Perchance to Dream

January 2002
Music

Perchance to Dream

What to be, or not to be, will be the question when
the rhythm and beauty of Imperatriz
transforms
Brazilian Carnaval 2002.

Bruce Gilman

Carnaval is an infectious madness that takes over Rio de Janeiro’s entire population and is more celebratory for
Brazilians than Christmas, New Year’s Eve, and Easter rolled into one. Impetuous and impulsive it may be, but the culminating
parade of the “Group A” samba schools is also a serious competition. Under the watchful eye of the international media’s
scrutinizing attention, each samba school presents a choreographed story that is performed by thousands of dancers, singers, and
musicians, all propelled, and curiously anchored, by the rhythmic thrust of their percussion section. It is the ultimate street theater,
and on Saturday, February 9, 2002, it’s coming to Southern California when Brazilian Nites Productions brings the
mesmerizing and intricate nucleus of Escola de Samba Imperatriz Leopoldinense to the Hollywood Palladium.

Founded in 1959 to fill the void left by the Carnaval
bloco Recreio de Ramos (Joy of Ramos), which had boasted a
membership that included extraordinary musicians like Armando Marçal, Pixinguinha, Villa Lobos, and Heítor dos Prazeres;
Imperatriz Leopoldinense has revived the glory of its predecessor not only by seizing eight Carnaval championships (including
1999, 2000, and 2001) and attaining the highest ranking in the League of Independent Samba Schools (LIESA) but also by
maintaining an “Ala das Baianas” (hundreds of older women parading in the traditional flowing dresses of Bahia) that has been
awarded TV Globo’s Estandarte de Ouro in seven of the last eleven Carnavals. Imperatriz was also among the first
escolas to bring in professional artists with academic backgrounds to conceive and coordinate the visual aspects of their parade, who, in
turn, were responsible for creating a visual revolution that changed the parades all together, marking Carnaval as a
magnificent spectacle.

An astounding sense of discipline and technique sets Imperatriz off from other
escolas. And in terms of opulence and fantasy, the school’s concept of Carnaval as opera, with spectacular costumes, scenery, and floats, has unfailingly
impressed the judges. Furthermore, Imperatriz was the first
escola to create a cultural department that drew its Carnaval themes
from literature and modern Brazilian art. For Carnaval 2002, their theme will pay homage to the spirit of Brazil’s radical Modern
Art movement during the 1920’s, its metaphor of cultural cannibalism, and the movement’s brief but tremendously
influential resurgence in the 1960’s—Tropicália.

In an intense and ephemeral reverie called Carnaval, when anonymous people transform themselves into kings and
queens, when music, dance, and fantasy reach levels of animation encountered at no other time and in no other place,
Imperatriz Leopoldinense invokes its own special atmosphere. This year, Southern California revelers can plunge into that
swarming immensity of color and reel in its bright happiness when Imperatriz presents the beauty and energizing mayhem of the
greatest show on earth at Brazilian Carnaval 2002. I spoke with Wagner Tavares Araújo, who, as the president of Grêmio
Recreativo Escola de Samba Imperatriz Leopoldinense, has created a new vision for the school’s future.

Brazzil—Imperatriz is a relatively small school, and I’m wondering what you’re doing to recruit new members.

Araújo—First of all, people belong to the school that’s located in their district. If you were born in Madureira, for
example, you might choose either Portela or Império Serrano, but the samba school for the entire Leopoldina area—Ramos,
Penha, Olaria, Bonsucesso—is Imperatriz Leopoldinense. If you are from any of the small towns in the area, if you are from
Leopoldina, you are Imperatriz. You can always parade with another school, but in your heart you are Imperatriz. Many famous
musicians are Imperatriz. Baden Powell was Imperatriz. Paulo Moura, Elymar Santos, and Grupo Fundo de Quintal are Imperatriz.
Still, we hope our efforts to become Carnaval champions for the fourth consecutive year will bring more members to our school.

Brazzil—Is Imperatriz as popular in Rio as it is in Ramos and surrounding neighborhoods?

Araújo—There’s no doubt about it, Portela, Mangueira, Salgueiro, and Beija-Flor have more fans and are generally
more popular schools. But they have been the big schools for many, many years, and people tend to side with the winners.
We are now ranked among the traditional winners, so our popularity is growing rapidly. Today the winner cannot be
determined before Imperatriz parades. We always convey a distinctive air of precision, and execute a performance that is
thoroughly professional. The champion can only be decided after we parade, never before.

