It’s Time Brazil Finds and Uses Its Peat

Peat is usually known as the fuel used for whisky distillation in Scotland, but it has much more usefulness. Large peat deposits occur in the cold countries of Northern Europe, but there are also deposits in warm countries like Brazil.

Peat is the accumulation of partially decomposed plant material, originated in low oxygen aqueous environment, usually in large marshy bogs.

Plant material accumulated at the bottom of these bogs gradually transforms into peat under appropriate conditions. If inorganic sedimentary deposits cover peat subsequently, the pressure from these overlying materials causes the expulsion of water and organic gases.

The percentage of carbon then increases and begins the transformation from peat to coal, in a very slow process. As peat contains around 60% carbon and 30% oxygen, is used as a low-grade fuel in some countries.

Other uses include oil and heavy metals absorption, agriculture, land reclaiming, gardening and medical applications.

In Brazil, some industries used peat as fuel in the 1930’s. During the World War II, the locomotives of the railroad between São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro burned peat in their furnaces. After the conflict, the coal supply was re-established and the peat use stopped for 40 years in Brazil.

During the oil crisis in the 1970’s, peat studies considered its energetic use. Now, peat is used in Brazil mainly for agricultural purposes, land reclaiming and energy generation. Some researchers are also starting to study its medical uses.

Peat in Brazil – The History

In 1891, peat like material found in Maraú, state of Bahia, led British entrepreneurs to produce candles and kerosene during a short time from that substance known as “marauito”.

According to Fróes de Abreu (1973), that material was not a true peat, but a sapropelite, formed from alga deposition.

In 1930, the grass burning in a farm in Resende, state of Rio de Janeiro, ignited a dark material removed from drainage channels. It was peat.

Then, the locomotives of a sugar plant of Porto Real successfully used peat as fuel and wood was soon replaced by peat in all the plant.

A textile industry in Taubaté, state of São Paulo, also used peat in the 1930’s. Although considered interesting by some researchers, the alternate fuel did not attract so much attention before the World War II.

In the period 1942-1945, there was a serious lack of imported coal due to the war and about 20,000 tons of peat were used in the locomotives of the EFCB – Estrada de Ferro Central do Brasil, linking the towns of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.

The fuel peat was extracted in some deposits along the Paraíba do Sul River, between the towns of Jacareí and Taubaté. The heat value of the peat varied from 3,200 to more than 5,000 Kcal/kg and about 76% of the total was between 3,500 and 4,500 Kcal/kg.

The peak of the consumption was in 1943, with 10,000 tons. After the war, the use of peat was abandoned and the only recorded studies in the period 1945-1975 are those of Knecht (1955/58) and Knecht (1982). He studied some peat deposits between 1955 and 1974 and wrote about their potential and economic applications.

Alternate Fuel Rush

In the oil crisis of the 1970’s, many alternate fuel researches took place in Brazil due to the problem with foreign oil supply.

One of these initiatives was the peat project of the CESP – Companhia Energética de São Paulo, a state owned energetic company at that time.

In 1978, the Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnológicas do Estado de São Paulo S.A. – IPT, a state research institution, undertook the execution of the project. The target was the valley of the Paraíba do Sul River, in the Eastern region of the state, where peat was formerly extracted.

The most representative samples from 13 mapped peat deposits were submitted to physical and chemical analyses and a first pyrolysis test. Preliminary data of peat resources indicated about 40 million tons of dried peat in the region (Shimada & Carvalho 1980).

Peat deposits are mainly associated to flood plains in Brazil with some differences if compared, for example, to the deposits of northern Europe, mainly associated to large lakes of glacial origin.

Brazilian peat deposits are usually smaller in area and thicker, with a higher ash content due to the more pronounced mineral contribution during the sedimentation.

In 1979, the CPRM – Companhia de Pesquisa de Recursos Minerais, a federal mineral exploration company, started to explore for peat in several regions in the country.

