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Hi! What now?


Hi!
What now?

Anthropologist and Senator Darcy Ribeiro died on February 17. He was
considered by most an accomplished educator, novelist, anthropologist,
and politician. President Fernando Henrique Cardoso went to his funeral
and even declared a national three-day mourning period in the days following
his death. Was he only a façade? Was Ribeiro the shrewdest cheater
Brazil has ever seen? That’s what this article wants to prove.

By


Quem tem boca vai a Roma.

(If you can speak you can get to Rome.)


When they settled Brazil in the 16th century, the Portuguese encountered the diverse languages of the Indians.
These, together with the various idioms and dialects spoken by the Africans brought in as slaves, extensively changed
the Portuguese spoken by the early settlers.

Along with Portuguese, Tupi-Guarani (language), written down and simplified by the Jesuits, became a
common language which was understood by the majority of the population. It was spoken by the general public until the
middle of the 18th century, but its usage diminished with the great number of Portuguese gold-rush immigrants and a
royal proclamation in 1757 prohibiting its use. With the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1759, Portuguese was well and
truly established as the national language.

Still, many words remain from the Indian and African languages. From Tupi-Guarani come lots of place names
(e.g. Guanabara, Carioca, Tijuca and Niterói), animal names (e.g.
piranha, capivara and urubu) and plant names
(e.g. mandioca, abacaxi, caju
and jacarandá). Words from the African dialects, mainly those from Nigeria and
Angola, are used in Afro-Brazilian religious ceremonies (e.g. Orixá, Exu and Iansã), cooking (e.g.
vatapá, acarajé and
abará) and in general conversation (e.g.
samba, mocambo and moleque).

Within Brazil, accents, dialects and slang
(gíria) vary regionally. The
Carioca inserts the "sh" sound in place of
"s’. The Gaúcho speak a Spanish-sounding Portuguese, the
Baiano (from Bahia) speak slowly and the accents of
the Cearense (from Ceará) are often incomprehensible to outsiders.

Portuguese is similar to Spanish on paper, but sounds completely different. You will do quite well if you speak
Spanish in Brazil. Brazilians will understand what you say, but you won’t get much of what they say. So don’t think
studying Portuguese is a waste of time. Listen to language tapes and develop an ear for Portuguese—it’s a
beautiful-sounding language.

Brazilians are very easy to befriend, but unfortunately the vast majority of them speak little or no English. This
is changing, however, as practically all Brazilians in school are learning English. All the same, don’t count on finding
an English speaker, especially out of the cities. The more Portuguese you speak, the more you will get out of your trip.

Most phrasebooks are not very helpful. Their vocabulary is often dated and they contain the Portuguese spoken
in Portugal, not Brazil. Notable exceptions are Lonely Planet’s
Brazilian Phrasebook, and a Berlitz phrasebook for
travel in Brazil. Make sure any English-Portuguese dictionary is a Brazilian Portuguese one.

If you’re more intent on learning the language, try the US Foreign Service Institute (FSI) tape series. It comes in
two volumes. Volume 1, which includes 23 cassettes and accompanying text, costs $130 and covers pronunciation,
verb tenses and essential nouns and adjectives. Volume 2 includes 22 tapes with text and sells for $115. It includes
some useful phrases and a travel vocabulary.

For fluent Spanish speakers, FSI also has Portuguese-From Spanish to Portuguese,
which consists of two tapes and a text explaining similarities and differences between these languages. This one costs $20. To get hold of these,
write to or call the National Audiovisual Center (301) 763-1896, Information Services PF, 8700 Edgeworth Drive,
Capitol Heights, Maryland, USA, 20743-3701.

In Australia, most foreign-language and travel bookstores stock a range of material, from the basic "Travel Pack"
with a phrase book and two tapes for A$35, to a condensed version of the FSI tapes. A condensed version of the FSI
tapes is available from Learn Australia Pty Ltd (008) 338-183, 726 High St, East Kew, Victoria, 3102. Twelve 90-minute
tapes cost A$195. The `Living Language’ course is in-between, and it includes phrases, vocabulary, grammar
and conversation. The manual and CD cost A$50.

Combine these with a few Brazilian samba tapes and some Jorge Amado novels and you’re ready to begin the
next level of instruction on the streets of Brazil. If that doesn’t suffice, it’s easy to arrange tutorial instruction through
any of the Brazilian American institutes where Brazilians go to learn English, or at the IBEU (Instituto Brasil
Estados Unidos) in Rio.

Portuguese has masculine and feminine forms of nouns and adjectives. Alternative gender endings to words
appear separated by a slash, the masculine form first. Generally, "o" indicates masculine and "a" indicates feminine.


