Art and Intrigue

Art and

Although the book reads well and Rubem Fonseca deserves to be better
known in the United States, Vast Emotions and Imperfect Thoughts is less impressive
than earlier works by the author.
By Bondo Wyszpolski

Vast Emotions and
Imperfect Thoughts, by Rubem Fonseca, trans. by Clifford E. Landers (The Ecco Press,
312 pp., $24)


Without question, Rubem Fonseca is one of the more respected Brazilian authors of our
day, but he has been done something of a disservice in this country by not being published
when his books are still fresh. Bufo & Spallanzani, his fine novel from 1985
(also translated by Mr. Landers), did not appear in English until five or six years later,
and Vast Emotions and Imperfect Thoughts, which was written in 1988, has only
recently appeared.

In this novel, there’s still talk of East Germany, West Germany, and a key portion of
the story is set in Berlin with checkpoints and crossing guards. It wasn’t history when
Fonseca wrote his book, but it certainly is now.

The nameless, first-person narrator of Vast Emotions and Imperfect Thoughts is a
filmmaker who’s looking for another project after two years; his last film, The Holy
War, was based on Euclides da Cunha’s Os Sertões, and it’s still trying to
recoup its losses.

However, sometimes our failures lead to our successes. A German producer, Dr. Plessner,
has seen The Holy War and he wants our narrator to come to Germany to direct Isaac
Babel’s "Red Calvary."

And then the first of many subplots begins to kick in: A fat woman named Angélica, who
has won prizes for her Carnaval costumes, seeks out the director and entrusts him with a
box of stones. A couple of days later she’s killed. The filmmaker, found in her address
book, begins to be followed.

Our narrator had a now-deceased wife named Ruth, a dancer whose career he inadvertently
destroyed: the empty wheelchair in the apartment says it all. Despite her absence, Ruth’s
presence will be felt throughout the novel.

In between the mounting suspense as a result of Angélica’s death and his possession of
the precious stones, the filmmaker begins to investigate Isaac Babel’s life. The Jewish
writer was killed during Stalin’s purges. The narrator’s old and dying friend Gurian
proves to be a reservoir of information about Babel, and for the reader the diversion is
interesting as well, partly because of the suspense that Fonseca has left dangling. As he
studies his subject further, the narrator finds a certain correlation between Babel and
the Spanish painter Goya, so he decides he’ll use a Goyaesque light in his Babel film.

Eventually he gets to Berlin, where he will embark upon an odd, bumpy relationship with
his escort and co-worker Veronika. Perhaps we’ve been building up to this all along, but
we can readily grasp the narrator’s astonishment when Dr. Plessner informs him that
Babel’s last work, a novel, was apparently not destroyed as had been previously assumed.
And there’s a fellow named Ivan in East Berlin who’s willing to fork it over for $100,000.
However, someone will have to cross the border to smuggle it out. No surprise here, the
filmmaker volunteers.

This part of Vast Emotions and Imperfect Thoughts loses some of its impact
because anything about the Berlin Wall is today verging on nostalgia. Still, Fonseca
paints a pretty tense escapade for us, with the result that the filmmaker returns and
then, not trusting Veronika or Plessner, decides to bolt.

After his arrival in Brazil, we realize (perhaps to our dismay) that the matter of the
precious stones and the aftermath of his theft in Berlin have both been shelved, and that
we’re about to embark on yet another seemingly unrelated adventure.

Sure enough. There’s capture, detainment, a gun-blazing escape, and yet a further
change of scenery and characters when the filmmaker meets up with Dália in Diamantina.

By the end there’s a sense of loose threads carelessly discarded, and a doubt about the
integrity of the narrator himself, a figure to whom things happen rather than one who sets
the gears in motion. Although the book reads well and Fonseca deserves to be better known
in this country, Vast Emotions and Imperfect Thoughts is ultimately less impressive
than Bufo & Spallanzani and an earlier novel, High Art, which was made
into the film Exposure. That said, I hope we’ll see another book by Rubem Fonseca,
in English, in the very near future.

Vast Emotions and Imperfect
Thoughts, an excerpt: 

As I went through inspection to leave East Germany, my nervousness was greater than
before. I hadn’t been afraid of going to prison, much less having the hundred thousand
dollars confiscated. But to lose Babel’s manuscript! The very idea filled me with horror.