Brazzil—What changes have you initiated as the school’s president?

Araújo—When I came in as president in 1988, the school was ranked among the lowest in the League of
Independent Samba Schools. Carnaval was very disorganized, more fashion than organization. What moved people to participate in
the school was a passion for their community and for the samba, the same kind of passion Brazilians have for women and
their soccer teams. But to survive in a world of global finance and international communication networks, to be successful,
we needed a professional administration. So I initiated the idea of organizing the school as a corporation. I used to work in
the financial market, and I brought that administrative style with me to the presidency.

I’ve tried to keep Imperatriz from getting lost in unimportant events that consume our time and energy and bring us
little in return. If people in administrative positions don’t have this standard, this corporate concept, the structure will weaken
and die. Our philosophy is that if every individual does his part and if we respect the small contributions of each member, the
payoff will be an overwhelming victory. Fusing the best with the best-prepared is the philosophy I brought to the school. This
is how Imperatriz has become a modern institution, inspiring others and giving birth to the enormous administrative
changes taking place within all the major schools. We have been big winners because of the kind of administration we have adopted.

Brazzil—Aside from staging the Carnaval parade, how is Imperatriz serving the community?

Araújo—The area of Leopoldina is surrounded by
favelas, and like the other samba schools, Imperatriz is involved
with helping these communities. We are in the process of building an Olympic village, a sports complex with special facilities
for the neighborhood children. We have initiated a recycling project in which empty beer and soda cans can be exchanged
for a “cesta básica,” a bag of basic necessities like rice, beans, flour, and milk—six or seven items that will help
neighborhood families make ends meet. In addition, any event the school promotes in our
quadra (warehouse-like space where the
samba school rehearses), benefits the whole community. We act as a medium between the community, the state, and the
international companies who work in conjunction with world health organizations.

Brazzil—How is the profile of Carnaval different today from when the school was founded forty years ago?

Araújo—The entire personality of Carnaval has changed over the past forty years, not just for Imperatriz. Up until
ten years ago, each school paid the costs of their parades themselves by whatever means they could muster. But today, we
receive residuals from the records and CD’s we sell, from our ticket sales at the Sambódromo, from broadcasting and imaging
rights, even from the government. This funding dictated that the whole structure of Carnaval had to change and become
professional, efficient, up-to-date. And Imperatriz has been a pioneer in this because we manage our school like a corporation.
Carnaval used to have three ingredients: the street Carnaval, the masked balls, and the parade. But today, the Carnaval of Rio is
almost exclusively the parade in the Sambódromo. It is a mega-event that is marketed to countries all around the world and puts
a lot of money into our treasury, so we must be organized; we must be professionals.

Brazzil—What differences do you see with regard to the
bateria and puxadores?

Araújo—In the old days, the character of each school’s
bateria, the drums and the way the drums were played, was
pretty much attached to the Afro-Brazilian religions, to the
candomblé and umbanda saints, to the
macumba. The samba had very complicated themes and very long stories, but the world started changing, started growing, and to attend to the new
customers and new demands, we opened up the character of the
bateria. The samba became shorter and had to be very catchy. We
also started looking for a different kind of singer, one who was more energetic and fit with the “new touch.”

All this has come about because of modernization and the globalization unleashed by multi-national capitalism. The
samba schools are only reflecting the values of a new generation, which are not very connected to the culture or to
Afro-Brazilian religion. It wasn’t very long ago that you could hear different shades, distinctive nuances, between Mangueira’s bateria
and Salgueiro’s, between Império’s and Portela’s. Once, each had their own sound, a signature, but that doesn’t happen anymore.

Now the goal, the first objective, is to delight, to generate enthusiasm among the fans and bring them to your side.
Carnaval today is totally commercial and only cultural in a capitalistic sense. We have guidelines telling us how much, and when,
and to what extent we can address the community and religion. And because of this, the expression of the singers as well as
the sound of each bateria has become pretty much the same.

Brazzil—How is it that every member of Imperatriz sings during the parade?