A preliminary CPRM’s geological evaluation indicated a potential of 25 billion tons of in situ peat in Brazil. This fact justified further works in more detailed scales.

The Irish peat authority Bord na Móna has also carried out preliminary surveys in Brazil in the early 1980’s, but no production has been developed.

The CESP’s peat project was the restart of the peat studies and the government of São Paulo decided to prospect for new peat deposits in all the state, being the task trusted again to IPT’s geologists in 1980.

In this work, Shimada et al. (1981) identified new peat deposits in the valleys of the Mogi Guaçu, Jacaré-Pepira, Ribeira de Iguape and Itapetininga rivers. They also found peat in a meteoritic crater close to the town of São Paulo.

These studies have shown a potential of 488 million tons of in situ peat in the state, that represents about 146 million of oil barrels (Motta et al. 1982).

The IPT’s staff had the help of a Finnish specialist from the Geological Survey of Finland, Eino Lappalainen, Ph.D., who brought his knowledge of many years in peat studies.

The Brazilian researchers then learnt more about the wide range of peat uses and also about the appropriate techniques and equipment for its exploration.

A selected peat deposit – Eugênio de Melo, in São José dos Campos – was detailedly evaluated and bulk sampled for IPT’s further researches in energetic use, including combustion and gasification tests.

In the 32th Brazilian Geological Congress, in 1982, many papers presented the results of peat studies in São Paulo and in the Northeast of Brazil.

In 1985, the CESP started the peat harvesting in the Eugênio de Melo deposit for energetic purposes. However, despite the interest of industry and many researchers, the attenuation of the oil crisis in the following years caused the gradual vanishing of the research fundings and the peat almost fell in forgetfulness for some years.

The control of peat harvesting in Eugênio de Melo has then changed to Eucatex, a private company, and its use to agricultural purposes.

Modern Peat Studies in Brazil

In the early 1990’s, peat studies restarted in Brazil and changed their focus to aspects other than the energetic use. Garcia (1994, 2004) made palynological studies of the peat deposits in the Paraíba do Sul valley, relating them to the climatic changes in the Holocene.

The same author also wrote in Garcia (1996) a synthesis of the available knowledge about the potential and application of peat. Franchi (2000) and Franchi et al. (2003) presented the results of studies about peat use in reclaiming of land degraded by sand mining.

Moraes (2001) presented the geological knowledge about peat deposits in the states of Alagoas, Paraíba e Rio Grande do Norte, as a result of the CPRM’s studies. Oliveira (2001) wrote about detailed CPRM’s studies of peat deposits in São José dos Campos.

Updated information about geology, reserves, production and uses of peat in Brazil were presented by Franchi et al. (2004) in the 12th International Peat Congress in Finland.

According to these authors, there are two main peat production units with an annual output of 145,000 tons and 80% is intended for agricultural purposes.

The remaining 20% are divided into replanting of land areas and energy generation. The measured reserves are of 208.83 million m³ of in situ peat and the indicated and the inferred ones give an additional of 881.69 million m³.

Presently, there are multinational companies selling peat for oil and heavy metal absorption in Brazil, but the most of this peat is still imported from Canada as it must be pre-treated by specific technologies and also because there is a lack of pure peat similar to the ones from the Northern Hemisphere deposits, which are well suited for such applications. But there is still a lack of researches in this field with the local peat.

In the present year, the Finnish peat researcher Harry Uosukainen, Ph.D., ministered in São Paulo a short course about medical uses of peat for a group of local researchers.

This type of use is well known and has a secular development in European countries like Finland and Germany and now begins to attract the attention of researchers in Brazil.

Conclusions

Considering the geological timescale, peat is a material formed only in a very recent “blink” in the earth’s history and has long been treated with disregard by the most of the “hard rock” geoscientists and even its significant energetic use is limited to few countries with availability of large and pure deposits, with very low ash contents.

The increasing environmental worries have changed the scene and peat is now currently used for management of accidental oil spills and for restoration in areas contaminated by organic and inorganic toxins. Brazilian peat was not yet tested for this use and researches are demanded in this domain.