The guards were different, but they performed the same mime taught at the police
academy. I wondered if the hearts of the old ladies with their Metaxa bottles always beat
rapidly when they were pierced every week by those penetrating stares.

In front of me an American, after showing his passport, was taken out of the queue and
led to a door through which he and the two guards disappeared.

Scenario: Ivan had been arrested and had told of the American spy; that is to say, me.

‘Is something the matter with you?’ asked the guard who was examining my passport.

‘Bad food. Goulash. Goulash!’ I said, hitting my belly with my hand. I made a likely
face, in reality from fright, for my hand had hit the sheets of paper.

The guard returned my passport and I went through. Then it was the other guard’s turn.

I finally made it past all the obstacles, climbed to the upper platform at
Friedrichstrasse station, and waited for the train to arrive. When it came, I took a seat
and closed my eyes. Sweat poured down my face.

Upon arriving at Zoo Garten station I almost forgot to get off and catch the U-Bahn. I
left on the run before the doors closed. I was anxious to get to the hotel and find
Veronika. I wanted her to read a passage from Babel’s book to me, immediately.

As I approached the hotel I had a surprise. Plessner and Veronika were in front of the
main door, talking. I drew back instinctively and hid in the entrance to a nearby
stationary store.

I could see from Plessner’s manner that he was giving Veronika instructions. She
listened attentively. She was a different person. Plessner, however, hadn’t changed; he
spoke to Veronika the same way he had spoken to me when telling me what I should do to
meet Ivan on the other side—a man who was always giving instructions. But Veronika
looked different. This wasn’t my Veronika.

comments to

Buy it at

Vast Emotions and
Imperfect Thoughts
312 pp


You May Also Like

Brazilian writer and psychoanalyst Rubem AlvesTender Returns by Rubem Alves

Brazilian Writer Rubem Alves on the Mystery of Love

From Tender Returns, a new translation of Brazilian writer Rubem Alves. Alves, a theologian, ...

Just the Basics

People practice this kissing ritual everyday without even thinking about it. They wake up ...

“Fantastic!” Finally Someone Bullish About Rio: the Olympics Chief

The head of the International Olympic Committee played down problems with unfinished accommodation in ...

Best-seller Books, Plays and Movies – January 2002

By Brazzil Magazine Dois Perdidos Numa Noite Suja (Two Lost Souls on a Dirty ...

A Chance for Rio and Brazil to Shine. But There is Also a Shameful Legacy

The Rio de Janeiro Olympic and Paralympic Games start today after over 39 billion ...

Ordinary Faces

Genevieve Naylor’s wartime work in Brazil as photographer was not a documentary or confrontational ...