Araújo—After we choose the samba in October, we start technical rehearsals every week in the
quadra. We ask that every ala, every section, be there and learn the samba by heart; that way, by Carnaval it is ingrained. Each member practices
the samba by listening to the radio or buying the recording and listening at home, and the 300,000 albums and CD’s we sell
each year helps this process. Nonetheless, everyone is required to attend the technical rehearsals because during the parade,
a bateria of 300 men will play the samba in a way that is slightly different from the recording. You know, it’s not very easy
to put 300 guys with drums into a recording studio. But this is how we manage to have everyone singing during the
parade, and this, of course, scores many points.

Brazzil—Discipline and technique is what sets Imperatriz off from other
escolas. Would you comment on this?

Araújo—The idea that everything happens at the right time and in the right place is part of the philosophy that I
brought to the school and which the board of directors and each member has adopted. In any event organized by Imperatriz,
whether it’s traveling somewhere, community work, or performing in the Carnaval parade, each member has in mind the concept
that if everyone takes charge and does his part, Imperatriz will be on the same level as schools with a lot more media appeal
and greater popularity. The only way that Imperatriz can get there and stay there is through this concept.

Brazzil—Do many people complain that Imperatriz’s parade is cold or too technical?

Araújo—Of course, but Imperatriz is a school for results. Some people think that we lack soul and enthusiasm. But
we’re programming our work to be number one. First of all, we want to win. And that’s okay because it’s a part of our culture.
In Brazil, if you win, you celebrate; if you come in second, you might as well have been last because everyone grumbles.
It’s not like the United States where you have a champion and a second and third place winner. In Brazil, you win or you’re
the loser. We work to be winners. We work technically and specifically to be champions.

Brazzil—What about taking risks?

Araújo—The only risk we are willing to take is in the synchronization between the floats and the
alas (various wings). You know, to be precise, the
mestre-sala (master of ceremonies) and the
porta-bandeira (flag bearer) must be very well
rehearsed. The bateria must be very well rehearsed, and the
comissão de frente (front commission) must be very well rehearsed.
Synchronizing each of these units, so there is an organic unity, a natural flow, is where the risk lies because everything is
subject to human error. Even the floats are maneuvered by hand, which is why, as I’ve mentioned, we drill into every member’s
head, even those who are pushing the floats, the idea that his work is absolutely fundamental. If each member embraces and
conveys this concept, this idea of taking pride in the little things they contribute, we’ll get where we want to be. I don’t believe
that other groups have the same concept. But this is the secret of Imperatriz Leopoldinense; this mind-set has resulted in and
been confirmed by our success.

Brazzil—Can you explain the concept of Carnaval as Opera?

Araújo—This is an expression coined by Joãozinho Trinta, who arguing that people go for luxury, conceived
Carnaval, with its themes, music, interpreters, choreography, costumes, scenery, props, and division into acts, as an opera moving
down the street. In the case of Imperatriz, we have thirty-two alas divided into six sections, each complementing a specific float
and representing one act. When everything comes together, visually, musically, and symbolically, the similarities are
unmistakable.

Brazzil—What prompted Fernando Pamplona, Joãozinho Trinta, Arlindo Rodrigues, and Rosa Magalhães to
change Carnaval from a musical into a visual performance?

Araújo—What motivated the change in Carnaval’s visual dimension was a change in the schools’
membership—their sponsors and fans. Originally, samba was seen as something from the
favelas, from Afro-Brazilian religion, from black
people and gangsters. Then the middle and upper classes, sensing something exotic, started coming to the samba schools,
which caused the schools and Carnaval, in turn, to change. All of these parade designers you just mentioned, these
carnavalescos, used to work together in the 1960’s in Salgueiro, but after a while each went his own way. Joãozinho went to Beija-Flor
in the seventies and he started his visual revolution. Then Arlindo Rodrigues came to Imperatriz where he made a
sensation with his ideas. But samba, no longer for the poor people from the
favelas, became a big production-consumption
business that involved the media and people from every level of society, all classes.

Brazzil—What does a production of that size cost?

Araújo—Usually, we budget at around one million dollars, but if the organization brings in more money, if we are
profitable in one of our ventures, we spend everything. We may budget for two million dollars, but make four that year, so we
spend it all. We want to do the best that we can.

Brazzil—It’s been rumored that the money Imperatriz uses to finance its parades comes from Luizinho Drummond,
the owner of an illegal, but very popular, lottery called
jogo do bicho.1 Would you comment on that?