In agriculture, peat appears as an important mean of organic matter restitution of soils. The medical uses of peat are important in some countries and researches on this theme begins in Brazil, but it is important to remark that the local peat probably has different chemical and physical properties if compared to those used in Europe and much more researches are needed to make safe and possible similar uses.

Concerning the peat reserves in Brazil, many deposits were accidentally found during exploration for other materials like sand, gravel and clay and there is still a lack of specific exploration projects for peat.

These works could substantially increase the country’s reserves. It’s time to do the work and this task belongs to the “soft rock” geoscientists.

For More Information:

Franchi, J. G. Aplicação de turfa na recuperação de solos degradados pela mineração de areia. Dissertação de Mestrado, Escola Politécnica, Depto. de Engenharia de Minas, Universidade de São Paulo, 2000, 105 p.

Franchi, J. G.; Sigilo, J. B.; Lima, J. R. B. de. Turfa utilizada na recuperação de áreas mineradas: metodologia para avaliação laboratorial. Revista Brasileira de Geociências, 2003, São Paulo, 33(3): 255-262.

Franchi, J.G., Motta, J. F. M., Uosukainen, H., Sígolo, J. B. Peat in Brazil: geology, reserves, production and use. In: International Peat Congress, 12., 2004, Tampere. Proceedings… Saarijärvi, IPS, 2004. p. 627-632.

Fróes de Abreu, S. de. Combustíveis Fósseis. Recursos Minerais do Brasil, 2nd Ed., 1973, São Paulo, Edgard Blücher, 2:321-337.

Garcia, M. J. Palinologia de turfeiras do médio vale do Paraíba do Sul, Estado de São Paulo. Tese de Doutoramento, Instituto de Geociências – Universidade de São Paulo, 1994, 3 v.

Garcia, M. J. Potencialidade e aplicação de turfas. Revista da Universidade de Guarulhos, 1996, São Paulo, ano 1, 1:16-30.

Garcia, M. J.; de Oliveira, P. E.; Siqueira, E.; Fernandes, R. S. A Holocene vegetational and climatic record from the Atlantic Rainforest Belt of coastal state of São Paulo, SE Brazil. Review of Paleobotany and Palynology, 2004, v. 131: 181-199.

Knecht, T. Notícia sobre turfa no Estado de São Paulo e sua aplicação econômica. O IGG – Revista do Instituto Geográfico e Geológico, 1955/58, São Paulo, 13:61-64.

Knecht, T. Estudo preliminar sobre as ocorrências de turfa no vale do Ribeira de Iguape, SP. Revista do Instituto Geológico, 1982, São Paulo, 3(1):5-14.

Moraes, J. F. S. de. Turfa nos Estados de Alagoas, Paraíba e Rio Grande do Norte. Recife: CPRM, 2001 (Informe de Recursos Minerais, Série Oportunidades Minerais – Exame Atualizado de Projeto, 14).

Motta, J. F. M.; Nakano, S.; Shimada, H.; Nucci, O.; Milko, P. E.; Coelho, J.C. Turfa: a experiência do IPT nos campos geológico e tecnológico. In: Congresso Brasileiro de Geologia, 32, Salvador, Anais…, SBG, 1982, 5:2238-2251.

Oliveira, C. A. de. Turfa de São José dos Campos: Estado de São Paulo. São Paulo: CPRM, 2001 (Informe de Recursos Minerais, Série Oportunidades Minerais – Exame Atualizado de Projeto, 24).

Shimada, H. & Carvalho, W. S. de. Perspectivas de utilização da turfa para fins energéticos no Estado de São Paulo. In: Seminário: Contribuição da geologia na busca e aproveitamento de fontes energéticas convencionais ou não, São Paulo, Boletim 1 – Comunicações, SBG, 1980, p.33-64.

Shimada, H.; Motta, J. F. M.; Cabral Jr., M.; Nakano, S. Prospecção de turfa no Estado de São Paulo. In: Simpósio Regional de Geologia, 3, Curitiba, Atas…, SBG, 1981, 3:259-273.

