A decade's worth of tax-breaks aimed at the local film industrywhich
would make up less than one percent of the domestic market-share at the dawn
of the 1990shas yielded Brazil 10 Oscar nominations in the past eight
years, including best director for City of God in 2003.
By means of tax-breaks,
private and state-owned companies have poured about $460 million into the
Brazilian motion picture industry since 1995, according to Ancine, the state
However, in an attempt
by Brazilian authorities to secure as strategic a partner, film distributors
were imposed an 11 percent surcharge should they decide not to make use of
"It is still unclear
whether to call it `fiscal waiver' or `fiscal blackmail'," said José
Carlos de Oliveira, managing director of Warner Bros. South Inc.
Distributors contend that
despite the funds they would otherwise have to pay in local taxes, they must
alone bear all release and distribution costs once the movie is ready.
"For every $1 spent
through tax breaks, we spend almost $2 from our own resources in order to
distribute the film," added Rodrigo Saturnino Braga, managing director
of Sony's Columbia Pictures.
As opposed to complying
with the relatively cheap government surcharge, it appears to be paying off
for some not to refrain from the alleged high marketing costs.
Columbia Pictures co-produced
and distributed Carandiru, which fetched 22 percent of the nearly US$
47 million that Brazilian movies tallied locally last year. According to Ancine,
the total cinema revenue in Brazil in 2003 was $223 million.
Movie theater operators
also claim to be strainedin this case by the longstanding "screen
quota"under which each of the country's roughly 1,800 theaters
must screen homegrown movies on a minimum number of days per year. The quota
increased to 17.5 percent this year from just short of 10 percent in 2003.
"The problem is that
we might end up being forced to screen Brazilian movies to empty theaters.
And if we don't comply with the rules, we are fined," said Valmir Fernandes,
director of Cinemark in Brazil.
Dallas, Texas-based Cinemark
landed on Brazilian shores in 1997, and will have invested $100 million in
more than 300 theaters by the end of 2004.
"We are reining in
investments for 2005 unless we get clearer rules from the government,"
Indigenous movies drew
21.5 percent of all Brazilian moviegoers in 2003, more than double what the
government had ordered for that year. The South Korean quota currently stands
at 40 percent.
Of the 30 Brazilian films
launched in 2003, U.S. studios were involved in 14. The same 14 accounted
for 98 percent of the amount Brazilian productions made locally last year.
"Our head office
plays an important role in deciding what products we are going to get involved
with," said Warner Bros.'s José Carlos Oliveira. "The main
criterion to pick a project is to assess its commercial appeal."
"We have invested
US$ 30 million in the last six years," said Sony's Rodrigo Saturnino
Braga. "It is a very good business indeed."
"Most countries feature
some kind of film incentiveit just couldn't be different with Brazil,"
Luis Waldmann is a freelance writer based in Rio de Janeiro and can
be reached at email@example.com.