Araújo—Luizinho Drummond is from ten years ago. Many people will argue that
jogo do bicho is the only honorable institution in Brazil. But the days when the
bicheiros” (animal bankers) had an army of numbers runners—one on
every corner—are over. The times when “godfathers” financed the parades and controlled the
escolas are gone. Now each school raises its own money. And LIESA, together with Riotur (the city tourism board), coordinates and supervises the
collection of revenue—from recordings, ticket sales, television broadcasting rights, and the many events that we organize—then
distributes the income, with interest, among the schools. Because we have our own source of income, there is no longer a need for
money from gangsters. They are still in the schools because they want to be close to the community and in touch with what’s
going on and because they love the ambience and the atmosphere, but not because they are controlling them.

Brazzil—How will the twelve members who are coming to Los Angeles be able to evoke the illusion, the fantasy, and
the atmosphere of Carnaval?

Araújo—I know it’s a tall order, and we would have preferred to send a least forty members from the
bateria, but the costs of lodging and cartage were prohibitive. Nevertheless, we are sending the strongest members, one musical ambassador
from each wing of the bateria, as well as two of our best dancers, who incidentally, dance on the television variety program
“Domingão do Faustão.” We’ll be performing not only an explosive Carnaval style
batucada but also some funky
marchinhas and, of course, some mean
pagode. I’m also sending extra costumes for the TropiDanza troupe from Los Angeles, who will
augment our group on stage at the Palladium, and also for the stronger players who attend our workshops at the Remo
Percussion Center. We may be few in number, but small vials hold the deadliest poison.

 

Enredo 2002

Goytacazes… Tupy, Or Not Tupy,
in a South American Way

(Marquinho Lessa, Guga, and
Tuninho Professor)

Campos… Terra dos índios
Goytacazes
São ferozes, são vorazes
Vida de antropofagia
Na Europa, a notícia rolava
Homem branco se assustava
Índio come gente… Quem
diria!

Um dia, com fome de amor,
ô, ô, ô, ô
Nosso herói se apaixonou
Um momento de magia
Peri beijou Ceci… Ao som do
Guarani
Um gesto de brasilidade
Com o tempo,
Um novo índio se vestiu de
ousadia
Num ritual de liberdade

(E deu)
E deu Tupy, or not Tupy
Eis a visão do artista
Nessa nação tupiniquim
Índio virou um anarquista

(Qual é?)
Macunaíma com Zé Pereira
É índio, é negro, é imperador
Mais tarde, essa mistura brasileira
A Tropicália originou
Tem Iracema em Ipanema,
alegria geral
Eu sou também Carmen Miranda
No meu Carnaval

(Hoje o couro vai comer)
Hoje o couro vai comer
Auê, Imperatriz, auê, auê
Nossa tribo canta meu país
Pra valer

(Em Campos)

Goytacazes… Tupy, or Not Tupy, 2
In a South American Way!Campos… Land of the Goytacazes
Indians
They are wild, they are voracious
A life of cannibals
They knew about it in Europe
The white man got scared
Who’d ever say that Indians ate
people!

One day hungry for love
ô, ô, ô, ô
Our hero fell in love
At a magic moment
Peri kissed Ceci 3… to the sound of
O Guarani
4
A Brazilian gesture
In time,
The new Indian dressed himself up
with courage
As in a ritual of freedom

(And so)
It was Tupy or not Tupy
Here’s the way the artist sees it
In this Tupiniquim nation 5
The Indians became anarchists

(What’s up?)
Macunaíma 6 with Zé Pereira
7
It’s Indian, it’s black, it’s the emperor
Later, this Brazilian mixture
Generated Tropicália
There’s Iracema in Ipanema,
complete joy 8
I’m Carmen Miranda too
In my Carnaval

(Today it’s really going to happen)
Today it’s really going to happen
Auê, Imperatriz, auê, auê
Our tribe sings our country
For real

(In Campos)

1. Jogo do bicho is an illegal lottery in which different animals are assigned individual numerical values.

2. Goytacazes is an Indian tribe that used to live in Northern Rio de Janeiro state, where the city of Campos is today. Tupy is an Indian nation that was comprised of many tribes. Tupy or not Tupy is a pun on Shakespeare’s “To be, or not to
be.” The pun, created by Oswald de Andrade in his 1928
Manifesto Antropófago (Cannibalist Manifesto), juxtaposes foreign
and national cultural elements.