Greetings & Civilities

Hello

Goodbye

Good morning

Good afternoon

Good evening

Please

Thank you (very much)

Yes

No

Maybe

Excuse me.

I am sorry.

How are you?

I’m fine thanks.


Oi

Tchau

Bom dia

Boa tarde

Boa noite

Por favor

(Muito) obrigado

(males)

(Muito) obrigada

(females)

Sim

Não

Talvez

Com licença

Desculpe (me perdoe).

(lit: forgive me)

Como vai você/Tudo bem?

Vou bem, obrigado/a .

Tudo bem, obrigado/a.


Language Difficulties


Please write it down.

Please show me (on the map).

I (don’t) understand.

I (don’t) speak Portuguese.

Do you speak English?

Does anyone speak English?

How do you say… in Portuguese?

I have a visa/permit.


Escreva por favor.

Por favor, me mostre (no mapa).

Eu (não) entendo.

Eu (não) falo português.

Você fala inglês?

Alguém fala inglês?

Como você diz… em português?

Eu tenho um visto/uma licença.



Paperwork


Passport

Surname

Given name

Date of birth

Place of birth

Nationality

Male/Female


Passaporte

Sobrenome

Nome

Data de nascimento

Local de nascimento

Nacionalidade

Masculino/Feminino


Small Talk


What is your name?

My name is…

I’m a tourist/student.

Where/What country are you from?

I am from…

How old are you?

I am… years old.

Are you married?

Do you like…?

I (don’t) like…

I like it very much.

May I?

It’s all right/No problem.



Qual é seu nome?

Meu nome é…

Eu sou um turista/estudante.

De onde/De que país você é?

Eu sou…

Quantos anos você tem ?

Eu tenho… anos.

Você é casado/a?

Você gosta de… ?

Eu (não) gosto de…

Eu gosto muito.

Posso?

Está tudo bem/Não há problema.



Getting Around


I want to go to…

I want to book a seat for…

What time does the

… leave/arrive?

Where does the…

leave from?

bus

tram

train

boat

ferry

The train is…

Delayed

Cancelled

On time

Early

Ferry (sometimes called balsa)

How long does the trip take?

Do I need to change?

You must change trains/platform

One-way (ticket)

Return (ticket)

Station

Ticket

Ticket office

Timetable

I would like to hire a…

Bicycle

Motorcycle

Car

Guide

Horse



Eu quero ir para…

Eu quero reservar um assento para…

A que horas… sai/chega?

De one o/a… sai?

ônibus

bonde

trem

Barco

Ferry (sometimes called balsa)

Avião

O trem está…

Atrasado

Cancelado

Na hora

adiantado

Quanto tempo a viagem demora?

Eu preciso trocar?

Você precisa trocar de trem/plataforma

Passagem de ida

Passagem de volta

Estação

Passagem

Bilheteria

Horário

Eu gostaria de alugar

Um/uma…

Bicicleta

Moto

Carro

Guia

cavalo


Directions


How do I get to…?

Where is…?

Is it near/far?

What…is this/

Street/road

House number

Suburb

Town

Go straight ahead

Turn left

Turn right

At the traffic lights

At the next corner

Up/down

Behind/opposite

Here/there

East

West

North

South



Como eu chego a…?

Aonde é…?

É perto/longe?

O que é… isto?

Rua/estrada

Número da casa

Bairro

Cidade

Vá em frente

Vire à esquerda

Vire à direita

No farol

Na próxima esquina

Acima/abaixo

Atrás/em frente

Aqui/lá

Leste

Oeste

Norte

Sul


Accommodation


I’m looking for the…

Youth hostel

Camping ground

Hotel

Guesthouse

Manager

Owner

What is the address?

Do you have a…

Available?

Bed

Cheap room

Single room

Double room

Room with two beds

For one/two nights

How much is it per night/per person?

Is service/breakfast included?

Can I see the room?

It is very…

Dirty

Noisy

Expensive

Where is the toilet?

I am/We are leaving now

Do you have…?

A clean sheet

Hot water

A key

A shower



Eu estou procurando o/a…

Albergue da juventude

Camping

Hotel

Ousada

Gerente

Dono

Qual é o endereço?

Você tem um/uma…

Para alugar?

Cama

Quarto barato

Quarto de solteiro

Quarto de casado

Quarto com duas camas

Para uma/duas noites

Quanto é por noite/por pessoa?

O serviço/café de manhã está incluído?

Posso ver o quarto?

É muito…

Sujo

Barulhento

Caro

Aonde é o banheiro?

Eu estou/Nós estamos saindo agora

Você tem…?