Hélio Shimada, Ph.D., is geologist and researcher at the Instituto Geológico, in São Paulo. You can e-mail him at: hshimada@igeologico.sp.gov.br

Tags:

  • Show Comments (0)

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

comment *

  • name *

  • email *

  • website *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

Ads

You May Also Like

Political and Economic Instability Are History, New Brazil President Tells Chinese

Brazil’s new president Michel Temer received strong support from Beijing when Chinese president Xi ...

Former Brazilian president Dilma Rousseff

Brazil’s Dilma Rousseff: Martyr, President, Martyr

An exclusive interview by Democracy Now: Dilma Rousseff on Her Ouster, Brazil’s Political Crisis & ...

It seems the future never arrives in Brazil What Lies Ahead in Brazil? Brazil Has No Exemplary Past or Present. But What Lies Ahead for the Country? Europeans, US, developed country, developing country. Bolsonaro, future B. Michael Rubin For years, experts have debated what separates a developing country from a developed one. The GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of a country is one simple way to measure its economic development. Another way to measure a country's progress is the extent of public education, e.g. how many citizens complete high school. A country's health may be measured by the effectiveness of its healthcare system, for example, life expectancy and infant mortality. With these measurement tools, it's easier to gauge the difference between a country like Brazil and one like the U.S. What's not easy to gauge is how these two countries developed so differently when they were both "discovered" at the same time. In 1492 and 1500 respectively, the U.S. and Brazil fell under the spell of white Europeans for the first time. While the British and Portuguese had the same modus operandi, namely, to exploit their discoveries for whatever they had to offer, not to mention extinguishing the native Americans already living there if they got in the way, the end result turned out significantly different in the U.S. than in Brazil. There are several theories on how/why the U.S. developed at a faster pace than Brazil. The theories originate via contrasting perspectives – from psychology to economics to geography. One of the most popular theories suggests the divergence between the two countries is linked to politics, i.e. the U.S. established a democratic government in 1776, while Brazil's democracy it could be said began only in earnest in the 1980s. This theory states that the Portuguese monarchy, as well as the 19th and 20th century oligarchies that followed it, had no motivation to invest in industrial development or education of the masses. Rather, Brazil was prized for its cheap and plentiful labor to mine the rich soil of its vast land. There is another theory based on collective psychology that says the first U.S. colonizers from England were workaholic Puritans, who avoided dancing and music in place of work and religious devotion. They labored six days a week then spent all of Sunday in church. Meanwhile, the white settlers in Brazil were unambitious criminals who had been freed from prison in Portugal in exchange for settling in Brazil. The Marxist interpretation of why Brazil lags behind the U.S. was best summarized by Eduardo Galeano, the Uruguayan writer, in 1970. Galeano said five hundred years ago the U.S. had the good fortune of bad fortune. What he meant was the natural riches of Brazil – gold, silver, and diamonds – made it ripe for exploitation by western Europe. Whereas in the U.S., lacking such riches, the thirteen colonies were economically insignificant to the British. Instead, U.S. industrialization had official encouragement from England, resulting in early diversification of its exports and rapid development of manufacturing. II Leaving this debate to the historians, let us turn our focus to the future. According to global projections by several economic strategists, what lies ahead for Brazil, the U.S., and the rest of the world is startling. Projections forecast that based on GDP growth, in 2050 the world's largest economy will be China, not the U.S. In third place will be India, and in fourth – Brazil. With the ascendency of three-fourths of the BRIC countries over the next decades, it will be important to reevaluate the terms developed and developing. In thirty years, it may no longer be necessary to accept the label characterized by Nelson Rodrigues's famous phrase "complexo de vira-lata," for Brazil's national inferiority complex. For Brazilians, this future scenario presents glistening hope. A country with stronger economic power would mean the government has greater wealth to expend on infrastructure, crime control, education, healthcare, etc. What