It seems the future never arrives in Brazil What Lies Ahead in Brazil? Brazil Has No Exemplary Past or Present. But What Lies Ahead for the Country? Europeans, US, developed country, developing country. Bolsonaro, future B. Michael Rubin For years, experts have debated what separates a developing country from a developed one. The GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of a country is one simple way to measure its economic development. Another way to measure a country's progress is the extent of public education, e.g. how many citizens complete high school. A country's health may be measured by the effectiveness of its healthcare system, for example, life expectancy and infant mortality. With these measurement tools, it's easier to gauge the difference between a country like Brazil and one like the U.S. What's not easy to gauge is how these two countries developed so differently when they were both "discovered" at the same time. In 1492 and 1500 respectively, the U.S. and Brazil fell under the spell of white Europeans for the first time. While the British and Portuguese had the same modus operandi, namely, to exploit their discoveries for whatever they had to offer, not to mention extinguishing the native Americans already living there if they got in the way, the end result turned out significantly different in the U.S. than in Brazil. There are several theories on how/why the U.S. developed at a faster pace than Brazil. The theories originate via contrasting perspectives – from psychology to economics to geography. One of the most popular theories suggests the divergence between the two countries is linked to politics, i.e. the U.S. established a democratic government in 1776, while Brazil's democracy it could be said began only in earnest in the 1980s. This theory states that the Portuguese monarchy, as well as the 19th and 20th century oligarchies that followed it, had no motivation to invest in industrial development or education of the masses. Rather, Brazil was prized for its cheap and plentiful labor to mine the rich soil of its vast land. There is another theory based on collective psychology that says the first U.S. colonizers from England were workaholic Puritans, who avoided dancing and music in place of work and religious devotion. They labored six days a week then spent all of Sunday in church. Meanwhile, the white settlers in Brazil were unambitious criminals who had been freed from prison in Portugal in exchange for settling in Brazil. The Marxist interpretation of why Brazil lags behind the U.S. was best summarized by Eduardo Galeano, the Uruguayan writer, in 1970. Galeano said five hundred years ago the U.S. had the good fortune of bad fortune. What he meant was the natural riches of Brazil – gold, silver, and diamonds – made it ripe for exploitation by western Europe. Whereas in the U.S., lacking such riches, the thirteen colonies were economically insignificant to the British. Instead, U.S. industrialization had official encouragement from England, resulting in early diversification of its exports and rapid development of manufacturing. II Leaving this debate to the historians, let us turn our focus to the future. According to global projections by several economic strategists, what lies ahead for Brazil, the U.S., and the rest of the world is startling. Projections forecast that based on GDP growth, in 2050 the world's largest economy will be China, not the U.S. In third place will be India, and in fourth – Brazil. With the ascendency of three-fourths of the BRIC countries over the next decades, it will be important to reevaluate the terms developed and developing. In thirty years, it may no longer be necessary to accept the label characterized by Nelson Rodrigues's famous phrase "complexo de vira-lata," for Brazil's national inferiority complex. For Brazilians, this future scenario presents glistening hope. A country with stronger economic power would mean the government has greater wealth to expend on infrastructure, crime control, education, healthcare, etc. What many Brazilians are not cognizant of are the pitfalls of economic prosperity. While Brazilians today may be envious of their wealthier northern neighbors, there are some aspects of a developed country's profile that are not worth envying. For example, the U.S. today far exceeds Brazil in the number of suicides, prescription drug overdoses, and mass shootings. GDP growth and economic projections depend on multiple variables, chief among them the global economic situation and worldwide political stability. A war in the Middle East, for example, can affect oil production and have global ramifications. Political stability within a country is also essential to its economic health. Elected presidents play a crucial role in a country's progress, especially as presidents may differ radically in their worldview. The political paths of the U.S. and Brazil are parallel today. In both countries, we've seen a left-wing regime (Obama/PT) followed by a far-right populist one (Trump/Bolsonaro), surprising many outside observers, and in the U.S. contradicting every political pollster, all of whom predicted a Trump loss to Hillary Clinton in 2016. In Brazil, although Bolsonaro was elected by a clear majority, his triumph has created a powerful emotional polarization in the country similar to what is happening in the U.S. Families, friends, and colleagues have split in a love/hate relationship toward the current presidents in the U.S. and Brazil, leaving broken friendships and family ties. Both presidents face enormous challenges to keep their campaign promises. In Brazil, a sluggish economy just recovering from a recession shows no signs of robust GDP growth for at least the next two years. High unemployment continues to devastate the consumer confidence index in Brazil, and Bolsonaro is suffering under his campaign boasts that his Economy Minister, Paulo Guedes, has all the answers to fix Brazil's slump. Additionally, there is no end to the destruction caused by corruption in Brazil. Some experts believe corruption to be the main reason why Brazil has one of the world's largest wealth inequality gaps. Political corruption robs government coffers of desperately needed funds for education and infrastructure, in addition to creating an atmosphere that encourages everyday citizens to underreport income and engage in