Letters Ah, Brazil

Ah, Brazil

I enjoyed browsing News from Brazil‘s WEB page
and reading some of the articles. Brazil is traditionally perceived
within the Russian culture (I am a New Zealander of Russian extraction)
as one of the most attractive, captivating, almost mystical in its
exotic appeal, countries on Earth, a land of sunshine, aliveness,
beauty and opportunity. These days, when a number of my mathematician
friends and colleagues are moving to Brazil for good and I am planning
my first trip there, discovering the WEB version of your magazine came
as a very nice surprise to me. Saúde de
Wellington.Ah, Brazil

I enjoyed browsing News from Brazil‘s WEB page
and reading some of the articles. Brazil is traditionally perceived
within the Russian culture (I am a New Zealander of Russian extraction)
as one of the most attractive, captivating, almost mystical in its
exotic appeal, countries on Earth, a land of sunshine, aliveness,
beauty and opportunity. These days, when a number of my mathematician
friends and colleagues are moving to Brazil for good and I am planning
my first trip there, discovering the WEB version of your magazine came
as a very nice surprise to me. Saúde de

Vladimir Pestov — Wellington, New Zealand

Just skin deep

I’ve been subscribing to News from Brazil
for over two years now and I’m glad to see the growth and the
positive response to this magazine in the US and in Brazil. However, I
have noticed that some articles related to the Brazilian economy (e.g.
“Looking good” by Carlos E. F. Barreto December ’95) or women (“You’ve
come a long way, baby” by Elma Lia Nascimento June ’95) have covered
the topics superficially, reinforcing misconceptions or stereotypes
about Brazil.

Barreto’s article praises president Fernando Henrique Cardoso’s
politics and economic measures without mentioning their negative
effects. Inflation and unemployment are again on the rise and Cardoso’s
privatization program may make of Brazil another satellite of “global
economics” without bringing the social and economic benefits the
Brazilian people so much need. Nascimento’s article mentioned important
facts about women’s health and approached the issue of domestic
violence (also prevalent in the US), but failed to mention gains women
have made in the professional and social arenas as a result of their
organized lutas.

Eu também gostaria de ver mais artigos em Português, pois afinal esta revista é destinada principalmente a brasileiros que
vivem nos Estados Unidos.

Rozemary Sabino — San Francisco, California

Stressing the similarities

I have to agree with Kirsten Weinoldt’s letter in your February issue. The excerpts from Ana Maria Bahiana’s book
America from A to Z (“America the ugly” January ’96) strike me
as being very superficial and destructive. I made my first trip to
Brazil last October and fell in love with it. The most wonderful
surprise was to find out how similar Americans and Brazilian really
are. Forget the externals football versus soccer, disco versus samba,
Anglo-Saxon versus Latin duh, look a little deeper.

Americans and Brazilians have an incredibly strong common thread.
We are members of the New World. As such, we share an outlook on life
that is shared by few countries in the Old World, in my experience. We
believe in the future. We go after life with gusto, but we’re always
ready to lend a hand to our neighbor. We know we’re young and learning,
and we’re always ready to laugh at our mistakes.

It’s a shame that the American education system doesn’t provide
more exposure to the history and culture of our southern neighbors.
Don’t hold your breath on that one. But those of us who do dare to
cross the equator should rejoice in our similarities not nit-pick at
our superficial differences.

Raymond J. Mataloni, Jr. — rmata@erols.com

That’s the way it is

I’ve really enjoyed reading the article “America the ugly”. I think Ana Maria Bahiana illustrated very well some of the
many stereotypes that US citizens have when it comes to Brazil and South America. I am very interested in purchasing the book.

Everton Rebelo Mendes — Troy, Michigan

Beyond Brazil 101

As a recent expatriate, my Brazilian residency is
enhanced by reading your wonderful magazine. I have recently learned
about a Federal Government program that is called the War College
Program in which about 100 professionals with high IQ are invited for a
one year enrollment. (From what I have learned the title War College is
not an accurate description.) A lady friend has just completed the
program and she was very enthusiastic about what she learned about
Brazil. The enrollees travel throughout Brazil and the program allows
for the group to act as a “think tank” for the betterment of the
country. That’s a program that probably your readers would be
interested in.

Milton Volan — Rio, Brazil

Have it, and enjoy

I’ve just read your article on Carnaval (“Rio’s Follies” February ’96) and found it quite interesting and informative. I
wonder if you would allow us to have it reprinted on our local student paper (`Gair Rhyd’, circulation about 8,000 copies).

Ricardo Calil — Cardiff, United Kingdom

Too close for comfort

While reading your February 1996 issue, I came across an error in one of the articles that you might find interesting. In
“Rio’s Follies”, you accidentally put that slavery was abolished in Brazil in 1988. You only missed it by 100 years.

Cassandra E. Osterloh — Albuquerque, New Mexico

Discussion item

As a Brazilian I feel proud of knowing that your
magazine is so well done. The news, articles, and even the ads are of
the highest quality. It is making it easy to talk about Brazil with
facts and not only with the famous blah, blah, blah. Thank you for the
great work.