3. Peri and Ceci are characters from the novel
O Guarani by José de Alencar, the patriarch of Brazilian literature
(1829-1877).

4. O Guarani, the opera composed by Carlos Gomes (1836-1896), is based on

José de Alencar’s novel by the same name.

5. Tupiniquim is an Indian nation.

6. Macunaíma is the central character of the experimental prose “rhapsody”
Macunaíma (1928) by Mário de Andrade
(1893-1945), one of the principal organizers of the Semana de Arte Moderna. The piece can be read as a parody of Alencar’s
novels O Guarani (1857) and Iracema (1865). The film
Macunaíma by Joaquim de Andrade, which is based on the same text, is
regarded as an important statement in tropicalist cinema.

7. Zé Pereira was one of the first Carnaval groups to appear in Rio.

8. Iracema is the female protagonist of José de Alencar’s novel by the same name.

Web Sites of Interest:

Brazilian Nites Productions
http://www.braziliannites.com

Official Site—Imperatriz Leopoldinense
http://www.imperatrizleopoldinense.com.br

Empress of Carnival
http://www.empressofcarnival.com

Brazilian Literature
http://www.cce.ufsc.br/~nupill/literatura/abertura.html

Study of Macunaíma
http://www.angelfire.com/mn/macunaima

* Many thanks to Sonia Santos of Yellow Green Productions for her invaluable technical support.

Bruce Gilman, music editor for
Brazzil magazine, received his Masters degree in music from California Institute of the
Arts. He is the recipient of three government grants that have allowed him to research traditional music in China, India, and
Brazil. His articles on Brazilian music have been translated and published in Spanish, German, Serbian, and Portuguese. You
can reach him through his e-mail:

cuica@interworld.net


Send
your

comments to
Brazzil

 

  • Show Comments (0)

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

comment *

  • name *

  • email *

  • website *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

Ads

You May Also Like

Rio's National Museum after the fire that burned it all - Tânia Rêgo/ABr

Brazil Teaches that Museums Can Be Quite Ephemeral

On September 2, the National Museum of Brazil lit up Rio de Janeiro’s night ...