Um lençol limpo

Água quente

Uma chave

Um chuveiro




Around Town

Where is the/a…?

Bank

Exchange office

City center

Embassy

Hospital

Market

Post office

Public toilet

Restaurant

Telephone center


Aonde é o/a…?

Banco

Casa de câmbio

Centro da cidade

Embaixada

Hospital

Mercado/feira

Correio

Banheiro público

Restaurante

Telefônica


Tourism office


I’d like to change some…

Money

Travelers’ checks

Bridge

Cathedral

Church

Fort

Lake

Main square

Old city

Palace

Ruins

Square

Tower


Posto de informações turísticas


Eu gostaria de trocar

Um pouco de…

Dinheiro

Checks de viagem

Ponte

Catedral

Igreja

Forte

Lago

Praça principal

Cidade velha

Palácio

Ruínas

Praça

Torre


Food


Breakfast

Lunch

Dinner

Set menu

Food stall

Grocery store

Delicatessen

Restaurant

I am hungry/thirsty

I would like the set lunch please

Is service included in the bill?

I am a vegetarian

I would like some

Another… please

I don’t eat…

Beer

Bread

Chicken

Coffee

Eggs

Fish

Food

Fruit

Meat

Milk

Mineral water

Pepper

Salt soup

Sugar

Tea

Vegetables

Wine



Café da manhã

Almoço

Jantar

Refeição

Barraca de comida

Mercearia

Confeitaria

Restaurante

Eu estou com fome/sede

Eu gostaria do prato feito por favor

O serviço esta incluído na conta?

Eu sou vegetariano/a

Eu gostaria de algum/a

Outro/a… por favor

Eu não como…

Cerveja

Pão

Frango

Café

Ovos

Peixe

Comida

Frutas

Carne

Leite

Água mineral

Pimenta

Sal

Sopa

Açúcar

Chá

Verduras

Vinho


Shopping


How much does it cost?

I would like to buy it

It’s too expensive for me

Can I look at it

I’m just looking

I’m looking for…

A chemist

Clothing

Souvenirs

Do you take travelers’ checks/credit cards?

Do you have another color/size?

Big/bigger

Small/smaller

More/less

Cheap/cheaper


Quanto custa?

Eu gostaria de comprar

É muito caro para mim

Posso ver?

Só estou olhando

Estou procurando

Uma farmácia

Roupas

Lembanças

Você aceita checks de viagem/cartões de crédito?

Você tem outra cor/tamanho?

Grande/maior

Pequeno/menor

Mais/menos

Barato/mais barato



Times & Dates


What time is it?

It’s…

1:15

1:30

1:45

O’clock

In the morning

In the evening

When?

Yesterday

Today

Tonight

Tomorrow

Day after tomorrow

Morning

Afternoon

Night

All day

Every day


Sunday

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday


January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December



Que horas são

São

Uma e quinze

Uma e meia

Uma e quarenta e cinco

Horas

Da manhã

Da noite

Quando?

Ontem

Hoje

Hoje de noite

Amanhã

Depois de amanhã

De manhã

De tarde

De noite

Todo o dia

Todos os dias


Segunda-feira

Terça-feira

Quarta-feira

Quinta-feira

Sexta-feira

Sábado


Janeiro

Fevereiro

Março

Abril

Maio

Junho

Julho

Agosto

Setembro

Outubro

Novembro

Dezembro



Numbers

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

1000

one million


zero

um/um

dois/duas

três

quatro

cinco

seis (when quoting telephone

or house numbers, Brazilians

will often say meia instead of seis)

sete

oito

nove

dez

onze

doze

treze

catorze

quinze

dezesseis

dezessete

dezoito

dezenove

vinte

trinta

quarenta

cinqüenta

sessenta

setenta

oitenta

noventa

cem

mil

um milhão

first

last

primeiro

último


Health


I’m allergic to penicillin/antibiotics

I’m…

Diabetic

Epileptic

Asthmatic

Antiseptic

Aspirin

Condoms

Contraceptive

Diarrhea

Medicine

Nausea

Sunblock cream




Eu sou alérgico/a penicilina/antibióticos

Eu sou…

Diabético/a

Epilético/a

Asmático/a

Antiséptico

Aspirina

Camisinhas

Contraceptivo

Diarréia

Remédio

Náusea

Creme de proteção solar

Absorventes internos




Emergencies


Help!

Go away!

Call a doctor!

Call the police!


Socorro!

Vá embora!

Chame o médico

Chame a polícia!


Slang

Brazilians pepper their language with strange oaths and odd expressions. Literal translations are in brackets:


Hello!

Everything OK?

Everything’s OK

That’s great/cool!