Marcello Bomfim — Fresno, California

That’s all

I just wanted to say how well written and put together your magazine is. Keep up the fantastic work!

Urania Mylonas — New York, New York

Three more years

I am enclosing a money order to extend my subscription
to your very interesting magazine for three more years. I especially
enjoy your coverage of Brazilian music and the Brazilian political
situation, including your articles on the situation of Blacks and
Indians in Brazil.

M. Anderson — San Francisco, California

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It seems the future never arrives in Brazil What Lies Ahead in Brazil? Brazil Has No Exemplary Past or Present. But What Lies Ahead for the Country? Europeans, US, developed country, developing country. Bolsonaro, future B. Michael Rubin For years, experts have debated what separates a developing country from a developed one. The GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of a country is one simple way to measure its economic development. Another way to measure a country's progress is the extent of public education, e.g. how many citizens complete high school. A country's health may be measured by the effectiveness of its healthcare system, for example, life expectancy and infant mortality. With these measurement tools, it's easier to gauge the difference between a country like Brazil and one like the U.S. What's not easy to gauge is how these two countries developed so differently when they were both "discovered" at the same time. In 1492 and 1500 respectively, the U.S. and Brazil fell under the spell of white Europeans for the first time. While the British and Portuguese had the same modus operandi, namely, to exploit their discoveries for whatever they had to offer, not to mention extinguishing the native Americans already living there if they got in the way, the end result turned out significantly different in the U.S. than in Brazil. There are several theories on how/why the U.S. developed at a faster pace than Brazil. The theories originate via contrasting perspectives – from psychology to economics to geography. One of the most popular theories suggests the divergence between the two countries is linked to politics, i.e. the U.S. established a democratic government in 1776, while Brazil's democracy it could be said began only in earnest in the 1980s. This theory states that the Portuguese monarchy, as well as the 19th and 20th century oligarchies that followed it, had no motivation to invest in industrial development or education of the masses. Rather, Brazil was prized for its cheap and plentiful labor to mine the rich soil of its vast land. There is another theory based on collective psychology that says the first U.S. colonizers from England were workaholic Puritans, who avoided dancing and music in place of work and religious devotion. They labored six days a week then spent all of Sunday in church. Meanwhile, the white settlers in Brazil were unambitious criminals who had been freed from prison in Portugal in exchange for settling in Brazil. The Marxist interpretation of why Brazil lags behind the U.S. was best summarized by Eduardo Galeano, the Uruguayan writer, in 1970. Galeano said five hundred years ago the U.S. had the good fortune of bad fortune. What he meant was the natural riches of Brazil – gold, silver, and diamonds – made it ripe for exploitation by western Europe. Whereas in the U.S., lacking such riches, the thirteen colonies were economically insignificant to the British. Instead, U.S. industrialization had official encouragement from England, resulting in early diversification of its exports and rapid development of manufacturing. II Leaving this debate to the historians, let us turn our focus to the future. According to global projections by several economic strategists, what lies ahead for Brazil, the U.S., and the rest of the world is startling. Projections forecast that based on GDP growth, in 2050 the world's largest economy will be China, not the U.S. In third place will be India, and in fourth – Brazil. With the ascendency of three-fourths of the BRIC countries over the next decades, it will be important to reevaluate the terms developed and developing. In thirty years, it may no longer be necessary to accept the label characterized by Nelson Rodrigues's famous phrase "complexo de vira-lata," for Brazil's national inferiority complex. For Brazilians, this future scenario presents glistening hope. A country with stronger economic power would mean the government has greater wealth to expend on infrastructure, crime control, education, healthcare, etc. What many Brazilians are not cognizant of are the pitfalls of economic prosperity. While Brazilians today may be envious of their wealthier northern neighbors, there are some aspects of a developed country's profile that are not worth envying. For example, the U.S. today far exceeds Brazil in the number of suicides, prescription drug overdoses, and mass shootings. GDP growth and economic projections depend on multiple variables, chief among them the global economic situation and worldwide political stability. A war in the Middle East, for example, can affect oil production and have global ramifications. Political stability within a country is also essential to its economic health. Elected presidents play a crucial role in a country's progress, especially as presidents may differ radically in their worldview. The political paths of the U.S. and Brazil are parallel today. In both countries, we've seen a left-wing regime (Obama/PT) followed by a far-right populist one (Trump/Bolsonaro), surprising many outside observers, and in the U.S. contradicting every political pollster, all of whom predicted a Trump loss to Hillary Clinton in 2016. In Brazil, although Bolsonaro was elected by a clear majority, his triumph has created a powerful emotional polarization in the country similar to what is happening in the U.S. Families, friends, and colleagues have split in a love/hate relationship toward the current presidents in the U.S. and Brazil, leaving broken friendships and family ties. Both presidents face enormous challenges to keep their campaign promises. In Brazil, a sluggish economy just recovering from a recession shows no signs of robust GDP growth for at least the next two years. High unemployment continues to devastate the consumer confidence index in Brazil, and Bolsonaro is suffering under his campaign boasts that his Economy Minister, Paulo Guedes, has all