It seems the future never arrives in Brazil What Lies Ahead in Brazil? Brazil Has No Exemplary Past or Present. But What Lies Ahead for the Country? Europeans, US, developed country, developing country. Bolsonaro, future B. Michael Rubin For years, experts have debated what separates a developing country from a developed one. The GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of a country is one simple way to measure its economic development. Another way to measure a country's progress is the extent of public education, e.g. how many citizens complete high school. A country's health may be measured by the effectiveness of its healthcare system, for example, life expectancy and infant mortality. With these measurement tools, it's easier to gauge the difference between a country like Brazil and one like the U.S. What's not easy to gauge is how these two countries developed so differently when they were both "discovered" at the same time. In 1492 and 1500 respectively, the U.S. and Brazil fell under the spell of white Europeans for the first time. While the British and Portuguese had the same modus operandi, namely, to exploit their discoveries for whatever they had to offer, not to mention extinguishing the native Americans already living there if they got in the way, the end result turned out significantly different in the U.S. than in Brazil. There are several theories on how/why the U.S. developed at a faster pace than Brazil. The theories originate via contrasting perspectives – from psychology to economics to geography. One of the most popular theories suggests the divergence between the two countries is linked to politics, i.e. the U.S. established a democratic government in 1776, while Brazil's democracy it could be said began only in earnest in the 1980s. This theory states that the Portuguese monarchy, as well as the 19th and 20th century oligarchies that followed it, had no motivation to invest in industrial development or education of the masses. Rather, Brazil was prized for its cheap and plentiful labor to mine the rich soil of its vast land. There is another theory based on collective psychology that says the first U.S. colonizers from England were workaholic Puritans, who avoided dancing and music in place of work and religious devotion. They labored six days a week then spent all of Sunday in church. Meanwhile, the white settlers in Brazil were unambitious criminals who had been freed from prison in Portugal in exchange for settling in Brazil. The Marxist interpretation of why Brazil lags behind the U.S. was best summarized by Eduardo Galeano, the Uruguayan writer, in 1970. Galeano said five hundred years ago the U.S. had the good fortune of bad fortune. What he meant was the natural riches of Brazil – gold, silver, and diamonds – made it ripe for exploitation by western Europe. Whereas in the U.S., lacking such riches, the thirteen colonies were economically insignificant to the British. Instead, U.S. industrialization had official encouragement from England, resulting in early diversification of its exports and rapid development of manufacturing. II Leaving this debate to the historians, let us turn our focus to the future. According to global projections by several economic strategists, what lies ahead for Brazil, the U.S., and the rest of the world is startling. Projections forecast that based on GDP growth, in 2050 the world's largest economy will be China, not the U.S. In third place will be India, and in fourth – Brazil. With the ascendency of three-fourths of the BRIC countries over the next decades, it will be important to reevaluate the terms developed and developing. In thirty years, it may no longer be necessary to accept the label characterized by Nelson Rodrigues's famous phrase "complexo de vira-lata," for Brazil's national inferiority complex. For Brazilians, this future scenario presents glistening hope. A country with stronger economic power would mean the government has greater wealth to expend on infrastructure, crime control, education, healthcare, etc. What many Brazilians are not cognizant of are the pitfalls of economic prosperity. While Brazilians today may be envious of their wealthier northern neighbors, there are some aspects of a developed country's profile that are not worth envying. For example, the U.S. today far exceeds Brazil in the number of suicides, prescription drug overdoses, and mass shootings. GDP growth and economic projections depend on multiple variables, chief among them the global economic situation and worldwide political stability. A war in the Middle East, for example, can affect oil production and have global ramifications. Political stability within a country is also essential to its economic health. Elected presidents play a crucial role in a country's progress, especially as presidents may differ radically in their worldview. The political paths of the U.S. and Brazil are parallel today. In both countries, we've seen a left-wing regime (Obama/PT) followed by a far-right populist one (Trump/Bolsonaro), surprising many outside observers, and in the U.S. contradicting every political pollster, all of whom predicted a Trump loss to Hillary Clinton in 2016. In Brazil, although Bolsonaro was elected by a clear majority, his triumph has created a powerful emotional polarization in the country similar to what is happening in the U.S. Families, friends, and colleagues have split in a love/hate relationship toward the current presidents in the U.S. and Brazil, leaving broken friendships and family ties. Both presidents face enormous challenges to keep their campaign promises. In Brazil, a sluggish economy just recovering from a recession shows no signs of robust GDP growth for at least the next two years. High unemployment continues to devastate the consumer confidence index in Brazil, and Bolsonaro is suffering under his campaign boasts that his Economy Minister, Paulo Guedes, has all the answers to fix Brazil's slump. Additionally, there is no end to the destruction caused by corruption in Brazil. Some experts believe corruption to be the main reason why Brazil has one of the world's largest wealth inequality gaps. Political corruption robs government coffers of desperately needed funds for education and infrastructure, in addition to creating an atmosphere that encourages everyday citizens to underreport income and engage in the shadow economy, thereby sidestepping tax collectors and regulators. "Why should I be honest about reporting my income when nobody else is? The politicians are only going to steal the tax money anyway," one Brazilian doctor told me. While Bolsonaro has promised a housecleaning of