many Brazilians are not cognizant of are the pitfalls of economic prosperity. While Brazilians today may be envious of their wealthier northern neighbors, there are some aspects of a developed country's profile that are not worth envying. For example, the U.S. today far exceeds Brazil in the number of suicides, prescription drug overdoses, and mass shootings. GDP growth and economic projections depend on multiple variables, chief among them the global economic situation and worldwide political stability. A war in the Middle East, for example, can affect oil production and have global ramifications. Political stability within a country is also essential to its economic health. Elected presidents play a crucial role in a country's progress, especially as presidents may differ radically in their worldview. The political paths of the U.S. and Brazil are parallel today. In both countries, we've seen a left-wing regime (Obama/PT) followed by a far-right populist one (Trump/Bolsonaro), surprising many outside observers, and in the U.S. contradicting every political pollster, all of whom predicted a Trump loss to Hillary Clinton in 2016. In Brazil, although Bolsonaro was elected by a clear majority, his triumph has created a powerful emotional polarization in the country similar to what is happening in the U.S. Families, friends, and colleagues have split in a love/hate relationship toward the current presidents in the U.S. and Brazil, leaving broken friendships and family ties. Both presidents face enormous challenges to keep their campaign promises. In Brazil, a sluggish economy just recovering from a recession shows no signs of robust GDP growth for at least the next two years. High unemployment continues to devastate the consumer confidence index in Brazil, and Bolsonaro is suffering under his campaign boasts that his Economy Minister, Paulo Guedes, has all the answers to fix Brazil's slump. Additionally, there is no end to the destruction caused by corruption in Brazil. Some experts believe corruption to be the main reason why Brazil has one of the world's largest wealth inequality gaps. Political corruption robs government coffers of desperately needed funds for education and infrastructure, in addition to creating an atmosphere that encourages everyday citizens to underreport income and engage in the shadow economy, thereby sidestepping tax collectors and regulators. "Why should I be honest about reporting my income when nobody else is? The politicians are only going to steal the tax money anyway," one Brazilian doctor told me. While Bolsonaro has promised a housecleaning of corrupt officials, this is a cry Brazilians have heard from every previous administration. In only the first half-year of his presidency, he has made several missteps, such as nominating one of his sons to be the new ambassador to the U.S., despite the congressman's lack of diplomatic credentials. A June poll found that 51 percent of Brazilians now lack confidence in Bolsonaro's leadership. Just this week, Brazil issued regulations that open a fast-track to deport foreigners who are dangerous or have violated the constitution. The rules published on July 26 by Justice Minister Sérgio Moro define a dangerous person as anyone associated with terrorism or organized crime, in addition to football fans with a violent history. Journalists noted that this new regulation had coincidental timing for an American journalist who has come under fire from Moro for publishing private communications of Moro's. Nevertheless, despite overselling his leadership skills, Bolsonaro has made some economic progress. With the help of congressional leader Rodrigo Maia, a bill is moving forward in congress for the restructuring of Brazil's generous pension system. Most Brazilians recognize the long-term value of such a change, which can save the government billions of dollars over the next decade. At merely the possibility of pension reform, outside investors have responded positively, and the São Paulo stock exchange has performed brilliantly, reaching an all-time high earlier this month. In efforts to boost the economy, Bolsonaro and Paulo Guedes have taken the short-term approach advocated by the Chicago school of economics championed by Milton Friedman, who claimed the key to boosting a slugging economy was to cut government spending. Unfortunately many economists, such as Nobel Prize winner Paul Krugman, disagree with this approach. They believe the most effective way to revive a slow economy is exactly the opposite, to spend more money not less. They say the government should be investing money in education and infrastructure projects, which can help put people back to work. Bolsonaro/Guedes have also talked about reducing business bureaucracy and