the shadow economy, thereby sidestepping tax collectors and regulators. "Why should I be honest about reporting my income when nobody else is? The politicians are only going to steal the tax money anyway," one Brazilian doctor told me. While Bolsonaro has promised a housecleaning of corrupt officials, this is a cry Brazilians have heard from every previous administration. In only the first half-year of his presidency, he has made several missteps, such as nominating one of his sons to be the new ambassador to the U.S., despite the congressman's lack of diplomatic credentials. A June poll found that 51 percent of Brazilians now lack confidence in Bolsonaro's leadership. Just this week, Brazil issued regulations that open a fast-track to deport foreigners who are dangerous or have violated the constitution. The rules published on July 26 by Justice Minister Sérgio Moro define a dangerous person as anyone associated with terrorism or organized crime, in addition to football fans with a violent history. Journalists noted that this new regulation had coincidental timing for an American journalist who has come under fire from Moro for publishing private communications of Moro's. Nevertheless, despite overselling his leadership skills, Bolsonaro has made some economic progress. With the help of congressional leader Rodrigo Maia, a bill is moving forward in congress for the restructuring of Brazil's generous pension system. Most Brazilians recognize the long-term value of such a change, which can save the government billions of dollars over the next decade. At merely the possibility of pension reform, outside investors have responded positively, and the São Paulo stock exchange has performed brilliantly, reaching an all-time high earlier this month. In efforts to boost the economy, Bolsonaro and Paulo Guedes have taken the short-term approach advocated by the Chicago school of economics championed by Milton Friedman, who claimed the key to boosting a slugging economy was to cut government spending. Unfortunately many economists, such as Nobel Prize winner Paul Krugman, disagree with this approach. They believe the most effective way to revive a slow economy is exactly the opposite, to spend more money not less. They say the government should be investing money in education and infrastructure projects, which can help put people back to work. Bolsonaro/Guedes have also talked about reducing business bureaucracy and revising the absurdly complex Brazilian tax system, which inhibits foreign and domestic business investment. It remains to be seen whether Bolsonaro has the political acumen to tackle this Godzilla-sized issue. Should Bolsonaro find a way to reform the tax system, the pension system, and curb the most egregious villains of political bribery and kickbacks – a tall order – his efforts could indeed show strong economic results in time for the next election in 2022. Meanwhile, some prominent leaders have already lost faith in Bolsonaro's efforts. The veteran of political/economic affairs, Joaquim Levy, has parted company with the president after being appointed head of the government's powerful development bank, BNDES. Levy and Bolsonaro butted heads over an appointment Levy made of a former employee of Lula's. When neither man refused to back down, Levy resigned his position at BNDES. Many observers believe Bolsonaro's biggest misstep has been his short-term approach to fixing the economy by loosening the laws protecting the Amazon rainforest. He and Guedes believe that by opening up more of the Amazon to logging, mining, and farming, we will see immediate economic stimulation. On July 28, the lead article of The New York Times detailed the vastly increased deforestation in the Amazon taking place under Bolsonaro's leadership. Environmental experts argue that the economic benefits of increased logging and mining in the Amazon are microscopic compared to the long-term damage to the environment. After pressure from European leaders at the recent G-20 meeting to do more to protect the world's largest rainforest, Bolsonaro echoed a patriotic response demanding that no one has the right to an opinion about the Amazon except Brazilians. In retaliation to worldwide criticism, Bolsonaro threatened to follow Trump's example and pull out of the Paris climate accord; however, Bolsonaro was persuaded by cooler heads to retract his threat. To prove who was in control of Brazil's Amazon region, he appointed a federal police officer with strong ties to agribusiness as head of FUNAI, the country's indigenous agency. In a further insult to the world's environmental leaders, not to mention common sense, Paulo Guedes held a news conference on July 25 in Manaus, the largest city in the rainforest, where he declared that since the Amazon forest is known for being the "lungs" of the world, Brazil should charge other countries for all the oxygen the forest produces. Bolsonaro/Guedes also have promised to finish paving BR-319, a controversial highway that cuts through the Amazon forest, linking Manaus to the state of Rondônia and the rest of the country. Inaugurated in 1976, BR-319 was abandoned by federal governments in the 1980s and again in the 1990s as far too costly and risky. Environmentalists believe the highway's completion will seal a death knoll on many indigenous populations by vastly facilitating the growth of the logging and mining industries. Several dozen heavily armed miners dressed in military fatigues invaded a Wajãpi village recently in the state of Amapá near the border of French Guiana and fatally stabbed one of the community's leaders. While Brazil's environmental protection policies are desperately lacking these days, not all the news here was bad. On the opening day of the 2019 Pan America Games in Lima, Peru, Brazilian Luisa Baptista, swam, biked, and ran her way to the gold medal in the women's triathlon. The silver medal went to Vittoria Lopes, another Brazilian. B. Michael Rubin is an American writer living in Brazil.

Brazil Has No Exemplary Past or Present. But What Lies Ahead for the Country?

For years, experts have debated what separates a developing country from a developed one. ...

Chomsky, Oliver Stone, and 20 Other Celebrities Decry Coup Against Brazil’s President

Twenty-two international intellectuals, writers, actors, and activists sent a letter to the Brazilian government ...