the answers to fix Brazil's slump. Additionally, there is no end to the destruction caused by corruption in Brazil. Some experts believe corruption to be the main reason why Brazil has one of the world's largest wealth inequality gaps. Political corruption robs government coffers of desperately needed funds for education and infrastructure, in addition to creating an atmosphere that encourages everyday citizens to underreport income and engage in the shadow economy, thereby sidestepping tax collectors and regulators. "Why should I be honest about reporting my income when nobody else is? The politicians are only going to steal the tax money anyway," one Brazilian doctor told me. While Bolsonaro has promised a housecleaning of corrupt officials, this is a cry Brazilians have heard from every previous administration. In only the first half-year of his presidency, he has made several missteps, such as nominating one of his sons to be the new ambassador to the U.S., despite the congressman's lack of diplomatic credentials. A June poll found that 51 percent of Brazilians now lack confidence in Bolsonaro's leadership. Just this week, Brazil issued regulations that open a fast-track to deport foreigners who are dangerous or have violated the constitution. The rules published on July 26 by Justice Minister Sérgio Moro define a dangerous person as anyone associated with terrorism or organized crime, in addition to football fans with a violent history. Journalists noted that this new regulation had coincidental timing for an American journalist who has come under fire from Moro for publishing private communications of Moro's. Nevertheless, despite overselling his leadership skills, Bolsonaro has made some economic progress. With the help of congressional leader Rodrigo Maia, a bill is moving forward in congress for the restructuring of Brazil's generous pension system. Most Brazilians recognize the long-term value of such a change, which can save the government billions of dollars over the next decade. At merely the possibility of pension reform, outside investors have responded positively, and the São Paulo stock exchange has performed brilliantly, reaching an all-time high earlier this month. In efforts to boost the economy, Bolsonaro and Paulo Guedes have taken the short-term approach advocated by the Chicago school of economics championed by Milton Friedman, who claimed the key to boosting a slugging economy was to cut government spending. Unfortunately many economists, such as Nobel Prize winner Paul Krugman, disagree with this approach. They believe the most effective way to revive a slow economy is exactly the opposite, to spend more money not less. They say the government should be investing money in education and infrastructure projects, which can help put people back to work. Bolsonaro/Guedes have also talked about reducing business bureaucracy and revising the absurdly complex Brazilian tax system, which inhibits foreign and domestic business investment. It remains to be seen whether Bolsonaro has the political acumen to tackle this Godzilla-sized issue. Should Bolsonaro find a way to reform the tax system, the pension system, and curb the most egregious villains of political bribery and kickbacks – a tall order – his efforts could indeed show strong economic results in time for the next election in 2022. Meanwhile, some prominent leaders have already lost faith in Bolsonaro's efforts. The veteran of political/economic affairs, Joaquim Levy, has parted company with the president after being appointed head of the government's powerful development bank, BNDES. Levy and Bolsonaro butted heads over an appointment Levy made of a former employee of Lula's. When neither man refused to back down, Levy resigned his position at BNDES. Many observers believe Bolsonaro's biggest misstep has been his short-term approach to fixing the economy by loosening the laws protecting the Amazon rainforest. He and Guedes believe that by opening up more of the Amazon to logging, mining, and farming, we will see immediate economic stimulation. On July 28, the lead article of The New York Times detailed the vastly increased deforestation in the Amazon taking place under Bolsonaro's leadership. Environmental experts argue that the economic benefits of increased logging and mining in the Amazon are microscopic compared to the long-term damage to the environment. After pressure from European leaders at the recent G-20 meeting to do more to protect the world's largest rainforest, Bolsonaro echoed a patriotic response demanding that no one has the right to an opinion about the Amazon except Brazilians. In retaliation to worldwide criticism, Bolsonaro threatened to follow Trump's example and pull out of the Paris climate accord; however, Bolsonaro was persuaded by cooler heads to retract his threat. To prove who was in control of Brazil's Amazon region, he appointed a federal police officer with strong ties to agribusiness as head of FUNAI, the country's indigenous agency. In a further insult to the world's environmental leaders, not to mention common sense, Paulo Guedes held a news conference on July 25 in Manaus, the largest city in the rainforest, where he declared that since the Amazon forest is known for being the "lungs" of the world, Brazil should charge other countries for all the oxygen the forest produces. Bolsonaro/Guedes also have promised to finish paving BR-319, a controversial highway that cuts through the Amazon forest, linking Manaus to the state of Rondônia and the rest of the country. Inaugurated in 1976, BR-319 was abandoned by federal governments in the 1980s and again in the 1990s as far too costly and risky. Environmentalists believe the highway's completion will seal a death knoll on many indigenous populations by vastly facilitating the growth of the logging and mining industries. Several dozen heavily armed miners dressed in military fatigues invaded a Wajãpi village recently in the state of Amapá near the border of French Guiana and fatally stabbed one of the community's leaders. While Brazil's environmental protection policies are desperately lacking these days, not all the news here was bad. On the opening day of the 2019 Pan America Games in Lima, Peru, Brazilian Luisa Baptista, swam, biked, and ran her way to the gold medal in the women's triathlon. The silver medal went to Vittoria Lopes, another Brazilian. B. Michael Rubin is an American writer living in Brazil.

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