That’s bad/Shit!

Great/Cool/OK

My God!

It’s crazy/You’re

Crazy

Gosh

Whoops!

Wow!

You said it!

I’m mad at…

Is there a way?

There’s always a way

(curse word)

shooting the breeze

marijuana

guy

girl

money

bum

bald

a mess

a fix/troublesome

problem

the famous

`Brazilian bikini’


Oi!

Tudo bem?

Tudo bom

Chocante!

Merda!

‘tá lógico/’tá

ótimo/’tá legal!

Meu deus!

`tá louco!

Nossa! (Our Lady!)

Opa!

Oba!

Falou!

Eu estou chateado

Com…

Tem jeito?

Sempre tem jeito

Palavrão!

Batendo um papo

Fumo (smoke)

Cara

Garota

Grana

Bum-bum/bunda

Careca

Bagunça

Abacaxi

Fio dental (dental floss)


Body Language


Brazilians accompany their speech with a rich body language, a sort of parallel dialogue. The thumbs up of
tudo bem



is used as a greeting, or to signify `OK’ or `Thank you.’ The authoritative
não, não finger-wagging is most
intimidating when done right under someone’s nose, but it’s not a threat. The sign of the
figa, a thumb inserted between the first and second fingers of a clenched fist, is a symbol of good luck that has been derived from an African sexual
charm. It’s more commonly used as jewelry than in body language. To indicate
rápido (speed and haste), thumb and
middle finger touch loosely while rapidly shaking the wrist. If you don’t want something
(não quero), slap the back of your hands as if ridding yourself of the entire affair. Touching a finger to the lateral corner of the eye means `I’m wise
to you.’



VISAS & EMBASSIES

At the time of writing, Brazilian visas were necessary for visitors who were citizens of countries which required
visas for visitors from Brazil. American, Canadian, French, Australian and New Zealand citizens required visas, but
UK citizens did not. Tourist visas are issued by Brazilian diplomatic offices and are valid for arrival in Brazil within 90
days of issue and then for a 90-day stay in Brazil. They are renewable in Brazil for an additional 90 days.


It should only take about three hours to issue a visa, but you need a passport valid for at least six months, a
single passport photograph (either B/W or color) and either a round-trip ticket or a statement from a travel agent,
addressed to the Brazilian diplomatic office, stating that you have the required ticketing. If you only have a one-way ticket
they may accept a document from a bank or similar organization proving that you have sufficient funds to stay and buy
a return ticket, but it’s probably easier to get a letter from a travel agent stating that you have a round-trip ticket.

Visitors under 18 years of age must submit a notarized letter of authorization from their parents or a legal guardian.


Tourist Card

When you enter Brazil, you will be asked to fill out a tourist card, which has two parts. Immigration officials will
keep one part, and the other will be attached to your passport. When you leave Brazil, this will be detached from
your passport by immigration officials. Make sure you don’t lose your part of the card whilst travelling around Brazil. If
you do lose your portion, your departure could be delayed until officials have checked your Story. For added
security, make a photocopy of your section of the tourist card and keep this in a safe place, separate from your passport.

Whilst researching we crossed the Brazilian border many times. At one stage, whilst travelling from Brazil to
Uruguay, we missed the fact that the requisite part of our tourist card had not been collected on departure. Several weeks
later, when we arrived at Ponta Porã on the Paraguay-Brazil border, the immigration authorities explained that we had
not technically left Brazil! After considerable cogitation and some friendly banter, the officials asked us to make a
certified deposition concerning the details of our "disappearance’. Then the old cards were doctored, and we were issued
with new cards.


Visa Extensions

The Polícia Federal handles visa extensions and they have offices in the major Brazilian cities. You must go to
them before your visa lapses, or suffer the consequences. Don’t leave it until the last minute either. Go for an extension
about 15 days before your current visa expires. The tourist office can tell you where they are. In most cases a visa
extension seems to be pretty automatic but sometimes they’ll only give you 60 days. The police may require a ticket out of
the country and proof of sufficient funds, but this seems to be entirely at the discretion of the police officer.

When applying for an extension, you will be told to go to a
papelaria (stationery shop) and buy a DARF
form. (Sometimes this isn’t necessary; it depends on the office you go to.) After filling it out, you must then go to a
Banco do Brasil (or another bank nearby) and pay a fee of about $12. You then return to the Polícia Federal with the
DARF form stamped by the bank. The extension should then be routinely issued.

If you opt for the maximum 90-day extension and then leave the country before the end of that period, you
cannot return until the full 90 days have elapsed. So if you plan to leave and re-enter Brazil you must schedule your
dates carefully.

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