corrupt officials, this is a cry Brazilians have heard from every previous administration. In only the first half-year of his presidency, he has made several missteps, such as nominating one of his sons to be the new ambassador to the U.S., despite the congressman's lack of diplomatic credentials. A June poll found that 51 percent of Brazilians now lack confidence in Bolsonaro's leadership. Just this week, Brazil issued regulations that open a fast-track to deport foreigners who are dangerous or have violated the constitution. The rules published on July 26 by Justice Minister Sérgio Moro define a dangerous person as anyone associated with terrorism or organized crime, in addition to football fans with a violent history. Journalists noted that this new regulation had coincidental timing for an American journalist who has come under fire from Moro for publishing private communications of Moro's. Nevertheless, despite overselling his leadership skills, Bolsonaro has made some economic progress. With the help of congressional leader Rodrigo Maia, a bill is moving forward in congress for the restructuring of Brazil's generous pension system. Most Brazilians recognize the long-term value of such a change, which can save the government billions of dollars over the next decade. At merely the possibility of pension reform, outside investors have responded positively, and the São Paulo stock exchange has performed brilliantly, reaching an all-time high earlier this month. In efforts to boost the economy, Bolsonaro and Paulo Guedes have taken the short-term approach advocated by the Chicago school of economics championed by Milton Friedman, who claimed the key to boosting a slugging economy was to cut government spending. Unfortunately many economists, such as Nobel Prize winner Paul Krugman, disagree with this approach. They believe the most effective way to revive a slow economy is exactly the opposite, to spend more money not less. They say the government should be investing money in education and infrastructure projects, which can help put people back to work. Bolsonaro/Guedes have also talked about reducing business bureaucracy and revising the absurdly complex Brazilian tax system, which inhibits foreign and domestic business investment. It remains to be seen whether Bolsonaro has the political acumen to tackle this Godzilla-sized issue. Should Bolsonaro find a way to reform the tax system, the pension system, and curb the most egregious villains of political bribery and kickbacks – a tall order – his efforts could indeed show strong economic results in time for the next election in 2022. Meanwhile, some prominent leaders have already lost faith in Bolsonaro's efforts. The veteran of political/economic affairs, Joaquim Levy, has parted company with the president after being appointed head of the government's powerful development bank, BNDES. Levy and Bolsonaro butted heads over an appointment Levy made of a former employee of Lula's. When neither man refused to back down, Levy resigned his position at BNDES. Many observers believe Bolsonaro's biggest misstep has been his short-term approach to fixing the economy by loosening the laws protecting the Amazon rainforest. He and Guedes believe that by opening up more of the Amazon to logging, mining, and farming, we will see immediate economic stimulation. On July 28, the lead article of The New York Times detailed the vastly increased deforestation in the Amazon taking place under Bolsonaro's leadership. Environmental experts argue that the economic benefits of increased logging and mining in the Amazon are microscopic compared to the long-term damage to the environment. After pressure from European leaders at the recent G-20 meeting to do more to protect the world's largest rainforest, Bolsonaro echoed a patriotic response demanding that no one has the right to an opinion about the Amazon except Brazilians. In retaliation to worldwide criticism, Bolsonaro threatened to follow Trump's example and pull out of the Paris climate accord; however, Bolsonaro was persuaded by cooler heads to retract his threat. To prove who was in control of Brazil's Amazon region, he appointed a federal police officer with strong ties to agribusiness as head of FUNAI, the country's indigenous agency. In a further insult to the world's environmental leaders, not to mention common sense, Paulo Guedes held a news conference on July 25 in Manaus, the largest city in the rainforest, where he declared that since the Amazon forest is known for being the "lungs" of the world, Brazil should charge other countries for all the oxygen the forest produces. Bolsonaro/Guedes also have promised to finish paving BR-319, a controversial highway that cuts through the Amazon forest, linking Manaus to the state of Rondônia and the rest of the country. Inaugurated in 1976, BR-319 was abandoned by federal governments in the 1980s and again in the 1990s as far too costly and risky. Environmentalists believe the highway's completion will seal a death knoll on many indigenous populations by vastly facilitating the growth of the logging and mining industries. Several dozen heavily armed miners dressed in military fatigues invaded a Wajãpi village recently in the state of Amapá near the border of French Guiana and fatally stabbed one of the community's leaders. While Brazil's environmental protection policies are desperately lacking these days, not all the news here was bad. On the opening day of the 2019 Pan America Games in Lima, Peru, Brazilian Luisa Baptista, swam, biked, and ran her way to the gold medal in the women's triathlon. The silver medal went to Vittoria Lopes, another Brazilian. B. Michael Rubin is an American writer living in Brazil.

Brazil Has No Exemplary Past or Present. But What Lies Ahead for the Country?

For years, experts have debated what separates a developing country from a developed one. ...

Brazilian Music as an Antidote to Bush’s Depression and 9/11

Even the most cursory listen to Tom Lellis will establish a few key identifying ...

Chico Lives

  For long considered a patrimony of Brazilian music, Francisco Buarque de Hollanda, better ...

Candid Portrait

The editors of The Brazil Reader have chosen well. Articles, which may at first ...

Brazilian Eliane Elias Recalls the Aura of Bill Evans

Comprehensive study of the classical piano repertoire, a strong attraction to the theories behind ...

Little Secret Is Brazil’s Choice for the Oscar. Politics Discarded Aquarius

Film critics in Brazil say that the critically acclaimed film Aquarius with actress Sônia ...

José de Alencar

The story starts off with the bright plumage of an epic poem (or the ...