the quartet recordings. As Aron
mentioned, we are in the middle of that project, with three CD’s out. By the way, Vol. 3
was nominated this year for the Cannes Classic Award in Chamber Music, 19th and 20th
Century. In the long term we hope to continue our strong ties with the U.S.A., Europe, and
South America and to keep playing the main festivals and, of course, continue teaching and
coaching.

Brazzil—Does Cuarteto Latinoamericano have an ensemble philosophy?

Javier—Although there is nothing etched in stone, part of our philosophy is to
give our best at every performance. No matter whether it’s a short rehearsal, a very
important concert in a major chamber music series, the tenth take of a difficult passage
in a recording session, or a performance for fourth grade children; we always approach a
performance as if it were our last. Another important aspect of our credo is that, as far
as priorities go, families come first and the job second. I strongly think that this is
one very important reason we have been together for more than seventeen years.

Brazzil—Will international recognition come to Cuarteto Latinoamericano as it
has to quartets like Kronos, Tokyo, Emerson, and Juilliard?

Álvaro—I am not the ideal person to compare our success with these other great
quartets. We have a very different profile. For example, we travel with 30 or more pieces
just for a weeklong tour, and we seldom play the traditional repertoire. We do meet these
ensembles at most of the chamber music societies and festivals, and like them, we also
have a high-pressure recording and performance schedule.

Brazzil—Gentlemen, thank you.

Saul—Delighted.

A Notch
Below
Beethoven

Heitor Villa-Lobos wrote quartets throughout his lifetime. The sheer
number penned by Villa-Lobos is remarkable, not only in terms of quantity but also in
terms of their magnetism and authority. By adding the fabric of Brazilian folk and popular
music to one of the most traditional genres from the Classical and Romantic periods, and
by disregarding the formal structure of the European model, Villa-Lobos created string
quartets of a highly personal world with remarkable contrasts and rhythmic sophistication.
The structural ingenuity, rhythmic vitality, and melodic fluency of his string quartets
were a forceful rebuke to European parochialism.

Today the 17 quartets of Villa-Lobos are recognized as the most
remarkable cycle after Beethoven, and scholars assert that these works are as important to
the 20th century repertoire as those written by Bartók and Shostakovich. If anything, the
string quartets of Villa-Lobos exemplify the conviction of a composer who would not
abandon his musical concepts simply because they were too challenging for his
contemporaries to realize. What Villa-Lobos did with harmonics (partial tones produced by
the vibration of fractional parts of the string that give a dreamlike transparency to a
note) in his third quartet is, without a doubt, extraordinary. In 1916, before Bartók or
Shostakovich, Villa-Lobos wrote a complete movement with left-hand pizzicato (notes played
by plucking the strings) and double harmonics —techniques few had even thought of.

There are passages in the quartets where players are directed to go to
the highest possible register of the instrument, where distance can no longer be measured
on the fingerboard, and to play precise pitches. For the listener these are striking
effects, but performers can really suffer. Most have to revoice, that is, redistribute
certain lines to different strings in order to play their parts. Critics of Villa-Lobos
argued that he was too eager to expand the limits of the quartet literature and that he
never worried about the awkward demands he placed on performers.

They claimed that Villa-Lobos wrote too quickly and that he was
exhaustively preoccupied with his wish to assert himself and declare his artistic career.
But when we put aside all the exoticism, we can look at the depth, the originality, and
the power of his music. Written over a period of forty-two years, the seventeen string
quartets of Villa-Lobos represent the most important contribution to the string literature
of the 20th century by a composer from a continent without a rigorous tradition in the
accepted European repertoire.

Bruce Gilman, music editor for Brazzil, received
his Masters degree in music from California Institute of the Arts. He leads the Brazilian
jazz ensemble Axé and plays cuíca for escola de samba MILA. You can reach
him through his e-mail: cuica@interworld.net

Cuarteto Latinoamericano
Selected discography:

Title ………………………………………………Label
…………………………….Date

Four, For Tango……………………………… New Albion NA100CD…… 1998

(Contains "Homenaje A Gismonti")

Villa-Lobos: Complete String Quartets… Dorion DOR-90246…………. 1997

Vol. 3 Nos. 7 and 15.

Villa-Lobos: Complete String Quartets ….Dorion DOR-90220 ………….1996

Vol. 2 Nos. 3, 8, and 14.

Villa-Lobos: Complete String Quartets …..Dorion DOR-90205 ………….1995

Vol. 1 Nos. 1, 6, and 17.

Quarteto Bessler-Reis
Selected discography:

Title …………………………………………………………..Label
……………………….Date

Heitor Villa-Lobos—Quartetos de Cordas ………..Kuarup KCD051 ………..1989
& 1991

Nos. 12, 13, 14. (Prêmio Sharp)

Heitor Villa-Lobos—Quartetos de Cordas………… Kuarup KCD045
………..1988-89

Nos. 1, 2, 3. (Prêmio Sharp)

Heitor Villa-Lobos—Quartetos de Cordas …………Kuarup KCD042 …………1988

Nos. 15, 16, 17. (Prêmio Sharp)

Heitor Villa-Lobos—Quartetos de Cordas …………Kuarup
KCD034…………. 1987

Nos. 4, 5, 6. (Prêmio Sharp)

Quarteto Amazônia
Strongly Recommended:

Title………………………………………………………
Label………………………. Date

Heitor Villa-Lobos—Quartetos de Cordas …….Kuarup KCD080/1
…….1996

Nos. 7 through 11 (2 CD’s) (Prêmio APCA Melhor Disco Clássico)

Internet
Resources

For more information about the Summer Festival in Finland please check
the following URL: http://dml.kajak.fi/kuhmof/kamaen98.htm

For an updated Cuarteto Latinoamericano discography see their Website: http://www.cmu.edu/cfa/music/cuarteto/

The Heitor Villa-Lobos Home Page is at: http://www.geocities.com/Vienna/1155/

The Kuarup Discos Web Page is at: http://www.kuarup.com.br
— E-mail: kuarup@uninet.com.br

Supplementary Brazilian music links can be found at: http://www.thebraziliansound.com

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