revising the absurdly complex Brazilian tax system, which inhibits foreign and domestic business investment. It remains to be seen whether Bolsonaro has the political acumen to tackle this Godzilla-sized issue. Should Bolsonaro find a way to reform the tax system, the pension system, and curb the most egregious villains of political bribery and kickbacks – a tall order – his efforts could indeed show strong economic results in time for the next election in 2022. Meanwhile, some prominent leaders have already lost faith in Bolsonaro's efforts. The veteran of political/economic affairs, Joaquim Levy, has parted company with the president after being appointed head of the government's powerful development bank, BNDES. Levy and Bolsonaro butted heads over an appointment Levy made of a former employee of Lula's. When neither man refused to back down, Levy resigned his position at BNDES. Many observers believe Bolsonaro's biggest misstep has been his short-term approach to fixing the economy by loosening the laws protecting the Amazon rainforest. He and Guedes believe that by opening up more of the Amazon to logging, mining, and farming, we will see immediate economic stimulation. On July 28, the lead article of The New York Times detailed the vastly increased deforestation in the Amazon taking place under Bolsonaro's leadership. Environmental experts argue that the economic benefits of increased logging and mining in the Amazon are microscopic compared to the long-term damage to the environment. After pressure from European leaders at the recent G-20 meeting to do more to protect the world's largest rainforest, Bolsonaro echoed a patriotic response demanding that no one has the right to an opinion about the Amazon except Brazilians. In retaliation to worldwide criticism, Bolsonaro threatened to follow Trump's example and pull out of the Paris climate accord; however, Bolsonaro was persuaded by cooler heads to retract his threat. To prove who was in control of Brazil's Amazon region, he appointed a federal police officer with strong ties to agribusiness as head of FUNAI, the country's indigenous agency. In a further insult to the world's environmental leaders, not to mention common sense, Paulo Guedes held a news conference on July 25 in Manaus, the largest city in the rainforest, where he declared that since the Amazon forest is known for being the "lungs" of the world, Brazil should charge other countries for all the oxygen the forest produces. Bolsonaro/Guedes also have promised to finish paving BR-319, a controversial highway that cuts through the Amazon forest, linking Manaus to the state of Rondônia and the rest of the country. Inaugurated in 1976, BR-319 was abandoned by federal governments in the 1980s and again in the 1990s as far too costly and risky. Environmentalists believe the highway's completion will seal a death knoll on many indigenous populations by vastly facilitating the growth of the logging and mining industries. Several dozen heavily armed miners dressed in military fatigues invaded a Wajãpi village recently in the state of Amapá near the border of French Guiana and fatally stabbed one of the community's leaders. While Brazil's environmental protection policies are desperately lacking these days, not all the news here was bad. On the opening day of the 2019 Pan America Games in Lima, Peru, Brazilian Luisa Baptista, swam, biked, and ran her way to the gold medal in the women's triathlon. The silver medal went to Vittoria Lopes, another Brazilian. B. Michael Rubin is an American writer living in Brazil.

Brazil Has No Exemplary Past or Present. But What Lies Ahead for the Country?

For years, experts have debated what separates a developing country from a developed one. ...

Brasil Terminal Portuário (BTP) at Alemoa, part of the Santos port complex

Brazil President Celebrates End of Recession. Not So Fast, Say Economists

President Michel Temer posted on his Twitter account celebrating the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) ...

Brazil Believes Privatizing Federal Assets Is the Only Way Out of the Hole

Brazil’s new government has announced a multibillion dollar privatization plan in an attempt to ...

Brazil Sets Itself Up for 20 Years of Lean Cows

As of Tuesday, December 13, Proposed Constitutional Amendment (PEC) 55 – formerly PEC 241 ...

Brazilian airports are being privatized to raise cash

Short of Cash, Brazil Plans a Massive Privatization to Raise US$ 28 Billion

With Brazil’s budget deficit calculated at reaching almost US$ 50 billion, president Michel Temer ...

Street market in São Paulo, Brazil

Elections and Uncertainty About Pension Reform Lower Brazil’s Credit Rating

Ratings agency Standard & Poor’s cut Brazil’s credit rating further below investment grade as ...